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«,.ii^ m 









1653 Ea^' Main Street 

Rochester, New York 14609 USA 

(716) 482 - 0300 - Phone 

(716) 258-;j989 -Fax 




Jf. (Snge * Coo €biicatiouul ^mco. 








■/ r i* 

. i 

Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada, in the Office of 
the Minister of Agriculture, by W. J. Gage & Compakv in the 
year one thousand eight hundred and eighty-four 




I \ 

In the preparation of the Sixth ««. i 
kept in view, to which unequa ' ' ^Taf ' ''7'' ^^J-*« have been 

to tirttr :it^:^^^^^^^^ -- . a „... .. 

self-containea. as the brief tre!tiS on'T T^' ^" ''"'^ '"^^P^'^t ^^ i^ 
^ uetion does not -oessarily p .^^if !"*^°" "^''^^ ^o™- the intro- 
ho principles or the art oiVoT7IZrV''''"f:'r'' ''''' ^^^^^ 
the teacher, who wishes either to exc 1 ^ a 'T"'^ ^' " '"'^^^^^ f- 
h>s pupils to the highest pitcli of !v n '''''^''" ^'"^^'^^^ "'^ to train 

Pli^hment, to conte,' hi Jelf ;:^;'^^^":"^t '" /"^ '^^'»^^*^"^ — 
the ordinary school work it will be'founi r m *'"^ ^''^^^i^^. l>ut fur 
Bufficient. The specimen exerci es an" if' "^^'"^ ^^ "«* -'"ply 
been chosen with care and pS ^ ' ' f ^ '"^''-'-tion have 
pose of exemplifying the applicati Jof h ^ ''"'^ ^"'" *^^« ^^Pr««« pnr- 
of the passages .vhith nml.?;;^:"^^^;,^^"- Pj- ^'-"ssed. Some 
^•ather or their elocutionary than for he .1 ^'^'^ ^^^^ selected 

o"o wdl be found that does not "n some d. ' ^"^"^' *^^°"gh "« 

elocu ,onary hints have been append d If" T''' '°"'- ^«efal 
to call for suoli ^^ '^ ^'^ ^^''^^ selections that seemed 

It is further intended thaf tl,;. , 
"teraryst,,,,, anO 4.' 00X0!™' t" "" "-'"■— .at for 

that of alternating p„se with p„el " U 1 ?,"'' ""^ °"""- "«=?' 
tobegrado,! according to the ! ! ^' ,*" """o"""""'' Mt snpB„,',| 

f he prose as well as the poetical cLr '^" "' »" teacher 

»tylc, and rhetorical form' t c cri ! ' "J """"' " «'«' ™"ety „ 
hajo-a valnablc edncative ;fre t 1, T"^^"' °^ "'"■°'' "a-not fail to 
- """-shed in the appendixeTandr"" '" "■""'"■' "' '"= ™^ 
'"' "'<•• 'oacher will W „„,„,' ,'1 '" /"""^ ""«■" ^ «.e foot notes 

'— aeaiing with *^^ UTZ^'LJ^Z^' '':l ^ '^"^ 

- -ij'»n. uccasioual 

*• f • 


IV , 

nttemnts have been nmJe to eluciaate the text by referring to or quot- 
attempt have interesting method can, of course, bo 

2^^^f^^^^^^ only practical Inn.t being that imposed by the 
? ac ir' own ace naintance with the lieM of literature. Each selection 
sprrcecl^l by a brief biographical notice of the wr.ter-except .n the 
few ca s in which the author is unknown-and a general account o 
hiTl teravy work. For school purposes it is easy to over estimate the 
1 rrbibliographical knowledge, but if more >s wanted than tins 
rolirfun!;!! Loursemustbe had to one or other of the many 

Opi. ions ^■' y t, » ^ ,,^^j^,, ,,„„evor, that a 

"°t Icwir -rl dca,ly it» meaning, and at times aftonl. a 
TiJ cC" pition of .oL grammatical so-called irregnta, y^ 
rto W at once of throwing additional light on the o the 
;lt and of widening the pupil's horizon by enahlmg h.m to catch 

text, '"'<1 <" J''^ * ^ ; '; t,,e science of philology, a consider- 
gbmpscsof thefieMop ned p y ^^^__ _^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^__^,^ ^, 

able amonnt of pacejias . t„„t„„rti,y opinions obtain-, ca being Uken | ^^ familiarising the 

able on all jo^ P<^ s Pa '^ haveUn inserted, the language 

''?' l^hltcS and .1 all such cases, the author's own spelling has 
of which » archa. . a ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ^^ „,th 

rCa^o' SLbctha^Era as it was really written, is all the 

nr "'l '';i:tlt:':ta :f''S t^^^^^ -di„g.lessons as a 
"'°°f mill kir edge, great care has been taken to select only 
■"^^o/'^I^'^^ ■;,V„„c.ceptionable. There may be, for in- 
pieces the tone »« "^^°'' ' ^^ J,,,,, ,,,,ieh give a better idea of his 
stance, '^^^^XH^Tl siected teaches the soundest political 

T wot aldpre erence has been given to it partly ou that a«conn . 
philosophy, ana piei ^^^^ possible 

::Ltrs;" r :- - ^^^^ » itXLl « -hool Header. 


Introductory .... ^ page 

Breathing Exercises '"•'.. 1 

Distinct Utterance 2 

Sounds of Letters . 3 

Time 5 

Inflection 10 

Pitch, or Modulation . .' -18 

Force and Quality of Voi^e . . .' 29 

Emjjhasis ..... •'•■•. 33 

How to Bead Poetry . 36 

Gesticulation 42 

Rhetorical Figures . . . \ 46 

Specimen Exercises 61 



On my Mother's Picture . rxr-n- 

The Battle of the Ants " " ' ' ^^^^'^^^ Cowper . . 

A Lost Chord Henry David Thoreau 

^(^eiaide Anne Procter 

. . 75 
. . 85 
The Charge of the Light Brigade" ' ;;;;;'''' ^^'^'^ Procter ... 89 
The Cane-bottom'd Chair " ^J^f.^"' ^<^^^rd Eussell . . 91 

Learning to Write Prose " " ' " ^^^^^""^ Makepeace Thackeray 96 

Ja. i.ies Cartier J^enjamin Franklin . . 93 

Land and Labor in Ireland * " ' ' f'^^^^'I^'^^rcyM'Gce. . .104 
MarstonMoor. . • • • • John Bright . j^^ 

A Forest Encounter ^p^^^'^'^'P Mackworth Praed . U4 

The Battle of Naseby ' * ' " ' 'j'^'''^' Fennimore Cooper . . I19 

The Schoolmaster Flogged ' ' " " t,™' ^"^^^xSlton Macaulay, 12a 

The Changed Cross ' ' " " ^^"'-^'' Sickens. ... 

The Defence of PleCna' ." ." .' " ' aTITZ 

The Two Armies ^^ cuibald Forbes . . 

A Picture of Human Life " " ' * ^^'''"' '^''^'^'^^^ Holmes . 

Thanatopsis . '"•■■■ Joseph Addison .... 

William Cullen. Bryant. 





Dr. Johnson and Lord Chesterfield 

Tlie Diver , . , 

The Spirit of Colonial Liberty, . 



My Mind to me a Kingdom is . . 
The Pilgrim's Progress .... 
The Questioning Spirit .... 
The Roman Catholic Church . . 

To a Mouse 

A Man's a Man for A' That . . . 

The Vanity of Life 

Hymn on the Nativity .... 


The Isles of Greece 

The Sovereignty of Jehovah . . 
Intimations of Immortality . . . 
The Battle of ntzen . . . i . 
The Vision of Sir Launfal . . . 

Paul Before Agrippa 



Maud Miiller 

The Heroes of the Long Saut . . 
A Collection of Sonnets .... 
The Imitation of Christ .... 
Milton's Prayer of Patience . . . 
Members one of Another .... 
Rip Van Winkle 

. Samuel Johnson 156 

Johann Friedrich Schiller . . 1.59 
Edmund Burho . • . . . 168 

William Knox 177 

Sir Thomas More 182 

Anonymous 194 

John Banyan 200 

Arthur Hugh Clough .... 210 
Macaulay 215 

\Rohert Burns •! ^-^ 

' \ 225 

Jeremy Taylor 229 

John Milton . 235 

William Cobkett 259 

Lord Byron 263 

The Book of Job 274 

William Wordsworth . . . 285 

Goldwin Smith 300 

James Bussell Lowell , . . 811 

Acts of the Apostles . . . .322 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 828 

Balph Waldo Emerson . . . 340 

John Grecnleaf Whittier . . 351 

Francis Parhnan 857 


Thomas & Kempis 374 

Elizabeth Lloyd Howell . . 882 

Dr. Nelles 384 

Washington Irving .... 390 


Poetry (A) 419 

Figures of Speech (B) 425 




Good reading and speaking demand : 
1. A Cultivated Voice 

reading. ^ ' ^^"'' ^'^ ^«««"tial to perfect 

come, m„,ie,„, .„/, .r.^'^ , ^-^^^^U """' ""■ 
expr.,.i<,„ 0. the tho„,„t, „tt«e„ b/the ™?:: ' """'"™''" 

menoe^and be regularly continued through aU subsequent 




The first conditions for makinrr these exercises siiccessfnl are 
(1) to inliale througli the nostrils; (2) to fill tlie base of the 
lungs, and not the summit, with air ; (3) to expel tlie breath 
by the action of the abdominal muscles and the diaphragm. 
Exercises carried out on these conditions are the surest methods 
for developing and invigorating the vocal powers. 

The respiration must be abdominal, tliat is each inhalation 
of air should be full and deep ; it should commence by descent 
of the diaphragm, and continue by eversion of the ribs, but 
never extend to elevation of the collar bone.* 

In ordinary tranquil breathing the soft parts below the chest 
are pushed or raised outwards and upwards, in consequence of 
the descent of the diaphragm ; the lower ribs also partake in 
this action, but the upper ribs and bony structure are almost 
unmoved. This constitutes abdominal breathing^ and the follow- 
ing exercises are to be frequently practised : 


1. Inhale througli the nostrils- not by closing the mouth 

but by slightly pressing the end of the tongne against 
the palate. Keep the upper part of the chest unmoved 
and fill the base of the lungs by raising and bulging out- 
wards the abdomen. 

2. Keep the lungs fuliy viflated as long as possible, then give 

out the breath slowly. Observe that this breathing must 
be deep and tranquil, f 

*Dr. Lennox Brown. 

t' A deep breath widens the air cells in the lungs, increases the activity and strentrth- 
ens the elasticity of their tissue, while the cellular ..nd fatty tissue in the interstices 
IS removed. On the other hand a restraining of the respiratory function and of the 
pulmonary vesicles causes the lungs to become smaller and their" tissue to ixrow thicker 
• * Inspired air recei; es its first virtue through the iwmtmxtic of Dieathinir What 
IS the use to send invalids to a healthy region if they do not breathe the air deep into 
their lungs? Air of itself does no- expand the lungs; their mechanical ex nnsion it 
more salutary than the advantages of so-called healthy regions.- -Dte GymiMStik des 
dthmens, by Dr. Bicking. if «.-. w wc« 

ssfiil are 
ie of the 
e breath 

' descent 
ibs, but 

he chest 
Lience of 
rtake in 
3 ahiiost 
3 folJow- 

! mouth 



;ing out- 

len give 
ng must 

i strenjrth- 
md of the 
)W thicker, 
riff. Mhat 
• deep into 
onRion i; 
iiastik des 


3 Fill the kings as before; continue to inhale until you feel 
• the chest and tiie ribs rise. This becomes costal breath- 
ing, and a further inhalation will a.lvance to the clavicular 
breathing. The lungs are entirely filled and the exercise 
18 completed by slowly an.l audibly exhaling tlie breath 

4. Expulsive Breathing.-Inhale as before, then expel 

with force as on a prolonged sound of h, or as on a mod- 
erately whispered cougli. 

5. Explosive Breathing.-Inhale, then expel in several 

rapid, sudden, and somewhat violent explosions. 
Practise these and similar exercises (.see "How to Read" 
pp. 12 to 16) several times in succession. When en-a.^ed in 
such exercises govern the mo! ions of the body from the%rst; 
the head must be hehl erect and steady, care being taken not to 
move It ,n various directions in sympathy with lung exercise; 
the shoulders must be thrown slightly backwards an.l downwards. 
Ihe muscular action on the lungs must bo fixed chiefly around 
the waist and in the abdomen an.l the diaphragm. These ex- 
ercises may be varied an.l increased, but the proper mo.le of 
exhaling and the priicipio of abdominal breathing must form 
the basis of all such exercises. 


«J."J^''"''\''^'^'^'"^'"""''' '""^^'•^•'^^ ^«^^«of voice that a 
peaker or reader can be hear.l. Li fact when a pupil is readin. 

Wshouhl be subdued for all general purposes, and should 
only be exercise.l when passion demands it. 

of ^ibfTn "' "«^^f"<^e requires a full and correct sounding 
of the letters and the purest tone of voice. Half sounded 

* .^/A'77/ READLIi. 

vowols or consonanH or impure qunlftios of voice, that is voice 

innglcMl with breath or of nasal or guttural cliaructer, will sen- 

ou:Iy mar distinct utterance. 

3 The following defects mark in.listinct utterance : Ne^^lect 

of the final consonant, whicli often occurs when cognate con'^on- 
ants end one wonl ami begin. the next, as lad day where the / 
Ks onntted ; neglect of unaccented syllables in words of more 
than two sylhibles, as honVble for honorahle, and even the un- 
accented sylla],]e of a word of two syllables, as spedal, where 
the second unaccented syl]al,le sinks into a ^vi,isper or is run 
into the next word ; and false sounding of vowels as rebh for 
rcM prudun^e for prudence, charuty for chanU,, Ukold or 
b Jiold for behold. 

^ 4. The student of reading should be able to sound earh Mtor 
independently of worcfe ; and vocal exercises on these sounds 
(see -IIow to Read") form the method of practice. Phonic 
reading is also an indispensable exercise for secunng distinct 
delivery. Phonic reading means sounding each letter in a series 
of words .listinctly, and just as it is pronounced in each word 
Ihus, lu the word quick, the sounds of tlie letters are represented 
as If It were spelled hwlk ; the q and u take the sound of /.• and 
10 and the final h is silent. In class reading every pupil should 
be required to read and to spell one or two words phonically 
and to describe the position and action of the vocal organs en- 
gaged in the utterance of each letter. 

T). In this exercise three conditions must be observed : 
(a) The vocal organs must be brought into contact or position. 
(h) The breath or voice must be exercised. 
(c) The same organs must be separated and restored to their 

silent position. 
These conditions must mark the phonic practice on sincrle 
lettei-s; but, although in thcnr coml)inations in speech delivery 
the actions are so rapid that the closing and full separation are 
not perceived, they must, however rapid the action, be perfectly 
performed to make ohe utterance ilistinct. 


ThuH, in sounding bloom, tl.o lips ar(3 closed an.l prcsso.l to- 
gether, the air distends the pharynx and the sonnd con.numces. 
Ihat sou.ul alone wonid continue until the l,reath in the pharynx 
1.^ exhausted, but the cliange of position in the tongue to sound 
the / raises its tip to tlie gums of the upper incisory teetJ, and 
the vocal effort proch.ces a different utterance; instantly the 
ongue 18 depressed, the corners of the lip.s meet, the aperture of 
the inouU, IS funned and oo follows j hnaily the lips again arc 
closed and, with a slight change of the organs, the nasal sound 
of m IS heard, x^ow it is often liere, on the iinal sotind, that 
defective utterance occurs, as the reader or speaker fails to 
separate the lips, the action which completes the articidation 

A fourth condition must accompany all these actions. The 
force with which the lips, tongue, jaws, and mouth muscles act 
on the vocal expulsion must always be in proportion and e.pial 
to the force thrown into the voice by the lungs. If this be 
neglected breath wOl be wa.te,l, the voice will be impure in tone 
and cleucal sore-throat be the consequence. The appropriate' 
action of articuhition forms the mu.scular supj.ort of the tnlchea, 
which would otherwise be forced from its position by the breath. 
While distinct articulation is indispensable the pupil must 
never drawl words or letters, or dwell on each sound, excepting 
when practising to master the elements of time for slow readincT 



The practice of phonic reading requires a knowledge of the 
ound of each letter; and the correct sound of e.:h lett 
depend, upon t^ie right management of the breath, the ^ 



production of voice, and tho ri-ht position of tho speech orgnnr. 
Vocal practiuo on tho i)uro vowel sounds is the hest mode for 
cultivating tlie niu.sicul qualities of the voice, what niusical 
science calls its tlmhro, and tho best vowel for that i.ractice is 
the sound of a us heard in calm ov father. A may he follov/ed 
hy o, as ia low, oo as in moon, a us in loat/, and linally by e 
iis in sec, which is the most difficult for the production of a full 
and pure tone. 

In sounding these v.. wels it is important to note the action 
of tho speech organs. 

A, as in calm, is sounded with the mouth well-opened, tho 
tongue lying on the floor of tho mouth, the lips fixed against 
tho tooth, not i)rotruding or screwed sideways. 

O, as in low. This letter ends in a sound similar to that of 
00 m moon. Tho lijM are brought into closer contact than in a, 
and as tho sound torminatos in oo tho orifice gets rounder and a 
sort of internal protrusion attends the closing action. It thus 
forms a diphthongal action. 

OO may follow tho o sound. 

A, as in da//, is also (lii)]ithongal, ending in short m The 
tongue is depressed and when terminating the sound it is slightly 
altered in position to form tho ee, 

E, as in see. Tho aperture of the mouth is very narrow, the 
tooth very little separated, tho tongue rising to correspond with 
the arch of the palate. Th: sound must be formed in the back 
of the moutii, for as it advances to the front it -becomes thin and 
shrill in tone. 

U is a compound of e + 00 rapidly combined. 

The above ancuysis will suggest tho methods for giving the 
other sounds of the vowels. 

' The vowels commonly so called are a, e, i, o, u, but each of 
these has other sounds which largely increase the number cf 







1 *> 








a, a, 







1. 2, 



e, 0, 



1 •» 


*» *>» 




2, 2, 

i, i, aiKl y, 




1 o 







0, o, 







1 «> 





u, u, 





1 *> 

j> »., 



01, ou, 



Exflanation—lho examples are nnmbered to agree with tlio 
uumber of the voweh : th„» „ (,) ha, bar to illustvato U.alltund! 


In all these exercises for Phonic Reading the reader should 
H.S sound the vowels as they are sounded in the words, then 
read the examples, slightly prolonging each italic vowel. 

Ho gave ths gale his snow; white sail. 

Tlio primal duties shma like stars. 

Roll on thoit deep and dark blwe ocean n^ll, 

Ten thott.sand fleets sweep over tliee in vain 

Thy shores are empires changed in all save thee. 

The balmy breath of incense breathing morn. 

Wh^l'3 tlie deep thunder, peal on peal afar. 

The Ntobe of nations, there she stands. 

Childless and cror/mless in her voiceless woo. 

Lo I anointed by Heaven with vials of wrath 

Behold where he flies on his desolate path ! 

Now in darkness and billows, he sweeps from my sinht 

R*se I R,so, ye wild tempests and cover his fliaht I 

18 i 



J!r ' * ^"^^^^f^*^ I-rfect oon««„antH b..cau«e formed by complete 
cent.. .p««oh org«-. The breath conHonunt« have n.f voJity 

«»- M. ... .nant« have voc«l.ty ; but the nasala hav<. vocali ^1. i' 
m*. be p.,Iongc„ UHl in.locted ; hen.o th.y become olen.ents 7 J 
expression than twe other -onsomints. *'""*"'' 



^tjunk fffrmattun. 




Voii . \ 


Naanl. Evamplea, 

Labial. ' 


w. pip, bab, mum. 
n- tat, did, non. 
ng. 1 kick, gog, sing. 


Ori/aiiic Formation, Breath. 

1 Voice. 



Dental sibilant. 
Lingual palatal 
Palatal sibiluit. 
Labial aspirate 






' wh. 



1 V. 









fif, viv. 
sis, zuz. 
chin, juj. 
she, azure, 
thin, them. 

when, will, 
row, fear, 
ha, ha. 


In pnictising those exercises, observe the rules for breatlnn^r 
retain the breath, when the lun.i^s are filled, for a few nv ,nv^ 
then utter the initial consonant sndd,.. y~aftack it as iv. nu / 
-dvvell a moment on that consonant then complete the ^.lluuie 
sustaining the voice firmly to the closing letter. The force' 
must be .narked by decisive energy, but must not cause any 


throut irritati.,n. If throat i, itation is folt pn ..r little a.i.l 
l.nuaiHe moru -ently. Tho ox.,rcis.H may, i„ ultrrr.uto .,i.l.,r ..f 
each and of tlu! wholo, be \mvXmM\ slowly un.l mpidiy. As it is 
tlu) eomonantH that (lomaii<l rhief ottoiifcion tho vowels Ikj 
^hort ill time. 

]J-.i-B, P-TP, D-Y-D, T-a-T, G-it-O, K-T-K 
M-fl-M, N-o-N, Hi-NG-YNO, \.T-V, F-TF. 
Z-u-Z, S-T-S, J-ij-J, CH-ur-CH, a-ZlIuro 
SH-u-SH, TII-n-Tir {,oice), Tll-n-Tll {hrenth), 
VVrr-Tch, W-o-W, Y-a-Y. L-ii-L, H-a-H. 

Additional Practice : 

I. Sound (uich consonant alone, separated from tlie vowels 

(1) Hiiddonly, (2) prolonged. 

II. Sound tho initial consonant witli tlic vowel, omittin.- tho 
Jinal consonant. "^ 

III. Omit the initial consonant and commmre with tho ^>.,el 
but end With the consonant, delivering it with great force 
and distinctness. 

Defects of utt.,rance are common when two or more consonant^ 
are combincl-one or more of them being often omitted'. 
Careful and strict drill in such coniUnatious .s the fullowin.^ 
should bo frecjuent : — '^ 

£i.--sobb'd. £Vi.' .tabb'dst, prob'dst. i^W./.-trombrdnt. 
Didst - paddl'dst. Dnd. - madd'n'd. I)^,u ( = aid) - 
lodg'd, cag'd. Fldst.-^hxmWHt, baffl'dst. Ftst -sift'st 
^./.J.-diggVlst. (7W«^.--str„ggr<Ist. iCW.f.-weak'n'dst: 
As^/.. -sixth. Ldjd.-man\g\\. Ltst.-meWHt. Mdst - 
nam'dBt. Ndst - rend'st. Nythndst. ~ strength'n'dst 
^.^..-think-st iS^,...- precincts. A^.^. - .nang'd 
m'.^.-wrench'd. PW.s^.-trampl'dst. /iW./.-distnrb'L. 
^/.^.f -mark'dst. i2W«t - burl'dst. TJ.u^.^.-form'dst. 
^uht ~ learn dst. Rt>^t - start'st. RM ~ marcli'd. 
R^dst - starv dst. SM. - risk'st. Thdst. - sheath'dst. 
m<.-settrdst. m<. -snatch'd. Vdst-lora.t. Vl.ui 
— groviiUsfc. />7fis^.— dazzl'dst. 


SI XT /I RilADEn. 

Select other passages similar to the following for practice 

Thou tremhVdst then if never .since that day 

Stung by the viper ihonfondl'st when young. 

Tell me how thou haffl;dst and Hjl'dst thine enemy. 

How thou mingVdd life and death. 

Star that iwhdd'dd on the watchman's path. 

Thou drinlSd the cup and tharik'st the giver. 

Now thou cnrVdst passiouH fierce. 

Thou Inrk'dd in the dark and lmrk\ht for a footstep. 

Thou aritidd the liand that laid thee low. 

Thou duzd'dd mine eyes with such beauty. 




Time in its application to reading embraces the methods and 
conditions which instruct us how to give due measure to words, 
to sentences, and to the pauses which separate words, phrases,' 
and sentences. 

Slow reading is accomplished by dwelling without drawl- 
ing upon all vowels and consonants capable of prolongation. 
\yiien imjK)rtant words present themselves in any composition 
the pupil should read them i)honically, and extend the (juantity 
of the long vowels and the licjuids or semi-vowels. 

The followhig are examples of words containing elements of 
time, or letters which can be prolonged ; these elements are 
printed in italics : — 

Boll on thou deep and dark Hug ocean—roll. 
To arm,s ! to arms ! to ajnns ! they cvy. 
Wail/ng and woe and grief and fear and pam. 
Boitwdles, citdlesa, and subZime. 



ractice : 

hods and 

bo words, 


it drawl- 

nonts of 
tints are 

Tliou glorious mirror where the ^hnighty's ioi-m 

Glasses itself in tempasts ; in all time, 

Calm or convttisad-in breeze, or gale, or storm 

/cing the pofe, or in the torrid clime 

Da/k-heaving ; bo?tudless, endless and mhlime— 

The image of mernity,— the throne 

Of the Ijfvisible ; even from out tliy slime 

The monsters of the deep are made ; each zone 

Obeys thee ; thow goest forth, dread, fathomless, alone. 

— Byron. 

Hear the tolling of the hells — 
Iron bells ! 
What a wor^d of so?emn thought their monody compels i 
In the silence of the night. 
How we Hhiver with a,ff right 
/ At the melancholy menace of their tone / 
For every soitnd that floats 
From the rnst within their throats 

Is a groaji. 
And the people— a/i, the people— 
They that dwell np in the steeple, 

All alone, 
And who tolling, tolling, tolling, " 

In that muffled monotone, 
Feel a glo?y in so rolling 
On the human heart a stone — 

The best effect will he given to the italicized words in this 
last passage by swelling and prolonging the voice almost as in 

Quick reading is as necessary as slow reading when justified 
by the sentiment. But the great defect of quick reading is that 
letters, and even syllables are omitted, or imperfectly uttered. 
Practice in quick reading should therefore be given with special 
regard to distinctness and finish of utterance. The pupil may 
select any passages for practice, reading first very slowlv, then 
moderately slowly, quickly, and very quickly. 




Read the folJowinj,. very quickly, but pause briefly at tlie 
vertical daslies : 

Like adder | darting from his coil, 
Like wolf I that,da.-.hes tlirough the toil, 
Like mountain cat i that guards her young. 
Full I at Fitz James's throat he sprung.— ^io^. 
Away I away, and on we dash !— 
Torrents less rai>id and less rash. 
Away, away, my steed and I, 
Upon the pinions of the wind, 

All liuman dwellings left behind : 
We sped I like mete> is through the sky, 
When I with its crackling sound the night 
Is chequer'd | with tlie northern light ; 

* * * =!< From out the forest prance 
A trampling troop— I see them come ! 
A thousand horse— and none to ride I 
With flowing tail, and flying mane. 
Wide nostrils— never stretch'd by pain, 
Mouths I bloodless to the bit or rein. 
And feet | that iron never shod, 
And flanks | unscarr'd by spur or rod, 
A thousand horse— the wild and free- 
Like wav^ I that follow o'er the sea, 

Came thickly thundering on :— 
They stop, they start, they snuff the air, 
Gallop a moment | here and there. 
Approach, retire, wheel round and round. 
Then plunging back | with sudden bound,' 

They snort, they foam, neigh, swerve aside, 
And backward to the forest fly. 
By instinct | from a human eye.— Byron {adapted). 
Let them pull all about mine ears ; present me 
Doath I on the wheel, or at wild horses' heels ; 
Or pile ten hills on the Tarpeian rock, 
That the precipitation might down stretch 
Below the beam of sight, yet will I still 
Be thus to them. -ShaJcespeare. 





V \w 


r at the 





Expressive reading re.iuir.^s special pauses in addition to thP 
grammatical pauses. The rules for these pauses are numerous • 
> but as they all depend upon the arrangement of thou-dits 
indicated by the different members of a sentence, the analyst of 
the sentence is the l)est guide to the rhetorical pause. -Hence 
the student of elocution may safely, and for the best effect 
ought to, pause before every new form of thought expressed by a 
series of words, as phrases and clauses. 

The following summary presents the Rules for Pausmg :— 
Pause after : 

1. The nominative with complements. 

2. Words in apposition. 

3. Completion of predicate when followed by extensions. 

4. Ji.ach extension when consisting of several words 

6. The objective phrase or extension of predicate when 

Pause before : 

6. The infinitive mood when it has objects or extensions. 

7. Prepositions when governing phrases. 

8. Every new sentence. 

9. The emphatic word. 

10. Pause between all words where an ellipsis occurs 

11. Pause always in some part of a line of poetry, as near to 

the middle as possible, in accord with any of the 

given rules, and always at the end of the line 

These pauses are important ; they give the hearer time to 

reflect and to arrange the thoughts; they increase the pleasure of 

hearing by the momentary silence, and allow the speaker time 

and opportunity for breathing. 

The length of a pause depends (1) on the relation and de- 
pendence or independence of the members and the clauses, and 
(-) on the nature of the sentiment and composition. In \wU 
cheerful, animated, or humorous compositions the pauses "are 
brief. Solemn, exalted, or philosophical composition demands 
ionger pauses. 



As a sequel to the rules for pausing the followmg directions 

lor not pausing are important :— 
Do not pause — 

'■ ''""^. '"■°''°""" ""'' " ™'"' "''°"'°' " "-^ «- ™bj=et or 
2. Between a prepositiou aud its object 

'■ ''°ts:,:r"''''"''' ""' ^ p""°*^' ^^^^ -■•^ "-y -- 

5. Between a verb and its object. 

The following sentences arc amngcl accor,Iing to these rules ■ 
he pauses are m.licatecl by vertical dchcs, and the words ,™ ted 
by /,,^/«,. have no parses; a lesser pause may follow "vl™ 
there is no dash, point, or hyphen :— 

It-remains with-you then i l^.deeide | whether that-freedon, 

eveTvtll? ; "';™'':''-'^'^'>' of. virtuous, e^^ulation | in- 
everytbmg | great . and - good ; the - freedom I which - disnelled 
the . m,sts - of superstition, and ■ invited - the . na ions to beho M 
theur-God; whoscmagictouch | kindlod-tho-rays-of Reniufthe 
en h„s.asm.of poetry, and.the.fiame.of.eI„<inence ; the crfom 
I wh,oh.poured | mto-our-lap | opulence.and.arts, an. .embell shoT 
life I ".th.innamerable-institutions and-improvementstUnt 
became a-theatre-of-woudors ; it-is-for- you fo-decTde wh her" 
th -freedom shall - yet-survive, or be-covered | with . a - fune IT 
pall, and-wrapt | in-eternal-gloom. In-tho-sol!citude I youJeel | 
to-approve^ourselvos worthy of-s„ch-a-trust, every-tl oCb o 
vti rf r'"° '"■™'''^^^' --y-approho„s/on of-dan^ls ." 


se„t„!el""''°' '""°""' "■■' """ •''""" *''™ ^borfinate 
2. Noun sentences, as they form the subjects or obiects of 
sentc , ,he same importance and time as the p n p 

sentence, and are exceptions to \hh rule. 


3. Ti,e quotalion when introduced into a nanutive is dis- 
tinguishod l)y diflcrcnce of time. IJut tliat diiioronco wl.etlicr 
the niovement shall be faster or slower will depend entirely on 
the nature of the .luotation. Unless it is an expression of quick 
anger or any similar feeling it is generally to be read slowc- 

The "Temptation of Christ," fie jnuable of the "Prodigal 
Son, and that of "The Man, ' in the twelfth chapter^f 
i^uke are illustrations of this rule. 

The time of each passage is arranged and indicated as fol- 
lows, in tae last named parable :— 

V. 13. {Narrathe, moderately fad). And one of the company I 
said unto him, '' ' 

{Quotation dotoer.) Mastor, speak to my brother, tliat 
ne divide the inlioritance with me ; 

14. (Narrative, faster.) And he said unto him, 

(Slower and sterner.) Man, who made me a judge or a 
divivlor, over you ? ^ & > 

15. (Narrative.) And he said unto them, 

(Quotation as U. ) Take heed and beware of covHoumess - 
for a man's life consisteth not [ in the abundance of 
the things which he possessoth 

16. (Narrati,,e, fader.) And he spake a parable unto them 

saying, ' 

(Quotation, as Christ's narrative, a little slower than Luke's 
narrative.) The ground of a certain rich man | 

17. brought forth plentifully : And he thought within 
himself, saying, 

(Quotation, slower as if deliberating.) What shall I do 

18 (N ^7"^^//^^7 ^; 7^"^' v^h-re to bestow my fruits? 

18. (Nairative, faster.) And he said, 

(Quotation, fast, as if dnick by a happy idea.) This will 
I do : I will pull down my barns, and build greater 
and there ^vdll I bestow all my goods. And I will 
say to my soul, 

(Quotation slower, heca.use more important.) Soul thou 
hast much goods laid up for manv vnars • ^hud--) 
take thine ease, eat, drink, and be merry. ' ' ' 



^l^ru READEJi. 

.' ' 

20. {Narrative sloioor Imj^rr /««„ i 

said nnto l!{J^ ' '"'' ""'^ "'^'^''-^ ^"^ <^^od 

wL b ,;;•!!""' "^^^^^^= ^^--vhoseshaU these 

21 rn/; , I y ^^'°" ^'^■'^^ provided ? 

^1. (i/ie /moH, a Utth faster than v '10 n. i . 

himself n,.,i ! ^ <^jhat layeth up treasure for 

iiimselt, and is not rich toward God 

they must I,„ treated as subordinate clause, '""" 

TJle Time of the parenthetieal clause depen.l, unon its ; 
P>r .nco compared with the interrupted cl™" If " 
p.mnt than that clause, it is read slo e Tf , ' """ 

faster; but if it be as it o't™ i , ' ™Portant, 

,-„„»• 1 • , °' "" " °''"^'> »». "n exclamatory phrase infj.r 
jec honal rn character, or a brief explanation of any " of In 
mam sentence, it may be read in eo ,.,1 t: , . ^ ^,1""' "' "'» 
Ti ■: ,1 • 1"'" '""« 'J'lt m lower lliteli 

The followmg examples illustrate these rule, •_ ^ 

richesT "::: Tii";:: r'" "°^^' "r *- °' «-'^'' 

nor give to God a ransom te him- feH' f" '!" "■■"""'• 
soul is precious, and it eoaset h r.Wir ) t h.t'Ii^r' n" 1-^^ 
for ever, and not see corn,pti„u._/wi«f,,;';,t™''^ '"" "™ 

Parenthesis less important than the main clause 

to be read faster : '^us*-, 

many are the poets that are sown 

By nature I men endowed with highest gifts- 

1 he vision and the faculty divine ; 

Yet, wanting the accomplishment of verse 
(Which in the docile season of their youth' 
It was denied them to acquire, through lack 
Ut culture and the inspiring aid of books : 
Or haply by a tempor too severe : 
Or a nice backwardness afraid of shame), 


^'or having? o'er, as life advancod, been lod 
By c.rcurn.tance to take unto tlio l.eight 
xho incasure of themselves, these f.vor'cl bcincs, 
All but a scaticr'd fov., live ont iadr tia.e. 
Hnsbandin« that M-hich ihcy possess Avitlnn, 
And go to the graA-e uuthonglit of. 

-■ JFonLirarfu. 

That any Englishman, daro give me counsel ? 

(1 hough he be grown so desperate to be honest) 
And I:ve a subject ? 


Tlic only fi..u,e., of s])eech that demand snecid -iHonV,.. ' 
elocution are the Simile and the Metaphor Tl T 

folding these figures is to read the^ acc;rd; 1 '^^ 
nature, not aecordh.g to their value. If the fi-nl. 
tond.l to illust^te .«,,..., ., .,,.,, ,,,^ Jl;; j;^^- ^ - 
than the htera passage ; but if they are intended to iih.t.^ 
d.ncnessnf acfu.n, jlnnncss,, they nmst he read .low t 

Similes expressive of rapid acti(!n : 

As wild his thoughts and gay of wing 
As EdeiCs garden bird. 

He woke- to die midst flame and smoke 
And shout and groan, and sabre strok" 
And death-shots falling thick and fast 
As licjhtniny.from the mountain cloud 


Metaphors illustrative of rapid acticn : 

For they have sown the wind and 
They shall reap the whirlwind 

— Halleck. 



• \ |:ii 


Simile illustrative of slow action : 

Rnf ] , ,^J^^ never told her love, . 

Feed on her dan^ask cheek. -.S'/.u^ear. 

Slie pined in thought, 
And, wxth a green and yellow melaneholy, 
»iie sat, I like patience on a monument, 
iimihng at grief. 
rpi ... *' — onakeapeare 

The.e sinnJos suggest inaction, statuesque silence and r.,t 
and must therefore be read dowli/ ' 

I Ti ,.,„ " I have vcntur'd, 

I itA^e httle toanton bays that swim on bladders, | 
Tins many summers .in a sea of glory • 
But far beyond my depth. U%«Ae.pea,-e. 

finally the reader should always pause before and after th« 
snude or he metaphor to indicate the change from th 1 ' / ^ 
the hgurative and the return to the literal. 



In all actsof speaking the voice slides upwai-,ls or downwards 
xn very soa-nm and „„!,„ „tteranees these movements „ s Mes 
can scarcely be distinguished from a perfectly level aid t 

Zm:'^irf "T°" Vu""''" '' '^^"'" ■'-> ■' - -to- 
be tho tone of speed, and becomes that of music or a chanfc 

?^^"5ffi;;ii»;sfw«. •,.j.v^-«.it ... 


It is impossible to read with expression without correct inflec- 
tioiKs, and correct inllcctions depend entirely on tlie aeuteness of 
tJie ear. 

Frequent practice of slides on tlie long vowels is the Lest 
method fur ear culture. As all inrtections are mad. by the up- 
ward or downward advance of the voice, pupil.s should be drilled 
on the simple vocal elements. The practice mav extend from two 
notes to a full octave, and the chief dilfcrence between such 
practice and that of music is that while in music the voice stops 
hctween each pair of notes as it advances, in inflection it advances 
up and down from one to two, one to three, one to four, one to five 
one to SIX, and so on, without any break ; that is, it slides in one 
continuous tone. 

The iearner should give each inflection arbitrarily to any and 
every word without regard to the sense or claims of the j.assacre 

\\ hen untrained readers pause or entirely stop they generally 
"drop the voice," whether the sense is complete or not. In a 
class this bad habit may be corrected by directing each pupil to 
stop in the middle of a sentence, or where a comma occurs or 
at the end of a line, but to keep the voice sustained as if 'in- 
tending to read further. 

Mechanical ^expertness must be first acquired in directing 
tlie voice, and, as has l)een stated, this expertness depends on 
aeuteness of ear ro^^ier than any function of ^oice. The follow- 
ing exercises agree with natural expression and will greatly aid 
the object in view-mechanical expertness. Ask the following 
and similar questions, observing that the inflections successively 
rise and fall on the marked words of the questions, and fall 
and rise on the answers : — 

Did he call we' or yoiC ? 

He called me\ not you'. 

Do you sing' or read' ? 

I read\ I never sing.' 

Are yon an American' or a Canadian' ? 

I am a CanadiaiC and not an American.. 

f f 


iiJXTil READKii. 

carried ' * 'lown, they are 
Frequent i)ractieo on vowtl sonnrl^ n„ i 

Aro you a .^^"^ t, 

,,iyA>' Can you bo v.q „i.O^ 

IIg is '^g. 


IIo v/ill "^'i 

In al! such intense inllections it will l)o perceived that w^ .n 
^speaker eo.n,nences the inflected w.rd L voice cW.^t 
pitch, tliat iG, It descends lower tlian in fl,n , r 

vj.en it . to .ee„„ ; „„a .een,. .iL I IT^ I::;' 

^oice. Lntranied ears will trenerallv W^^ ;,. r ^- • , • 
c..a,.,-o of pitch fr„,„ inflectFo 'L . , Itwi ""' f '' 
tion a rising o„„, bocau» it l.c-ins ij ' ., th , t , f " T 

T>ii+ kt +1 J. 1 ° iiiciu 1 lli.ui tli( last sound 

ut ,f the « „do„t prolo,,,. tho,. I,„ „,n «,„, ,, j J 

t ) the loivest or .uscciul to tlio highest tot,,. H, . .i ""'■'-'"' 
roach, ana that wi„ '^ ..^t ^J^ ^ ZZ7 
-turo of tI>o inflection. In the ahove ovcroil " 2 " 

■>e earned a. far a. possible from one extreme to tl,e other 

IKTItonuCTlOK. ' 
V.-Jiou ,.it}u.r (.f tlicso inflections. Ims to bo ].ro,Iu,....l n 

-,i , ,„.„„„,„,, p„codi„« ti„. «,„.i„i ,„,a t„ ,,„ 

if w„ 1 ve;^ ., : ;; ;:: ■ ■ """■■;" "«— ti,,,, 

Tl.otwo fu!I,„vin« i„i„cii,),« „,„|,.Hi„ „„«t„f „,,. ,,„, . 
inflections: 'K'st- oi u,« lulcs for 

(a) Ail „ora» ,u„I i„„,„„,,,„t„ ,„ ,1 „„,,„,j J,- 

o othon „„.,, t» ihat/„/w ti.o,.,, ,.,„,, : ,,4,,; : ':„! 

tion on tlio last word. iniicc- 

(I) All thonghte ,„„1 f„„,„ „f „,^i„„ 


Rising Inflections. 

with tl,o rising i„f,,„ti„,, '■""■'"' "f " «™'™™ «.d each into lifo' I in tl.o midsi of a Eovoluti,,,,' I (1 f •, ' 
OTory energy of a mo-1^' I ™i '' •"^™">"™ I that qinokonoa 

con, oour^o' I : JaL:' h^T'":^? T' "° ^P™' '- 
charity'. ' '"""8" ''y >"'*'' I "n'l a scholar' by 

lu .sentences similar to the above .sever.,] „f „ i ■ , , 
principal cla„«e, expressive readin;;. J ^s ^ r'' " " '" '' 
flection on each ,lepon,lent phn.c Ld c'l ^^ sot fa^'f 1"'," 

This n.ode or;;r.elii:r\:i:^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ --^ 

»»rk each p.aus„ hy c„,,!,asil ; as h. ZZ,:::^'::'' "'^'' '" 


n.STii /iKAnim. 

! Ilfi 


n.oio than by occk-Hmst cnl onkr' moin H...,. . . "t-nne, 

t-^tca to I .,y the ,.ost earuit \ . ^^ ^./"^^ j^^^^^ ' 

syn!l!athy. "'"'^"^ ' "" ^"''"•^"-^ °^ "- R-loemerV 

2 Exclamatory c..xim,.s.sion., invocations, appeals 
w ncl, f.o,n thoir nature su,g..t incc,„, c 'pSn' 
of a vesponso-tuko tl.o Rising Inflection. '"i^^'''"^'"" 

O yo «o,Ls' I yo gods' I must I cnduro all tliis' ? 
O panlon me tliou l,loo,lin« piece of cart].' 
Tliat I arn meek and gentle witl, these | but.her..' 

O wcet and strange it scorns to mo. that ere this day is done' 
The vo,ce | that no^t i. spoaking may be beyond the sun 
Forever and forever'.-all in a bless.'l home'. 
And there to wait a little while, till you and Effio come'. 

Alive, in triumpli'! and Mercutio slain'! ~^'""^'''"' 
Away to heaven, respective lenity ' 
And lire-eyed fury' | bo my conduct now'. 

q -V- 4-- . . —Shakespeare. 
3. Isegat.vo stotcmont., ,lo„ial.,, »,! nogati,.,,, that s «. 

I como not (riemU, to stoal away yonr l.oarta'. 

Ho was condemned for his crimes', not for his nnliH.,!' • • . 

The fated flash not aUvays falls upon the 3 If ^'ilT""" ' 

4. Certain forms of interrogations, sucli as :— 
^ All questions which begin with verbs, which can bo ans^vored 
y 2/.. or .0, and whicK are simply questions seeking for W 
edge the askor ben.g uncertain what answer will be 7Z 
take the risnig inflection. ^ '^"' 

Must I budge' •? Must I obser've you' '> 

Must I stand and crouch ur.der your' testy humor' ? 

• smum 



Hust wo but weep' o'er aay.i moro blcsaod' ? 
liuRt wo but blush'? O • fitljcru blciV. 

iou havo tho letters Catlmun {;avc'— 
Think you ho raoant tliem for a hIuvo' 7 

T^ n • , ,- . —Byron. 

10 this ^ ale there is an important exception. If tho n^ker 
puts the .question rather as a rebuke, or as an oinpliutic assertion 
m tJio form of a question, with the full expectation that the 
answer slujll be yes or no, as ho wishes it to be, then tlie question 
takes a fulling' inflection :— " 

Can you bo so blind to your interest' ? 
Have you no desire to save yourself ? 

WouId'H^, thou havo that 
Which thou esteem 'St tho ornament' of lifo\ 

And live a coward in thine own esteem', 
Lettint^ * i tlaro not ' wait r.pon ' I would,' 
Like the poor cat i' tho adage' ? 

— '^hakesj^eare.. 

You wrong me every way ; you wrong me, Brutus' • 

1 said an elder soldier', not a better' : 

DiiV I say better' ? ' ci , 


I» Christ .livideu' ? Wa. Paul cniciflcV for yon' ? or wore you 
baptized in tlio name ot Paul" ?-/ Corinlhmm'uiB. 

In these questions each asker expects only one answer-he 
makes n» appeal, but expects with certainty a uesative answer 
In the third question, Lady Macheth rolmkes her waveriuK hus^ 
tend, and by the .lownward inflection asserts the inipossfbility 
of any other than a negative answer. It is on the same principk 


But when the question involves an appeal to the feelin-s or 
tlie judgment, altliough there may be a moral certainty ol Z 
answer Wing ,., or «, the rising inflection is more .xpressiv 
By Its very uncertainty it gives the persons questioned an excu^ 
for ignorance or the offence committed in i.4ranee. 



Can H oncd urn, or animated bust, 
i.ack to lis mansion call the fleeting breath' 9 

Can 1 ur, ,,, ^,^.^^^^^ ^^^^ silent" 
Or flattery soothe the dull eold ear of deatl,' ? 

spirit tliut Isaiah annool« f. i • • , , ° *^ ^"^ "^ ^^^° "'^"^e 

«" thing., „„., i„ ,„„„ :; ;f' ™;J.;^ •"' -'- «■!>„ l.,. created 

foundatioDs of tl,e earth'? ' >'" """■■"Iwstoo.l from the 

"PPoal, and a,,ata ^fZ^^TT"'' "' "" ''^ " '"-'" 

>vM..^...e,th:r^::t:^:— :-:^^^--'-. 

-Ln,p us near the conelntji'nn <^f n i , * 

''".1 keep his oomma„Tu"r. . / ?■ ^:''°'° """'" ^ F™' God', 

Falling Inflections. 

doi-ndent for its f„Ii ...l:; ors^:!;**^^^^^^ "•"™ 
B.„i ,. ^^'''y "•"•inks the «oul 

K« tCrf "f ■ ;■""' "'"'-""^ ^' 'lostruotion'. 



itli' ? 
— G-rav. 

^Q ; he ap- 
peal wliich 
the same 
ig people. 
iS created 

not been 
from the 

cnown ; " 
a tender 
10 word 

, hjTnn, 

nrais c)f 

anza or 


ngs :— 

r God', 

)f man. 




Look ! in this place, ran C«.sm." dagger through : 
Through this, the well-beloved Br^itu,' stabbed! 

— Shakespeare. 
A series of connected, independent, or co-ordinate sentence, 
ends each wioh a falling inflection; the penultimate, l^owever' 
takmg a nsmg inflection :— ' 

cn^'off ^;^°^^"/^<^t n^itigated' anomalies', restrained their range', 
cu off the extremities' of those anomahes', and confined them 
within contracted limits'. 


— Gladstone, 
2. Questions that eannot be answered by .;.., or no, take a fall- 
ing inflection. Such questions generally begin with an interro- 
gative pronoun or an adverb : 

Which of those rebel spirits, adjudg'd to hell 
Coms't thou', escaped tby prison' ? and transform^ ; 
" hij satt st thou, like an enemy' in wait'. 
Hero watching at the head of those that sleep' ? 

— Milton. 
When fore cease' we then' ? 
Say they who counsel war : we are decreed' . 
Reserved', and destined' to eternal woe' ; 
Whatever doing', ^vhat can we suffer more', 
What can we suffer worse' ? 

Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand'' nd 
meted out heaven with the span', and comprehended tirdust of 
the earth in a measure', and weighed the mountains in a scale 
and he hill, in a balance' ? Who hath directed the s^hit of the 
Lord', being his counsellor' ? ^ ® 

Why sayest thou O Jacob', and speakest, O Israel', my way is 
Mfrom the Lord', and my judgment is passed ov;r iJ7r^; 

3. Sentences that express authority or command even if 
negative m fonn demand the failing inflection •- 

th^e^ii^uM ;:;::,r '^ '''^'' '' ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ -^ ^^ -- 

Thou shait not steaiV 


II i 



„;iTh '^°.«''"'^^"' '"'""Pk^ "n.l the rule, dcrivcl f™m thciu 
wm be .ufflcent to ,.„ide the ,ea,ler i„ the .lelivery Z mZ 
pas.,ases, there are exceptienal expression, whieh, I. J, .nlpTre 
hy pas„o„ see,,,, hke the ,.tio„« of passion, to b opposed To 
rnle-.„nt.l „.vestigated by higl,er Jaws tl,„n those of ml 
rhetone. The laws of infleetion a,, dednecd fro.n tl,e xpc" 

riol t; °'","""°, "":^ "'"^ '" ^''^'•'^"I'P"^' 'o ■" ' " 

pr ^,ons, the reader wl,o ,s free from bad habits of delivery 
must nse .„s m,ag,nati„n and his j„dgn,e„t when he reads e„„T 
pos,t,ons of the nnagination or expressions of strong feel ", and 
apply .nflecfons and all the other forms of utterauec^ as he m™ ,1 
were the houghts and passions he expresses his own. 

Ihe follow,,,;, passages are marke,l as if exceptions to rules 
hut as sueh „,to„ati„„s are natural a just analysis of the tho , d,t' 
expressed will show Ihem to be correct :_ . ° 

For I am persuadAl, that neither death' nor lite' I nn- .„ , . 
nor principalities', nor powers', | nor things m^nf' ,or , ' '' 
come,' I nor l,eigl.t' nor depth' | nor a,Ty "t, ^ erZ, e'-T 
separate us from the love of God , which i in Ohrlt t^s " 

In this passage the subjects of the sentence are classed in 
«roups .se,,arated by the rl,eto,.ical dash. Each group fo n,,^ 
con,>lete se,.,es,-the subjects of the group being adat d to d 
her but ,n,lepe„de„t „f the other g«ups .; l,en:e the last w^rf 
"f each group has a falling inflection, except H,e iastwonl o tl, 
<■» .re group, "cat,,,,," which, to show the dependence of .L 
™t,re ser,es „,«n the predicate has the rising inflection ■ ,md . 
tliese groups consist of antithetical term, the l„fl, ' 
; W This „rm,.g„n,e„t of the i,,flectr:i,!''s ,;::;;;:: 
1 1, .y a good reader ,,, ay take in n.anaging the intom.tio,. s" 
long as ha does not v,olate the genoal i:,i„cij,lcs .■_ 

Well, beheve this. 
No ceremony' | that to great one's 'longs' 
Not the kings crmm,', not the deputed .»rf, 
The marsnal's (nmcA™,.', nor the judge's robe', 
Become them | with one halt so good a grace' I 
As mfirj; doea „, " 

olutkespmr t 


ed from theni 
ivery of most 
)eing inspired 
apposed to all 
lose of mere 
1 the experi- 
• to most ex- 
» of delivery 
10 reads com- 
feeling, and 
as ho would 

ons to rules, 
the tliouglit 

nor angels', 
lor things to 
atnre' || can 

classed in 
up forms a 
ted to each 
e last word 
vord of the 
'lice of t]ie 
>n ; and as 
ictions are 
,'gost what 
'nations so 





The monotone fe «„ inflection, but the slide is so .,Ii»ht that 
to he unpractised ear it sounds like a level tone (ZT 
- readers regard the attainment of this kteUone, v : b^a 
tUe m puch and inflection, hut intense in its del very t o^" 
o( the h,„hest aecomplishn>euts of elocution. Frenue ,t 'TcZ 


The nearest approaeh to music without na,4 ! If ^ ^' 
.ant will produce the best ,na,it, of l^Z^ Z:2 Z 


still it cried, ' ' sleep no ^^e 1 
Glamishath^,^red sliTp, and therefore cWfor 
Shall sleep no more : Mi^bith shall nl^p ^o n^e." 

— ^Shakespeare. 
Through d^ of s^H;^ and of ^^Rli; 
Through (%s of d^h and d^s of birth, 
Through every swift vid^iit^ 
Of ch^fiTl time^Wh-^ed it has stood ; 
And^f, like G^, it all things iTw, 

It calmly ri^a:ti these words of ^.e: * 
" For ever—neverT 
Never— for ever!" 

— Longfellow. 

I. * 



I 'i E 

Lord thou hast b^n our dwehiug-placo' in ^1 generations. 
Befoi-e the m^nt^h]^ were bro^ht f^i^, or ever thou haast 
formed the e^th and the world', even from ^^ri^tin" to ^v- 
lasting tho^ ^t God. Thou turnest i^a to destruction^; and 
sayest, Return ye chihkc^ of mcn\ For a tiToii^^l y^H in thy 
sight' are but as y"^^rday\ when it is ^t and as a ^^;^ch in 

° ■ ' — Ptfalm xc. 

The following extract is from Talfourds tragedy of "Ion." 
Ctesiphon presents Ion with the knife Avith which ho is to slay 
king Adrastus as an olfering to appease the gods and stay the 
pestilence. Ion then delivers th« invocation. It must be read 
in slow time, in deep full tones marked by intensity of feeling, 
but strict monotone : — 

Ctes. Receive this steel, 
For ages dedicate in my sad home, 
To sacrificial uses ; grasp it nobly, 
And consecrate it to untrembling service 
Against the King of Argos and his race. 

[Ion approaches the altar, and liftimj up the knife speaks] 

—Ye eldest gods. 

Who in no statues of exactest form 

Arc palpable' ; v^^ho shun the azure heights 

Of beautiful Olympus, and the s"ound 

Of ever-young Apollo's minstrelsy' • 

Yet, mindful of the empire which ye held 


Over dim Chaos j keep revengeful watch 

On falhng nations, and on kingly lines 


About to sink forever ; yo, who shed 



r tliou liaust 
itiUj, to evcr- 
ruction*; and 

years in thy 

■i a watch in 

-Pmhn xc. 

y of "Ion." 
lie is to slay 
ind stay the 
iiust be read 
)- of feeling, 

Into the passions of earth's giant brood | 
And their tierce usages' | the sense' of justice' ; 

Who clothe the fated battlements of tyranny 

With blackness as a funeral pair, and breathe 

Tlirough the proud halls of time-eraboldcn'd guilt 

Portents' of ruin', || hear' me !— In your presence', 

For now I feel ye nigh, I dedicate 

This arm | to the destruction of the Idng 

And of his race' ! Oh ! keep me pitiless' ; 

Expel all human weakness from my frame, 

Tliat this keen weapon | sliake not | when his h'aarfe 

Should feel its point ; and if he has a child' 

Whose blood is needful to the sacrifice 

My country asks', lm"I-d^ my "^1 to shed' it I 

ife spedksl 



In speaking, the voice not only slides upwards and downwards 
as explained under " Inflections," but it changes in pitch as in the 
musical scale, though with less variety. The cliange in music 
IS distnictly marked by the sound being sustained on eacli note. 
In speakmg, tl)e changes are not so extreme. They all fall 
within less compass than one octave, and generally tlie varia- 
tions do not range over more than three or four gradations or 
notes. But there are gi-adations, and the delicacy of the changes 




\\ % 

^ and constitutes the best expression of good delivery 
^-cry student of reading, tl.erefore, will tind it LL^^^ 

oitun 1 eigl.t and depth, and exercises upon the variations 

ot^. ^ ^---tone, .nil aid in cultivating the level ton 
80 picuous to the great artist. An excellent exercise also is 

-t of readnig a nun.ber of lines or stanzas of poetn^ n al 
the tones a reader can con.nand down and up, and up d low 
;n succession An uncultured voice can be i.ado tL j „ 

-Ive diatonic sound, and this is more than expres i e iv 1 
ing requires. (See "How to Read ", p. 44.) 

There are three recognized i)itches of the voice • the Hmh 
the Middle, an.l the Low. ' '^^' 

The lugli is the appropriate pitch for excitement, whether it 
be manifested in light and joyous emotions; in tei derne a d 
pity ; or m pain, defiance, or terror. 

The middle is that of conversation, suitable for a newspaner 
article or a philosophical essay. ^ ^ ' 

The loro is the pitch for solemn or grave subjects. It is the 
voice of deep feeling, sorrow, love, woe," remorse &c. 
High Pitch. 

I heard the lance's shivering crash 
As I when the whirlwind rends the ash ; 
, I heard the broadsword's deadly clang, ' 
As I if an hundred anvils rang ! 
But Moray wheeled his rear- ward rank 
Of horesmen on Clan-Alpine's flauk- 

" Mxj banner-man advance ! 
I see," b^ cried, '• their columns ^shake- 
Now, gallants, for your ladies' sake, 
Upon them with the lance ! " 

— Scott. 



I delivery. 
itaj:,'eou.s to 
to be able 
' can reach 
n niodula- 
ctremes is 
hat pitch, 
level tone 
?e, also, is 
ly on all 
and do^vn 
})ass over 
sive read- 

e High, 

hether it 
■ness and 


It is the 

Middle Pitch. 


All things are double, one against another— tit for tat ; an eye 
for an eye ; a tooth for a tooth ; blood for blood ; measure for 
measure ; love for love. Give and it shall bo given you. Ho 
that watoreth shall bo watered himself. What will you have ? 
saith God ; pay for it, and tako it. Nothing venture, nothing 
have. Thou shalt be paid for what thou hast done, no more, no 
less. Who doth not work shall not eat. Harm watch, harm 
catch. Curses always recoil on tno head of him who imprecates 
them. If you put a chain around the nock of a slave, the other 
end fastens itself around your own. Bad counsel confounds the 
adviser. The devil is an ass. 

Low Pitch. -Err^rson. 


A man may read a sermon, the best and most passionate 
that ever man prcached\ if he shall but enter into tho sepulchres 
of klng,^' In the same Escurial, where the Spanish princes hve 
in greatness and power, and declare war o.- peace, they have 
wisely placed a cemetery where their ashes and their glory shall 
sle€ p\ till time shall b^ ^ more' ; and where o«)' kings have been 
crowned, their an^tors lie interred ; and they must walk over 
their grand^re's head | to take his crown. There' is an aero 
sown with royal seed, the copy of the greatest change from rich 
to naked, from ceiled roofs to arched coffins, from living like 

gods to die like men'. 
Very Low Pitch. 

— Jeremy Taylor, 



At dead of night 
In sullen silence stalks forth pestilence' : 
Contagion close behind taints all her steps 
With poisonous dew : no smiting hand is seen' ; 
No sound' is heard' : but soon her secret path' ' 
Is marked with desolation : heaps on heaps. 
Promiscuous drop. No friend, no refuge near' : 
All, all is false and treacherom around, 
AU that thoy touch, or taste, or breathe, is death. 




Transition. Tho previous exercises are designed to enable 

the voice to inuke with facility and perfect natv.ralness the 

moc ulat.ons of passion. The j.ractise in transitions is less 

marked and more delicate. The variation of pitch in the 

reading of a subordinate sentence, or in tho expression of gentle 

and tran,juil sentiment, may not vary from a more energetic or 

important thought to tho extent of a tone or even a semi tone. 

J^iit 1 IS the delicacy of the change that often distinguishes, 

with the best effect, the variation of thought, and it is piactice 

in this department that best cultivates the voice for modulation 

ana gives accuratcness and correctness to the ear. 

Variations in sentences. Distinguish, by a change of 
pitch and force, the^mncipal from the subordinate proposilion 
The variation of pitch rarely exceeds one note or interval, and 
he time of the leading thougl.-t, though slower, varies no moie 
than the pitch. 

Read tho words in italics in fuller tone and higher than the 
rest : — 

(Middle P.) Tho third day comes frost\ a Ulling frost' 
(Slow.) And- [{lower and faster) when he thinks, good, easy 

man, full surely 

... His grea-.ness is a ripening], {hujher and slower) 

— nips his root, 
And then he faUs (very slo^o), as | I | do. 

— Shakeapeare. 
(Middle P.) It must be so'-Plato', thou reasonest well' ! 

Else whence this pleasing hope , this fond desire' 
This longing after immortality' ? 
(Low P.) Or whence this secret dread and inward Jwrror 
(Slow Tuik) Of falling into nought' ? Why shrinks the soul' 
(Higher.) Back \ on herself and startles at destruction ? 
(Higher.) 'Tis the divinity | that stirs within us\ 
f 'Ti^ heaven itself | that points oid an hereafter \ 

(Lower.) And intimates—ETERNiTv to man'. 

— A duibon. 




(Mil ->Lr. P.) 


(Middle P.) 
(Full Tone) 

(Softer & 

(Full Tone) 

AND Deep). 

So live\ (lo)i:er) that when thy summons comes to 

Tho innnmcrablc caravan', that moves 
To that niy.s.^ionH realm', whero eacli sliall tako 
His chamber in the silent holls of tlcath'. 
Thou go not, (loxmr) like the quarry slave, at ni|;iifc, 
Scourged to his dungeon', {hijher) but Bustainod 

and sootlicd 

By an unfaltriiug trust', approach thy grave 
Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch 
About him', and lies down to pleasant dreams'. 

— Bryant. 

Ilcr giauj form 
O'er wrathful sur<;c, through blackening storiii. 
Majestically calm would go', 
Mid the deep darkness, white \ as snow' I 
But gentler now | the small waves glide', 
Like playful lambs' o'er tho mcuniiain's' sido. 
So stately her bearing, so proud \ her array', 
The main she will traverse for ever and aye\ 
Many ports' | will exult' at the gleam of her mast'. 
Hush' ! husli' ! thou vain dreamer ! this hour | ir? , 
her last' ! 

— Wilson. 



Force and pitch are distinct functions of the voice. Loud- 
ness and gcntlouess of voice arc the results of different degrees 
of force ; and when force is used tliere is not necessarily a cluingo 



nn,I strongort at tl,c fini.,], ,,f the .„„nul ' 

, n, 1^ tl r "'l"'""''""''' '« F'"^"*"l in such 8o]octio,« a. ,viIJ 

flee from harsliness or iinimrity of to„o "U<"ics8, 

Quality of voice i, intimately ,«,ociate,l with force Tl,e 

f. r , , -I uiL, 10110 and Orotlliul VO rp nm 

.eo rom ha,.h„e.«, h.,„ki„e.,, a„a nasal tone, Tl o Z; two 
defects are canso.1 by Hxin,- the vocal effort on the n„" e „ 

h locahty of the tln.oat. hy waste of breath, and by „o ffi " 
en ly o,.e„,ng the n.onth ; and the last, by raising the ton'fto 

pa* "" ■"""° "'" '"""' '"' ™- ""-«■' "'-"-1 

tont'lf 'vl'r"™""" *''™" '"'• ^'«''' '"-""■"=' '-'3 to pure 
Pur, Tone is the qnality necessary to the delicacy of „„!„,. 
f 7" "™'1«'^'"™' "■"> ^l'-rf"l »"d pleasing emotion, " 

ne 0,-„tun,l ,s the perfection of the speaking voice, and il 
the ..ceessary expression of al, that is grand, sublhne. ^ 

Vocal exercises on the vowels (see "How to Read") and on 
special passages, are necessary to the enltivation of the pur" and 
orotnnd qualities of voice. ' ^ 



ioasary to 
invo their 

the first 
ill, or the 
; and the 
I'st issue, 

most ini- 
IS as will 

e. Tlie 
Jice are 
rst two 
iscles in 
• sufRci- 
ngue to 
le nasal 


is. It 
and is 

1 truly 

nd on 
:e and 

Af<i>rmto.(l <|uality best oxprosscs emotions of fear, loathing, 
or impurity whinli one would conccid. 

The W/ii'sppi- is a vocal funetioji .)f great expression under 
certain conditions ; and occasional practice on wliisper readiiigs 
is excellent as a discipline; uf the vocal organs. The whisper 
may bo perfect, that is, with no vocality, or it may Ije half 

Any of the appropriate passages in tho various exercises of 
this introduction can be used for the practice of tho pure and 
orotund (pialities. 



All lioavon and cartli arc still— though not in sleep, 
But breathless, as wo grow wlion feeling most ; 

And silent, as wo stand in tlioughts too deep : — 
All heaven and earth are still : From the high host 
Of stars to tho lulled lake and mountain coast. 

— Byron. 


Macbeth. Diust thou not hoar a noise' ? 

Lady Macbeth. I heard the owl scroam', and the crickets' cry. 

Did you not speak' ? 
Macbeth. When' ? 
Lady M. 1\ ^^y\ 
Macbeth. As I descended' ? 
Lady M. Ay\ 

Macbeth. Hark' ! who lies i' the second chamber' ? 
Lady M. Donaldbain'. 

— Shakespeare. 

While throng'd the citizens with terror dumb, 
Or whispering with white lips, " The foe ! they come— they 
come !" 




i i' 

1 1' 

!li . 



"."•■i "■■ fourth t„ko, a »ub„„,trtl I, ::;;?•;, ^••■•"'" " 

many „f it« ,„„3iea, cl,amoton-i I I kI Ti '' "^ "'"'" 
this accent .o,„,. t„ that defective realli ::,,.'!: i,:^::'!?';'^ 

Th- rhythm r „ t;r ;""r"" "f."^°^ p°*>-- 

into habits of dechlation !v; c, te "Ci''"™'^" '™'"" 
than the .en.e sanction... an,l whi > Z T, ff T''" ™"'' 
n"„sing-s„n„of„,„tricaI,,:i'ver '""' ^"'"^ '" 

Emjiliiisis IS not accent. Accont k f,>,... ■ 
a .'yllahle, hut en>phasi, .. I^Z^Z^dT T"' "' 
times to phrases or sentence, VntTTn T ■''"• '"""'- 

mcnt of accent emphsT h- " '°""' '^ ">"»>% de- 

e.uhraces a„,i deraitu, r:;,;:,.,::r™™r " ^^"^''■''"■'' 

The force apphed to emphasis varies in its eharactiritllc! 





1. It may Ihj i)oworfully abrupt :— 

And wifcli pcrpotual iiiroad.s to aln rm, 
Tli()iif,'h inaccoHihlo Iuh fatal throno ; 
Wliich if not I victory | is yot rcmnge. 


Hero wo first p.uiso l.ororo ''victory," wo then riso in pitdi 
on th.^ rir, and tlirow great and abrupt force int.) it; 
und tho oxi,ro.siou in roniplotod by givinj. a slijlitcr forco („ 

2. It may -row in fonv and then diminish upo.; a v.-ord :— 

Oh ! how wrotclicd 
1 1 tlittt pf><;r man that hangH on prinoea' fcivourc. 

— ShaJrspeare. 
I[.-re tho n-m;-n>?n and dlmhiuewh of nuisic are combined to 
give emphasis to "princes'." 

3. It may grow in forco towar.!. tho end, a. if tlio passion 
expressed by tlie special w.inl increased in it. intensity a. it 
advanced :— 

< <■ 

Must I bid twice ? -honco varlot fly. 

This is often the vuv ^ ,f dehanco or extreme hatred. 

And D^uj-iarj more I tell theo here, 

Even in thy pitch of pride ; 
Il-ro in thy hold, thy vassals near, 

I toll theo— thou'rt defied'. 
And if thou said'st I am not p'r/ 
To any lord in Scotland' hore', 
Lowland or Highland, far' or near', 

Lord Angus, thou liast lied\ 

— Scott, 
4. Again empliasis may Ix) expressed by tremor of voice :— 
"Father' ! » at length, ho mnrraur'd low, 
And wepf I like childhood then. 

— Mrs. ITemaiui. 


srxTir HEADER. 


I m 

5. JMiiphasis i.s also .^on.ptimos cxjirossed witu the best ollect 
^y a strong aspirated force. Tims, Hamlet, Avhen robukino bis 
mcvtaer, contrast, the guilty king, bis uncb>, with bis nmrclere.l 
latiier : — 

Look yon now, wliat follows : 
Here is your buHband, liko a mildcw'-d oar 
Blasting Ids wliolesomo brotbor. 

— ShnJcespeare. 
In expressing the emphasis in the above oxan.pb>s the other 
qnahties besides force are apidied. On the words "victory" (1) 
"pHnces"' (2), ''fly," 'Mied" (3), and "Idasting" (5), the pilb 
I '. higher than on the preceding wor.l, because the inflection i. 
c.ownward; and on "Father" (4) and ''twice" (3) it is lower at the 
commencement t]ia:i on the preceding word, because tlie inflcc- 
tion is upward. ' 


How are Ave to know on wliich wor.l or words to place the 
emphasis ? 

Emphasis i. t]u> natural action (,f tlie i.dn<l to give i)rominence 
to its leading thought, expressed sometimes by one, sometimes 
by more than one wonl. Hence in conversation the emphasiM 
r^ generally correct because it is natural; and in readin-^ it is 
frequently incorrect because reading is an art of whose principl,>s 
the reader is ignorant. But the principle of selecting the em- 
phatic ])art IS deduced from nature. The reader must det..rmine 
the leaduig uord, which at nnce takes prominence, ],ecause it 
introduces both the new .nd tlie leading idea; and if more 
tlian one word be necessary to the expression of that idea, the 
group of w(,r<ls must have the vocal effort constituting empluisis. 
_ Uie method of investigating a passage for empJiasis is given 
lu the analysis of the following stanza :— 

Stop !— for thy tread | is on an Empire's dnsf ; 
An earthquake'. H spoiV \ lies scpulclired below ! 

Is the spot iTiark'd | with no colomxl bust', 
Nor column ! tn^phied for triumphal nhvw 9 


king ]iis 

iVone; but the moral's tmth [ tells simpler I so\ 

As the ground was before, thus \ let it be- 
How that red rain | hath made the harvest^ grow^/ 

And 18 this all I the world has gain'd by thee', 
Thou first I and last of fields I-king-making victory ? 

— liijrun. 
"8top-' .I,.namls greater ompliasis to prepare for the sol.nin 

moditiition that follows Tli(> <ln«f Ic ,..f 

.,., . . „ , ^^^^^^ ^^ "'^* common dust,— it is 

b o„, r. tk. om,,l„.s,.s „f italioiz.,,! w„,,ls to th« end of tl.o 
ftfth l,„o tl.o sa,„„ prinaplo f-„i,lo,s tb» roa.I.r; c:,d, „ow f„,„, 

J.0, n tl,„ liftl, ln,o, ,l„,„„„u superior e,„pl,,,i,, „, h ;, ^j 

There ^ no „,lunu, for tri,„npb„l ,,,„„ » „„„,,„, j,,,, ^ 
.».sue of that ,..„.stlv a,„I terriHe eontest was ,„ to „n,l-n.„r u 
«..neh the Helds an.l nmke the " harvest g,,nv.» ^ 

While the n,in,I jn.lge,, in «,ie.:ti„^, "he ri,.-I,t wonl for en,- 
^as. the reader wiil iin.l the ear of the greatest ,erviee hot! 
.>a ard m ,h«,ver,n« the proper word, an.l an evidenee of the 
corroetness of the ,i,„l„ne„t. ICrnest l.e,,„„v^ .,ys, " To . et 
rue sense of a pa.a,e rea.l it alond. Then it shine's witht 
haht. Then al«ne the authors i.hv. c„„,ph.tely revealed 

• • . i''<^'«twaytounde,-standaworkist„readitalond." 
Classification of Emphasis. 

Emphasis nuiy he nl,s„l„te, ndative, or arbitrary 
Absolute e„,phasis is son>etinn« called the e.nphasis of sense 

— Psalms. 




! i 

One adequate supjjort 
For the calamities of mortal life 
Exists, one, only — an assured belief 
That the procession of our fate, howc'cr 
Sad or disturb'd, is oyck/d by a BeiiKj 
Of infinite benevolence and power, 
Whose everlasting purposes embrace 
All accidents, converting them to good. 

— IJ'^ords^rorth. 
For soon expect to feel 
His thunder on thy head, devouring fire, 
Then who created thee lamenting learn, 
When -who can ttn-creato thee thou shalfc hum. 


Relative cmphasisJ indicates contrast. It is anti'Lhetical in 
spirit, and the antithesis is either expressed or ini})licd. 

Expressed contra3t. Observe that the contrasted words 
are distinguished by inllectiou as well as force : — 

In peace' there's nothing so becomes a man 
As mild behaviour and humanity, 
But when the blast of wa/ blows in our ears, 
Lot us- be tigers in our tierce deportment. 

— Sliahespeare. 
To he or not" to bo. 

— Shakespeare. 

He that is sloiir to anger' \ is better than the might}/ ; and he 
that ruleth" his spirit', than he that tuketh' a city. 

— Proverbs. 

Implied contract. 

Presumptuous man ! the gods' take care of Cato'. 
Implying that Cato did not depend on men. 

Arbitrary Emphasis. This application of empliasis does 
not mark the leading word or thouglit of a passage, but the pre- 
dominant, all-ruling feeling of the speaker at tliat moment. 

When Portia, in the "Merchant of Venice," says in her appeal 
to tlic bettor feelings of Shyloch; **' Then must the Jew be lueici- 



fill," she no doubt gives emphasis to hisr supremo feeling, the 
desire for mercy. Uut the Jtnv hears only one word and that is 
" must," which offends his pride and seems to assail his legal 
rights , then under the impulse of passionate defiance he asks, 
"On what compulsion must I ?" 

In the delivery of this emphasis greater force is given to the 
emphatic word than in the emphasis of sense ; it is generally 
preceded and followed ])y a slight pause ; the voice dwells longer 
upon the emphatic word, and it is always made with the falling 

Morcy is above this sceptred sway, ^ 

It is enthroned in the hearts of kings. 
(Nol in their sceptres or their croivns.) 


Kind souls, what weep you when you but behold 
Our Cicsar's vesture wounded ? Look you here, 
Hero . HIMSELF, marred, as you see, by traitors. 



Its p i.|.jr archives shall fly white. Old secrets come to view ; 
and long-buried Despair finds voice. Read this portion of an 
old Letter: "If for my consolation Mouseigneur would grant 
me, for the sake of God and the Most Blessed Trinity, that I 
could have news of my dear wufe ; were it only her name on a 
card, to show that she is still aliv<5 ! It were the greatest conso- 
lation I could receivj ; and I should forever bless the greatness of 
Monseigneur." Poor Prisoner, who riamest thyself Queret-Demery 
—she ig DEAD, that dear wife of thine ; and thou art dead I 

— Carlyle (French Revolution). 

And David's anger was greatly kindled against the man ; and 
he said to Nathan, As the Lord liveth the man that hath done 
this thing shall surely die. And Nathan said unto David, Thou 
art the man. 

—II Samuel, 12 : 5, 7. 






Two great ,l,.f,.cta „,„,.k tl.o reading of pootrj- both of which 

are offo„s,vo to the oultivat,,l„ar, and dostr,„,.ti 4 of the .uk. y 

Inch d..t,„gu„he., metrical fro,,, prose co„,positio.,. The „„e 

Li ;', "","•''; " " ■"■'""' '^'S^'^S ..II the regularity of 

n t'T " ; ""f """ °"" °' "'" '■■■s">«^' ^'■""- "f ■■- 

Poet,j , ho „the,-„.h.oh i« the g.-eatcr as well as tl,„ „,oro 
<.o,„„„,, ,|cfect-,s that of rea,li„g it i„ wl,at is tc,-,„ed "si„g-»„.» 
style, w he,-e the voice beats o.x the aece.Ued syllable an,I cha„g:s 

■c ■ led „ diable occ,„.s. This latter style begins wL„ the 
cluM h,^t lear„s to ,«d a„.l e„ds only will, his life, ft mark, 
.md n,ars ahke the reading of the odncated a„,l of the ig„o,.„nt, 
and ,t re,|,„res special practice on .special mctho,ls for its effce 
tive correction. 

Vci^so „,„st not be ..ead p,-ecisely as is ,-ead. The rhvtl- 
mical accentnatio,,, as is snggested above, for„,s the mnsi^c of 
poo ,cal eon.position, and is as mncl, one of its litcnny m.alities 
as . s specal langnagc i.s. That „,nst be snstained in rc.a.ling as 
w el as ,n wr,t,ng poetry. The ,nct,e of Engl;,,, poetry is alto- 
gether d.fleront f,.o„, that of Latin and Greek poetry. It i, a 
metre not of ,p,antities bnt of accents ; and althongb the accented 
sy lahlcs or wo,-,Is „,„st follow- in metrical or<le,, they a„, not 
subject to o,,Ier of time. Th.,- are not neces.sarily long and short, 
ut each w„„l can be prolonged or .shortened in ba,„,„„y with 
the sentnnent, jnst as in- p,«.se, without destroying the n,elo,ly 
of the ,x,etry. Xow it is the judicious nsc of this power-tho 
vana ,ons o quantity, the use of rhetoiieal pau,ses, the occasional 
con.p!ete silence of the voice, and finally, the use of inflection 
. 1 Pdch p,«,selyas tl,cy a,, used in prose-that constitutes 
tae ngat method of readiiisr ])ooti'v. 


Mr. Van<, the distingulshcl elocutionist, presents the 
following two motliods, the wrong and the riglit one, of measur- 
uig poetry for reading :— 

(5n thO I Mrc enrtli | c^xpr.sed ) hC lies, | 
With not I ^ friend | to close [ hTs eyes. | 

A mode of scanning which, if adiiere.l to in the reading, would 
utterly destroy the sense and power of the lines. They should 
be thus, barred, timed, and accenteil :— 

___^_^'^^_l^^e j earthy | b ex-! posed he | lies. ^ 

^ With i not a I friend^ | b to j close his* | eyes. ^ 
By which M-e find that these are verses of six hars in common 
time, the rests filling up the l.ars, c^adb, u^here the sense reainres 
a 2)ame.* ■* 

It will l)e seen that if wo follow t!,e first method, the classic 
prosody, we give prominence to unimportant words, and fall at 
once into ''sing-song "; but if we adopt Mr. Yandenhotf' s method 
we combnie "on the" and give double the time to "bare » We 
give also a beat ami a half to "earth," and then a pause equal to 
anote and a half; while "he," which is unimportant, iias only 
a tJiirU ot the time or quantity of "lies." 

The following is another example of the wrong and ri<d.t 
method, gn-en l,y the same author from Milton's " Samson 
Agonistes : — 

Oh dilrk I dark dark, I itrnTd | th6 blilze | of noon. 
The leader accents every second or, as it is in.properly termed, 
long syllable, and inevitably falls into "sin-son<^ " 

* "A System of Elocution, " by George Vandenhoff. 



Right metliod : — 

Oh I dark I dark dark, | a- | mid the |bla^eof | noon. 
Let tliis 1.0 road aconrding to tlio time of tlie notes, AvHh 
the pauses, and all the pathos and hoauty of tlie passa-'e are 
expressed, " 

• The following rules, chiefly derived from the above j^rinciples, 
wdl be of great service in correcting the defects of poetical 
reading : — ■ 

1. Be guided by the rules for inflection, pitch, and empliasis as in 

^ 2. Avoid accenting ui.anportant words, even if the rhythnncal acccr.t 
belongs to tlicni.^ Pause before such words and combine thera 
with those that come after thcui. 

3. Shorten the time of unimportant words and lengthen the time of 

nnportant words. The above example i'lustrates this rule 
II On the" are rapidly uttered; "bare" is prolonged, and 
"eartli" is prolonged to a less extent and followed by a pause 
which satisfies tlic musical ear. 

4. Rest in some part of every line of poetry, and always at the end of 

the line. The lengtli of the pauses must depend on tlie relation 
of the interrupted parts. 

5. Avoid alterations of higli and low -pitch to mark accented and un- 

accented syllables. This is one of the marks of "sing-song." 

6. Do not end each stanza with a rising inflection on the last word 

This defect specially marks tlie reading of liymns. If tlie sense 
is complete the end of the sentence in poetry or prose must re- 
ceive the falling inflection. 

7. Always commence the penultimate line of a stanza in a lower pitch 

than tiiat used in the preceding lines, and if there be the slightest 
dependence of that line upon tlie final line, end it with a rising 
inflection. • 

The following passages are marked for rlivthmical readin- 
without "sing-song." The vertical dashes in this instance indi^ 
cate not the pause but the commencement of a bar, followed as 



in music by the accentod wonl. A double bar marks the neces- 
sary pause, and the italici/.Qnl words may have additional time 
given to them : — 

Tho I (jlories of our | birth and j state 

Arc I shadowi \\ not sub | stantial | things, 
There | is no \'armoiir \\ against ] Fate : 
Death I; lays his | icy ] hand on | kiivjs : 
Sceptre and \ crown 
r.Iust I tumblo I down 
And I in the dust jj be | equal | mado 
"With tho I 2yoor \ crooked 1| scythe and | spade. 

— Shirley, 

Hail 1 1 holy | light || o/spring of heaven | first born. 
O I thou II that I with sur \ passing | glovn \ crowned. 
Oh li tliat this I too || too \ solid fiosh |j would |1 melt. 

Ill the last instance "Oli" takes tlie same time as "that this"; 
cacli "too" takes a pause, and tho second "too" lias as long time 
given to it as "(•■olid flesh"; "'would" is brief as a (piaver, and 
"melt" long as a minim. 

The etymological tigurns, aphaircsis, syncope, and apoc()i)e, 
'are often used in i)oetry to make rhythm just. Strict observance 
of tho metrical arrangement is sometimes, however, almost 
destructive of the sense, and certainly of the beauty ; but if the 
method suggested above be adopted the reading may be perfect 
Avithout a servile following of the spelling. 

The following illustrates the wrong and right method : — 

By pray'r, th' offCndCd Dc!ty t' ttppCasc. 

By 1 2>rayer \\ the of , fended \ Deity \\ to appease. 

Lengthen "prayer," "Deity," and "'pease''; and give tho 
silence of a crochet rest after " prayer" and " Deity.'' 

The rationale of these variations of (juantity and tho use of 
pauses is, that in the lengthened time, both of voice and of 
silence, there is a compensation for apparently violated metre 
which fully satisfies tiie car in its sensitiveness to discord or 
the want f)f nielod". 






mind, ana in sonXn. w^ i;:^^^^^ ''^ 

tlioudit or feelin.r \v. • ^, ^ '" ^^^ expression of 

■; thn.t of the „™, „,,, -ji^i. t :' r; r: '•"'; 

Oahstlienic exercises and military drill form the nWn. i 

tl.e body i.,t ' f!l iT. T"' '" "'"''■ "'^' "^'P^^-i"" "f 

action wllluaTf- ' .^'-f''"' ™'" "''"8'" P°''«°- "-1 
form fU 7 ' .'' ""' ""'''"''y ''"" ''™a"'l a"d prrctice 
form the hr.t steps for the actions of the reader and the fS ^ 



The AttiLudes. The hody must be held \\\m*^\\i, tlic lioul 
and iK'ck ujjii^rht but free frum stifliioss or any appearance of 

The up})or part of the trunk must have the jipi)earance of 
perfect ease and tirniness, the cliest he expaiided, and the 
shouhhn-s not raised but thrown ])ack. Tlie arms sliouM hang 
straight at the side but free; from all stiffness. 

The lower limbs must also have the aspect of ease, firmness, 
nnd gracefulness. The feet must never be parallel, never too 
close to eacli other, never crossing each other. They should be 
a little apart, one foot in advance of the other and forming an 
angl(3 with it. As the body should always, more or less, rest on 
one limb, that limb should be firm and straight, and the other 
slightly l)ent. Both for the comfort of the speaker and for 
a]ipearance an occasional change of attitude in the limbs is 

Action. The management of the hand, arm, head, and eye 
forms a leading element in graceful and expressive action. 

The Hand. The action of the hand centres in the wrist. 
The turning of the Avrist gives emphasis to feeling ; the positions 
of the hand and fingers indicate forms of thoiight. Tlie palm 
turned upward, with the fingers slightly separated, is the natural 
mode of address and appeal. 

The Supine Hand. It is not entirely supine ; it slopes 
from the tliuml) and is well opened. It gives greater force than 
tlie natural hand, but is applied to the same i)urposes. It also 
is the form used to express determination, demand, concession, 
and humility. 

To such usurpation I will never submit. 
I humbly covfess my fault. 

The Prone Hand. This is the reverse of the 7iatnral 
The supine hand (expresses nakcul truth ; the prom^ exi)resses 

the emotion of scorn or gravity, It burie 

s Hit; ilvvsl : it marks 




solemnity; it exacts silenco; it conceals; it puts down ani 
destroys : — 

I scorn tliG mean insinuation. 

His terror keeps the vvorW in awe. 

Justice cricH forbt'ur ! 

Something of sadness n^arked tho spofc. 

Doim tempting fiend I 

Tlioy shall be p.niished with everlasting destruction 
The Vertical Hand. Th. hand is open, uj.lifte.l, at an 
angle mth tho wrist, an.l the book is turned to the speaker It 
expresses repulsion, aversion, c:ui)recation, abhorrence, and slmi- 
la* feelings : — 

Back to thy punishment, false fugitive I 

Murder mont foul as in the best it is ; 

But this MOST FotjL, strange, and unnatural. 

Avert thy sore disploasuro. 

Whence and why aut thou, execrable shapa ! 

Closed or Clenched Hand expresses strong passion, de- 
nance, desperate resolve : — 
Let us do or die ! 

I'll have my nQ.ND : I will not hear thee speak. 
Clasped Hands. Used in prayer. 

These are tlie most common actions of the hand and constitute 
a language of powerful expression. In couimencing the action 
the arm generally is moved slightly in the opposite direction of 
the one to which it is advanced, and in finishing the hand and 
arm relax and fall easily to the first position of rest. The em- 
phatic action is given on the emphatic word (indicated above by 
Italics and capitals), and the empliasis is terminated by a curving 
of the wrist and the descent of the arm. 

The Arm. All its actions centre in and commence from 
the should(>T. Jerky and angular motions must be avoided 
Graceful action is made in curves. Full extension, ease, ard 
freedom must mark its motion in harmonv with f.bp. ..finno of 



the hand, and vehemenco of action must be in harmony and 
keeping with the passion to be expressciL 

There are three leading forms of gesture for the arm: — Ges- 
tures of Place, of Imitatiun, and of Emphasis. The first answers 
the (luestion, Where i the second, How 1 and the third, Ihno 
much i 

Place. The eye momentarily glances in the direction oi the, 
real or imaginary object, and the hand and arm are extended in 
tiie same direction. When the action is strong the ujjper i)art 
of the body is slightly turned with the arm. The sj)eaker or 
reader must, however, turn again immediately to the listener, who 
must always be the centre and returning point of attraction. 
The index finger will serve best to point out a small or a near 
olyect ; when large and distant, the extended hand ; and the 
sweep of both hands will best illustrate the boundless, as the 
ocean, or the universe. 

Time is conceived of under the images of space. Present is 
in front and near ; Absent is oil" at one side ; Past is behind ; 
the Distant ])ast is high and far in the rear. The Future is high 
and far in the front. 

Spiritual conce{>tions are expressed by types, symbols, &c., 
derived from the material world. The primary meaning of tho 
leading word is an index to the action. Obedience is giving ear 
—bending, as it were, to listen ; rectitude is adhereinte to a 
straight line — the hand moving right onwards ; eiror is a wan- 
dering—the hand waving and circling to picture the idea; 
transgression is over-stepping ; heaven, heave-en, or that which 
is heaved high ; arm and hand extended laterally and upwards, 
high ; hell is a covered pit,— arm and hand extended earthward, 
hand prone ; sublimity is height,— one or })oth hands ascending 
oblique, hand supine ; hojie is a reaching forth ; faith is a tie ; 
humility is nearness to the ground.* 

Abbreviated from an excellent Paper on Gesticulation by H. B. Spr^ue. 



Illustrative or Imitative Gestures. Those .los.ribe 
/-' . or th. ,„un,u.r in whioh a^ti.-n >.,,,„.... Three di^thic 
goHtures are suggested hy the fdhnving line. :_ 

Flashed all their sabre.i bare, 

FlaHhed as they turn'd in air, 

Sahrinrj tlio gnnners there. 

.lm«„ tlK, act!.,,. ,„ I,u imitutiv,. ; i„ the «.cn,i,l li,„. th,- ,„„> 
wav.s ,«,, „,u, the imaginary .a.,,., i,. e„rv«, „,„ti„ . . 

. H.. tl„r,l l,„e the aai»„ of ,„c„ on horseback cutti,,:. U„, , 
the cii, my ig imitatwl. * 

Emphatic Gesture i., shuply the :,p,.]icatio„ of fo,,,. ,„ 
n y othcu. «o,tu,.. ,t ,, u,e ex,,,,-.!™ of' „ ,o,„i„„„t Mi^ 
which, for tho momo>,t faili,,,, i„ ,„„,,,,_ li,,,,^ ^^,,.„f ^ 

a|>pro,„-,ato aot,o„ of tho h„„y. the ...ove.nont „f , , ".^^ 
th of the eyo, the «woc,, or dash of th,. arm U ,: 
bhnv of tl,o I,.,, or the ,.ta„„, of the foot. If „„„ „f |, ' 

:: ;:;;:r tL:" "":" ""'t " "- '•'■'""""■ "■'■>■ ^'•■''■» 

cmphMM.. Ihey an, „„t rr,m,e.iitat,.cl ; th,,.v are inn,ul»ive and 
when natural and ...-aceful, are a» e.vpr,.s.iv,: a» poelh 

KM. The host orators an,l aetoi. are never profuse in ...i;,,,- 
lut,o,, Tl„,v »u,,-,.st r„h,.r than picture, and I,y this eeo 1 
of action excite .„d delight tlie imagination of the hea r^ 

poctator, hy makm. it a sliarer in the .cona The coui, cJ o 
Handet ,s the best to follow : " In the very torrent, ten ^ , 
- I may say whirlwind of paasion, you nuist.e„ni le and b e, i' 
tempcranee that may ,.ive it smoothness. . . Oh it ofl^ d 
me to the very soul to see a robustious, periwig^i d ,e 

Z:^" *" '""^'^' '° -'^ -«»• - «""' «-- 'ft: 





The Simile is a simple and express coniparison. 

Human greutiiess is short and tranaitory, as the oilor of incense in tho 

The Metaphor is a conii)ariHon implitMl in tlie language 
used {Bam) : or a transference of the relation l^etwecn one set 
of objects to another for explanation {Ahhntt). 

The wish is father to the thought. 
His eye w ,> jiK.vaing'a brightest ray. 

Simile m[ , a mot nhor. Simile: As tlie plough 
turns up the laud, so th ' s.ip sai , on the sea. Metaphor : The 
ship ploughs tlio Hoa. Th 'n'^^-^gixot is expanded into tho simile. 

Personification is tlie figure by whi(;h we aseril)e iiitelli- 
genco and personality to unintelligent ])eings or abstract 

Youth at the prow and pleasure at the helm. 
Metonymy is a change of names founded on scmie relation 
like that of cause and effect, contain(>r and thing contained, 
sign and thing signified; o.<j., tho crown or sceptre for royalty; 
red tape for routine of office. 

They smote the city, i.e., the people. 

Synecdoche is the naming of the whole for a part, or of a 
part for the whole. 

Now the year {«. e. summer) is beautifi^l. 
Give us this day our daily bread. 

Apostrophe is ;•. turning from the regular course to adilress * 
some absent or iniagintiy object. 

I)catli is swallowetl up in victory. 

O dcatli ! wiiore is thy aUiig ; grave, where is thy victory ? 


if 'i 



forTtf'"" V"";^ '"'^' apostrophe; it brings the absent ho- 
fore the nnn.I Avitli the force of reality :— 

I see the flagger crest of Mar, 
I sec the ^Moray's silver star, ^ 

Wave o'er the cloud of Saxon v ar, 
. That up the lake comes winding far ! 

Soc also " Lochicl's Warning " Scott. 

Antithesis is a placing of things in contract 
By persuading others we convince ourselves. 

Thus am I donWy nrni'd. My death and life, 
My bane and antidote are both before me. 


I Brief pause. 

;' Longer pansb. 

( ' ) Rising inflection. 

( " ) Falling inflection. 

— Dash over the word for r^onotone. 

- FalHng circumflex, i.e., the voice rises and then with- 

out a break descends. 

-- Rising circumflex, opposite of the above. 

> Voice full force in the beginning, and diminishing r^ 
it ends. " 

Opposite of the above. 

The above two combined, i.e., crescendo and diminneMo 
Italics mdicate emphasis on the quotations and selections. 
Small capitals indicate stronger emphasis. 
Heavy-faced or black type, strongest en^phasis. 





Tho following selections in poetry and prose are elaborately 
marked as elocutionary exercises, the marking being in strict 
accordance with the principles laid down in the "Introduction." 
They are intended to serve as examples of methods which may 
be applied by the teacher to an indefinite extent. To each 
lesson in the book which requires them, hints for readuig have 
been appended, but in a less elaborate form : 


[iNTHonrcTiox.-The following scene from Shakespeare's «'JuMus 
Ca^.a,- H gnen with marks an.l notes as an example of .l.ama.ic reading 
ihe reader must realize for himself, and must becme in every sen e 
the characters to be repres.i.ted. Their nature, .notives. feelings, an.l 
every change of passion must be studied and conceived in order to give 
a truth ul representation of the per.sons introduce<l. It must be remem- 
bered hat the two characters are Ron.ans, sohliers, and .tatesn.en of the 
h.ghest social rank. Hence there is a dignity, characteristic of the race to 
which they belonged an.l of their commanding position, to be sustaine.l 
Even in the fiercest bursts of passion, to which both in turn give way, these 
h.-h characteristics must never be forgotten ; and to these the advice of 
Hamlet ,3 especially applicable. The reader "in the very torrent 
te„,pest. and whirlwind of passion, must ac(juire and beget a temperance 
that may give it smoothness," that is, in this instance, dignity This 
counsel applies especially to the impersonation of the part oiCassim 
Brutus IS ca m and stoical, occasionally excite.l, but always sustaining 
the Roman dignity an.l command of temper. But Ca..iu. is of irrital>le 
nature at al times, and is conscious of having clone wrong, "accepted 
bribes, an.l prot(,.cte.l others as corrupt as himself. The taunts and 
just accusations of Iin,tm mad.len him. But even 0,>.s/«. must be rep- 
resented as a Roman an.l a man of high position. These are studies of 
grea^ advantage to the rea.ler, and that he may thoroughly conceive the 
whole of the circumstances he shouM read this great of Shakes- 
peare before he attempts to personate the characters ] 




Cans ills. 





T at you have iorou./d^ me' | doth appear in this- 
Ym. have condemn'd and noted Lucius Pella'. 
For taking br^bes^ here | of the Sardians' : 
Wherein my lettors', praying on his side'. 
Because I kne^o the man \\ ^.ere sVufhted' off'. 
You wrong-d yourself | to write' | in such a case. 
In sucli a time as this' \ it is not meeV 
Tliat every | nice^ offence' | should bear Jus comment' 
Let me tell' you', Cassius', you, your.// ~''''' 
Are much condemn'd | to have an iichL^ palrn; ; 
To sel and mart | your offices | for gold' , 
lo undeservers'. 
I an itchinif' palm' .'« 
You know that you are £„*„• «,«( «peak this',' 
Or, by the go,W/ this speech | were else your lasl' ' 
The nam. of Ca'ssius' | honours this corruption 
And chast^ement- | .loth therefore hide 1 iricad' « 

Dil not groat Juhus W.ed' | for>«^/ee" sake'? 
What vdlam^ touch'd his body, that did sf^b', I 
And not for >«<icr' ? What, shall one of „«', 
That struck the foremost man | of all this world', 
But for supporting^ robbers', shall we now 
Contaminate' our fingers | with base bribes', 
And sell the mighty' space of our large honou s' 

I had rather be a dog', and bay the mo^.' 
1 iian such a Boman'. 

• Cassius delivers this speech angrily, as if unjustly used 

2 Bn,tu« replies in a calm and rebukinjr tone 

3 Spoken wi(h passionate forpp -tho )««„ *• 

; %e« ..d H.^t hand upi:! :;;':r;::i::z:;;r^^^^ 

5 This threat is hurled at Bruf us with fierce ener fTy 

•This sentence must be uttered with calm scorn-siowlv,.,,^ * . 
^ An expression of a , a.ement and an^er. the i^rd 'Tn it ^"'^r*"""'"^- 
« Bn,tus ,. ves way now to a di.^nified bur^t o aCr p^s iL fo"' '"'"''^■"• 
ting: contempt from "contaminate" to "thus " ^ " '"°'"«"t '"'« cut- 



«rn on the 






Krutus, fc«y' i;ot me'; 
I'll not eiidnre' it : you forget yourself, 
To hedge me' in' ; I am a soldier\ I', 
Older in practice', aider than yourself | 
To make conditions. 

1" Go to^ ; you are not\ Cassius\ 
I am\ 

I say you are not\ 

Urge me no more\ I nhaW forgpt myself; 

Have mind upon your health', tempt me no furthi',' 
"A\vay\ slight man' 


"Hear' me', for I loilV .y>eak\ 
Must I give way' and room' | to your' rash choler'? 
Shall I ho frighted' il when a madman' stares'? 
1 ' O ye gods, yc gods ! Mmt I endure' all this' ? 
^^AlVthis'? Ay, more'; fret | till your proud heart 6m, A- ; 
(jo, show your «/aw.s' | how choleric you an \ 
And make your hondmea' tremolo. Must I lmd'n>' ? 
Must / observo yon' ? Must I stantl and crouch 
Under your | testy humour ? By the gods 
You sliall digest j the venoni of your spleen', 
Though it do sjdiV you ! for, from this day forth' 
I'll me' you | for my mirth', yea, for my laughter, ' 
Wlicn you are was pisli'. 
Is it como to this'? 
'"You say, you are a better' mldicr' : 
Let it appear so ; make your vaunting true, 
And it rhall please mo well : For mine own part', 
I sliall l)o glad' to leajii' of noble' men'. 

reily andT^Htar " "' '^""'" '" "^'^ ''"•' conte.nptuous. ar.d that of Ca«,i„H quick in 
iJ Not lon.l, but as if 8;K)ljen to him elf with extromc amazeiucnt 
.^ Ilero Brutu. for^ots hi.-nself and .nve. way to in<li,.„ant contcnlpt for Cassit.s 
i» Loud anger. v,.«jo,„.-,. 

'■ •.'*''««ff»SrJBKt.Y : 













■"<« I say better' I" 

Wyoudid'l learcnof." 

When C<^r' livod, He durst not thus havo „,„™, „e' 


What\ dnrst not tempt' him' ? 

T., , ^^'' ^'^"^ ''/«' you durst not. 

J °ofc presume too mucl, upon mv love' • 
I may clo that' I I shall he sorry foV. ' 

You have | done that | you should bo ^om.' for^ 
There is no terror'. Cassius\ in your thr^s- 
For I am arm'd so stror^y^ , in honesty, "^'^ ' 
That they pass by me' | as the idle nr^nd^ 
mnohlrespe^t^^oi^ I did send to you 
For cr^am sums of gold\ whieh you denied me' - 

By any' iruUrcctio.^ , j didCnd^'' ' "" "'' '"* ' 

To lock such rascal counters' | his friends' 
Be re,, ,,^ ^.^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ thunderholts ' 
iJASH him I to pieces' f 

" The fallng inflection on "bettBi." «„ji~.^ - _ 

the answer ^iH be "no." ''«"" '""^"^^^^ *»>- "-U'ance in Cosslus' mind that 

»" txtreino indifference 

,, =' Thl. »„(.„„ „„„ b. m" ^ ' '"" "? '""Mom, •'.» ,.„. can.." 







^^ I denied yon' | uot'. 
You did. 

I did nof : ho was but a fool' 
That brought my answer ! back'. Brutus hath riv'd 

my heart : 
A friend | shall bear a friend's infirmities', 
But Brutus makes mine' \ greater' than they arc'. 
I do nut\ till you pra'ctise' them | on me' 
You love' me | not\ 

I do not like y onv fault.'i. 
Xfriendhf eye' | could never see' ( such faults'. 
AfldttererW would not' | though they do appear' | 
As huge' I as high Olympus'. 
Come, Antony, and young Octavius', | come\ 
Revenge yourselves | 'alone' on Cassius\— 
For Cassius | is au^eary \ of the world' ; 
Hated' I by one he loves' ; brav'd' | by his brother' ; 
Clieck'd' I like a bondman' ; all his faults | observ'd' 
Set I in a note-book', learn'd', and conn'd by rote', 
To cast into my teeth . O, I could weep' \ 
My spirit' I from- mine -e)ye«\'-=^5Tjj^j,^, in my dm/gcr', 
And hero | my - naked - breast' ; within, a heart' ' 
Dearer | than Plutus mine', richer' | than gold' ; 
If I that thou be'st' | a Ro'man', take it forth''; 
I, that denied thee gold', will give my heart' : 
Strike jj as thou didst at Cwsar' ; for-I-know, 
When thou didst hate him' j worst', thou lov'dst him 

Than ever thou lov'dst Cassin^. 

'^'''Sheath' your dagger' ; 
Be angry | when you will', it shall have scope'; 


what you will', dishmour j shall be | hnmor\ 

.onfM. ""'^ '"^"'"^ '"'■' ''' " ''*"'''°"' °' ^'^ '"«*""*'«« »^"t "ot -candid enou h to 
2.; doMvers the beginning of this speech in a coinplaininir fretful tonp Thn 

3* Calmness and miDncpaBivl f>on''e!r"t mnr'- *ha in=-^ ^ -t n ■ i - 

. . t.n.Lu.^.j; rn„r« .,ne mafiiict of Brutus in iJiiii part. 



O .asHins, I yon are yoked | with-a-lamb" I carries anger' | -'^a. the JIM | bears fire ; 
^Alio, mnph enforced', | sliows a hasty spark' 
And straight is cold again. ' 

,,, Hath Cassius liv'd' I 

^o be but nurth^ and laughter' | to his Brutus', 
When gn.f and blood ill-ten^per'd, vexeth lL"> 
Whon I spoke tut', J was ill-temper'd too\ " 

Do you confess .. nmch' ? Give me your h . ,T 
And my ^imrf too ^ "niS' '. 

O, Brutus ' - 

TT , ^""^^'liat's th. matter? 

Have you not love enough to bear with me, 

^hen that rash humor | which ..y mother gave n,e 
Makes me forgetful' ? ' 

When yon ar., over-ean. .t> with your Br.m^, 
He h thmk I your mother^ chides\ and leave you | .v\ 

27 The simile musf, .0 !-fl„,j fiatpr fho, -j, i-i. T "^ "^ ' 

illustrates swiftness of acti.-.n. ^' *'"' ' ^^« '''«'^1 Part because from its nature it 

and in the above io.taWVlu" -uc^Sn of Bn.'h.t' 7' "" ">«,e''Pr«8sion is .i e StTuidl 
-ther than u ..,,,.y ; 'jj^^'^^ SS^^S;i'Si;L£-£;. ^^ 









::^ :» 




him' ? 


gave mo, 

ou I ,so\ 

ts nature it 

the speaKer 
best fe'uide, 
t": / surprise 


[IxTRODrcTiON.— The following scene from the "Hunoiihack," !>>• 
James Slieritlan Knowles, presents another foim of dramatic poetry. 
MuHler Walter, the Ilniichhack, is the father of Ju/Ut ; but for certain 
reasons she has been kept in ignorance of the relationship. Juria had 
been betrotlied with the consent of her gr .rdian, the Ilinuhhack, to Sir 
Thoriuis Clifford ; but a quarrel estrantfed and separated tlie lovers. In 
the rashness of anger Julhi accepts the oft'ei- of another suitor, and then 
repents. In the selected extract she appeals to the Iluuchhavk to aid 
her in escaping the approaching nuptials. Jn the commencement of the 
scene the passion of JulU. is vehement and overwhelming, and rises to 
its height in the words, " Do it !" ; and the expression has become fam- 
ous, as the "Hereafter" of Lady Marh/'t/i, in <lramatic elocution. She 
then breaks down under the weiglit of her misery, and passes from 
anger to repentance and tears.] 

Julia. ' The lionr's at liand that brings my bridegroom home ! 
No rohitive to aid me ! friend to counsel mo ! 
He that should guard me is mine enemy ! 
Constrains me to abide the fatal die, 
My rashness, not my reason cast ! 
What's to he done ? 

Stand at the altar in an liour from this ! 
An hour thence seated at his board— a wife' 1 
Thence I— frenzy's in the thouglit ! What's to be done ? 

Enter Master Walter, 

Walter. \Asi(le) What ! run the waves so high ? Not ready yet' \ 

Your lord \ will soon be here ! The guests collect. 
Jrdia. ''Show me some way to 'seaj)e these nuptials ! 

Some opening | for avoidance or escape, — 


1 Julia be^ms in low, tremulous tones ; but at the words "What's to be done " her 
despair becomes more passionate and louder in its utterance. "" Thence " is a question, 
au if she said, "Thence into what misery ? " 

'.' Master Walter heara her, unperceived, lie addresses her oalnily and with atjparent 
indifference, ^'iving, however, an iroiiicrJ expression to "lord." 

a Vehement passion marks the action and speeches of Julia until she reaches the em- 
phatic " Do it." " Listen to me and heed me " is 8i)ol<en with imperative enerfry. The 
reader must be careful that this excess of passion does not become extravagant. It 
must never pass into rant, but be marked by a dignity which coran)ands resoect and 
excites sympatli) . ..... 


I 131 

JiUia. ■ 




Or to thy charge I'll lay a brokoa heart 1 
ur t-ist) a mind distraught I 

What's this'? 

T TY. t^^^ ' J. ^^^ strait 

Im faUen into, my patience cannot hear 1 

It nghtH my reason-warps n.y sense of virtue. 
Religion ! changes me into a thing, 
I look at with abhorring ! 

Listen to me. 
Listen to me, and hcecC me I If this contract 

Thou hold-st me to -abide thou the result- 
Answer to heaven for what I suffer ^-act / ' 
Prepare thyself for such calamity 
To fall on me, and those whose evil stars 
Have hnk'd them with luo', as no past mishai,. 
Hovever rare, and marvellously sad 
Can parallel ! : Lay thy account to hve 
A smileless life, die an unpifcied death- 
Abh<,rr'd abandon'd of thy kind,-as one 

Look 1 " f ''^"^^' "' ^ y°""» ^^^^^^^ P--«er- 
Look d on, and saw her rashly peril if 

And when she saw her danger, and confess'd 


■'Another moment, and I have 

Bo warn'd ! Beware | how you abandon me 

To myself ! Vm young, rash, inexperienCd ! tempted 

By most insufferable rmWy / ^■ 

Bold, desperate, and reckless ! Thou hast age 

Experience, wisdom, and coUectedness,- ' 

Power, freedom,-everything that / have not, 

Yet want as none e'er wanted ! Thou canst save me 

IlHa,r ^' / thou Musx I I tell thee at his feel ' 

1 11 tall a cor.c-ero be his wedded bride ! 

flection w more natural. i„ hoth instances his fc^**-* ^T"""'"^' '^"*' »»'« fa lin* in 

; This Hpeeeh is worthy of careful studv ^f • '' ? " "" ''''' '^°'" ''"^-••• 

lofty and wnimanding delemTnation il^rvoV^'T*'''"' ^"* "«* hoisterous rose A 
•«isery,",nustn,aikitidelive™ °"' »^"'«'«1 by an expre«Mon of "Jmu^Tabie 





So clioose I betwixt my resme and my grave •- 
And quickly too ! The hour of sacrifice 
Is near ! Anon | the immolating priest 
Will summon me ! Devise son,e means 
lo cheat the altar of its victim. Do it ! 
Nor leave the task to me ! 

Hast done' ? 

rri ,. ^ . * I have, 

llien list to me— and silently', if not 

With patience.- C;,rr,.j/,s- chalr./or himself and her ) 
How I watch-d theo from thy childhood, 
I'll not recall to thee. Thy father s wisdom- 
\Miose humble instrument I was-directed 
\our nonage should be pass d in privacy, 
From your apt mind that far outstripp'd your years, 
Fearmg the taint of an infected world ;— 
For, in the rich grounds, weeds once taking root, 
Grow strong as flowers. He might be right or wrong ' 
/ tliought him right ; and therefore did his bidding 
Most certainly he lov'd you- so did I ; 
Ay ! w^ell as I ha<l been my,elf | your father ! 

head!) '""'''''■"^■■^ '^-^'"'^-^ ^'i her -she hangs her 

Well, you may take my hand ! I need not say 

How fast you grow in knowledge, and in goodnoss,- 

That hope could scarce enjoy its golden dreams 

bo soon fulfilment realized them all ! 

Enough. You came to womanhood. Your heart 

Pure as the leaf of the consummate bud, 

Thafs new unfolded by the smiling sun. 

And ne'er knew blight nor canker I 

(Julia attempts to place her other hand npon hi. ,hoiddrr 
aXT ■" "' hcr-sui hangs her tZ 


liiiii. Wo came to town ; 
■ aattcr Humijioucd tlicnc(3, 



Wail, .: 





Six Til REAin:;:. 

When a good woman 

Is litly mated, she grows d<n\h\y good, 

How good 8oe (T before ! .1 found the man 

I thought a matcli for theo ; an<l, soon an found, 

Proposed him U) thee. 'Twas your father's will, 

Occasion offering, you should be married 

Soon as you reached to womanliood - you liked 

My choice-j-ftP' { ^.i 

\N'here, by S.n,'! . n 

I left you an nnitmcjd bride 

Yon did, 
You did ! {leans lier hcail upon her hand and weepa.) 
Nay, c-lieck thy tears ! l^vX judgment^ now', 
Not passion', be awake'. On u.^, . „urn, 
I found tliee—what ? I'll not describe the tliinfj 
I found tlieo then ! I'll not describe my pangs " • 
To seo theo such a thin<' ' 
(falling on her knees) O pardon me ! 
Forgive mo ! pity me ! 

Eesumo thy seat. (raises\er) 
I pity the<!' ; perhaps not ihee alone 
li fits me sue for pardon 

^lo alono ! 
None other ! 

But to vindicate myself, 
I name thy lover s stern desertion of thee. 
What wast thou then with wounded pride ? A thing 
To leap iuLo a torrent ! throw itself 
From a precipice ! rush into a fire ! I v iw 
Thy madness— knew to thwart it were to chafe it— 
And humour'd it to take that course, 1 thought. 
Adopted, lo'st twoidd rue ' 

' Twas wisel}' done. 
At least 'twas for the best ! 

T<. hlame thee for it, 
Was &ddin;r .sliame to shame ! But, dear Master 

I.i there no way to escai the«' imptialri ? 

■■^SBil '" '".: 








'tialH comes t Hast thou forgot ? 


II ''alter. 



Know'st not 
Wliat w'itli thcHC i 
Wlmt ? 

Notliing !— J .lid tell thee of a thing. 
Wliat was it ? 

To forget it was a fault ! 
Look back and think. 
(trying to recollect) I can't remember it. 
{aside) FatJiers, make straws yciur children ! 

nothing ! * 

Blood nothing ! So ; yon have forgot 
Yoii have a father, and are here to meet him ! 
I'll not dfny it. 

You should blush for't. 

No ! NO : hear, :Jast(;r Walter ! what's a father 
That you've not been to mc ? Nay, turn not from me, 
For at the namo | a holy awe; I own, 
That now ahu t inclines my knee to earth ! 
But tliou to me, except a father's name', 

Hast all the father been ; the care — tho love 

The guidance - -the protection of a father. 

Canst wonder, then, if like thu child I feel',— 

And feeling so, that father's clixinx foryd 

Whom ne'er I know, save by the name of one ? 

Oh, turn to mo, and do not chide me' ! or 

If thou M'ilt chide, chide <m ! but turn to me ! 

(atrtKjgling ivifh emotiom My Julia ! 

Now, dear Master Walt r. hear mo ! 

Is there no way to 'scapt these imjitialu ? 


A 2)romi8e made admits not of release, 

Save by consent or forfeiture of those 

Who hold it so it sh. uld be pondered well 

Before we I t t go. Kre man shoul ly 

I broke the word I had the power to ke< ] ' 

I'd lose the hfe I had the pow('r to part with 1 

Tlemeral)er, Julia, thou and I to-day 

Must CO thy father of thy training rt nder 




SIXTH Ri,JAJ,i:ii_ 

A strict account. Whilo honour^, left to rW 
^e J..ave somethi^uf-nothiny, having alt I (,[( tha- 
W lor thy iHHt act of ohclionce, .J.Uia 1 "' 

Present thyself More thy bri.Io«roon/! (./. o^scrAs, 
Mv Tnlt '"^"; ' '": '""'' "''"*'•'' '" ^"M Good ! ' 

Or hold thou boun(l\ Tluj/atha- will U by / » 


ened overv encrLn- I nf n r,^^, i i , ^^^^oi"tion | that quick- 
.aye,, «.e. Jilt! I'l l^^: i JI To/ 1 :" -nfTir, '""'r 

iXTiKihurrioy, « 

l«lKoa no criteri,,,, | |,ut «„cco„.' -|,„ wnrshipp,,! „„ „,„, ,„,. 

o ;;■:;;,;.:;■:' t", ""/■""'•- """■«"■■■• "■•'-■" ■" ""■ -h 

dM .o r . ;V"'""''"J' "^ ""■'■ 'l"To «-a„ „„ e.-a,„l that 1,„ 

, . °' " ')'™"». '■" l'"""! I'ofoio tlK. Cross ; ll,., o,,,!,, „ „f st 
Lou,» ,0 becamo tl.o a,l„,,t,,,l of u,, ro m.hlic • ,v tl, t 

pa«.c. a i.,,.atU„,U.. „„ t„o ..„i„., of .„,„ t'l:! tow ! ' 

mac, 1 o reared tho throne of l,i„ <lo„potisn,. A nrofo,,. 1 
X rthi 'M"""""'""' "'" ''"'"■ ^ '' P-tendo.l,,atrio'.h:ta 

clown^ln.i*''' ""•■' '''■""""""'<= "f 1'" P"lioy, fortnno played tl,e 

of 1, » wh,n,s ; „n,l all that was venerable, and all that wan 
novel chan«ed places with tl,e rapidity of a ,lran,a. F.len an 
parent defeat asMun,.,! the appearanee of vietory-his Hi..h fro , 

ent .locsion Hashed npou l„s eonusela ; ami it was the same to 
docdo and to perforn,. To inferior inUaieets, his eo ,l,i . t ions 

hut, m Is hands. »,n,phe,ty n,arl(e,l their development, and sne 
cess vnahcated their a,lopti„u. His person partook of the 01"": 
aeterot h.snnnd; if the one never yiehlcl in the caM^.t 1 
oil er never iH.nt „. the fleld. Nature had no ohstacles hat lo 
d.d not ,„r„,„unt space no opposition that h. ,lid not spnrn 1 
and wl,eth,.r an„d Alpine rocks', Arabian', or i„lar sLo;,- 
he seemed proof against peril, and empowered w th uWrty 
rho whole eontment of Kurope tren>hle.l at heholding the anda 
c.ty of h,s des,«ns an,l the „,ir,acle of their execntion. Scent", I howed ,„ the prodigies of his perh.rn.anee ; ron«nce 
assumed the a,r of history; nor was there anght tio ,W«Ub ■. 

subaltern of Corsica | w,av,n,. his imperial Hao | over her most 
ancent capitals. All ti.e visions of anti<,„ity 1 1 came omntn 
places ,nh.s contemplation; ki..., were bis peiple | nationTwre 




■S/.V7'// READL-Zt. 

'"" ""li"»*"»; au,l 1,0 <Ii„i,„«.,l of e„„rf-' 

™mi«', ,xu,i eJ.urchos', a,„l cabinc.V a^ f m "™"'''' ""'1 

■liKnitari, „ „r tl,. d,,.»L.l,„u,.r ' '"'^ "■"■" "'" «'"'"' 

«"«.:l::n»rlt^:,;:'rr:;,':'; ^'-''■'""""•^''■' - »"•■"-'• 

iron erown-baniJ.;;' Xj;™;^- '-J-"'-. '«-t or tho 

--- U.0 «.w„ o, .o.,.o-r r r ;;: z::-!s- 

forsook a Wo,,,!, o,- ro,.,.ot a vou ' ' ,"i •',";.' ' '"' '"""' 

tioii was for til,. »af,.tv of ,l„.i,. f 't'"' ■""' ''"'"■ fcrst Htiimla- 
if 1.0 .as lavish ;f 2: , 1 "„ "'''';'.'"-, ''■'"■>' "•■" """' 

soldior, ho «,„,„i,|i.,., .,; "^ ' " " '■"' ""!' ;''«"■'.-•. For tho 
Pti-lo i,ay ,,.,7,„/., Th,. XL 1 ' -, '" "";.^""'''' • '"' ■"■"lo„ 

'•■:-'''■« «u.i..i, «o,,;rr:>'r r;;,iit':;.:i'' ''''^ «"'-- 

.......atoro ,„otroi,oli„ of tho „„iv,.rs,. , ,, '"'•,'"""'»"' "'"„. his affoctatio,, of Iit,.rat ,«;,„'/ "'""'""'"'"' ™■"'■'• 
moh'V of tho pros,', he air,.c. .,1 , , " '"' "'"'"'"'• 'i'''" 

-i.« of z.^.., i.o'\:!: J ';^r ;;;;:"'■ '""'''"•■ "■"•- 

a>.U,or,., a„,l tho nmr,h.,,.r ol „ri, t ' ^^^ "'" l"''-'"«"t,.r of 

patrouago of l,.ar„i„^; th,. l,,f V „'"■*"''"'' '" "'" 
Staa,a,„lti,o.lo„o„„ocrof K,r r ' ""'' ""^■''<^'-''- »( Do 

tho l«„.,(aotor of D L II tu ""f '•' '"'"' '"" '""'"' "' ""'''. 

piuiosophor of Ehgia,,!;:"'; ' ,' : „ :;7'™f r'^- ^ '"- 

at tho sanio ti,„o suoh an i„,livi I, ■* "' ™"f»^l"tiot,», a„.l 

"■■itoa in tho sa„,o cha a! .'•'::: i::;"r'^'"T;. ^'-" "™- 

o.nporor'-a Jlahon.otanN a t ,tl,ol .^ «l>"l.l.can', ami a„ 

goguo'-a traitor' an,l a t v™t' V , ", '""■■"" '"' "'" "y""" 
was, tl.,„„yh all hi, v,d^stlr ,.■'"■"' '""' "" '■'"■'"'-ho 
floxihlo ori«i,,al-tho .rj , n^^^^^^ "'"■'■ '"'1-"""'. i"- 

tho .„a„ withoot a mo,i I a, ,\ " "' "r',""""'""""''" """- ' 
1"» lifo, ha.110,1 all sp , ;.t- " i': ' V '•"'""'• «■'• "'• '«<" 
like a .Iroan. to tho vvorU , ^^1^;:^^ "'*'■' "'"' 
W.W awakeuo,! from tho rovorio. '"™ "■■ ^''5' ''o 

ixrnonrvrfoN. r- 

t«" ', L Urn 1,. '" "'"'''"Y «'" 1«"1.1.': M.0 ;„„,/. aro 

from tl.o /ay..,s/. ^'''""' ^^ "'"' '^'"' ^"•-''•"<'-' "»^-m 

— CiiarleH Philli^M. 

<»» .v.. ,.r. ,:,', ...h";::; .:^ r L 2r,;:"::,7"T "' "■ ■■ """■ '•' "- " 

faKllni. llm.i „ «,„ ,„ ,. ^ ., , , ' „"' ''> " "'"K """n, onant »„„|.. 

■^o «^. ,»™..„„ ..:.::, r,:s,:i;irr ■■;"';:>,.""" ■ - 

P««.v« I before. tlwU-.W,>«,//,/. ,, r„w,-,,,, i„.,,, , , , '"- "'-^""''"MSc- limy -now 

HIH-ocl, a.,o„n.I.s in antithotinal ito.Jn^Z.^T''"'''''' ' '""•"^•'"'•" '^'- 

e:wh ,o,n,.„ «,„.je,t ends wi^r r 1 '""""^ ''CRimunj,'. " A mi,,,! hoUl," &.• . 
tion to each >»bjcet a^ if a , ' J'^ , " i"'" *•'""" " '"'•*''"' f"^- ""•' '"^t'"'- 

on ".Icd^ive.- ■•,|i,.tafes " and "ov.w.ii, ' ' "*''' """'' ''»-' """^tai'-ed 

only .//,/,. down on tbese "uon ,.::;;, ^ ':"'"; ^^ "". ''">' "--•"'«<' --. : it 
groups of subject, are brought to^luTJ^;! "■ ""-""••^'•'"" '" ' -«- ^Vb. „ 

falling influotion ; a., " a mya ist " ,. n "'"' "'."'"*""'' "'" »'^""'»"-»te, takes a 

thcrefcru the prceoUinK '^ubM-t •' ■, tl ta "r T' »»'-'--l-"clu.ce, 

cations aro not absolntdy n c . ar t ev !;:: T "f "'""'"'"■ '"'^ "'"'"«• 

and are ob.sen cd in the b„he.t fonnJ o e, i i,; " , ^t? r'"'^' *" "? """"^'• 
-. ;.HuC,.e. and ... a. left un.a.. to e.r^ l^^:;;;--;; ^ ^ 

e*erds«d i« thin Uq,vr.u.cnt. "' '^""'"* "' "'" '^■'^^•'- *« "•f""' to »>« 




^»/- ./.,,;.,«^, and ill: : r;: ;;7'''"-'; - '^- ^^^o,,, ^ w,.' 

CWV«m Ah.o/ute. i},.t thJTw .1 ^"T"' "'"' ^^^'''" «''-^Ji "'any 

^W;« Z....,,,,, ,.,j faL ,nt: "' • ,"" 'i '"■«""' '"""^ "^ 

lovers are ignorant of the intentio a o \ ■ '"''' "*''''"- ^^« ^^o 

-Kl perplexities M-hieh attl d Z r f 7 I "*'^"' *^" ^••^"*^'^'«'-- and to evade the nn . .:^ . " 'f ^ *^ ^"^-^ t'-i'" "'"tnal 
the humor of the nlav v . , ., '''^'""'^ eontrih„te Jan^clv to 

^Vhen the poH.iti,,ty of oZoZ v hi '! "\'^''^'"^ ^^'*'' ''•« '-"-• 

he dare!-No. no Mrs. Muhnno J "ek ^/''J^"*'^" '- '«' ^im object if 
P"ts me in a frenzy directly Mvt *'"* "'^ ^''''' ''-*"""• 

- their younger day. 'T as iTT T .''''''' ^'^^^^ ^'-P'*-- 
k"ockedhinnlo.n--Lulifhe;Vnn 1 ;,:;;'? r,^ ''« ''•»""-'. I 
of the roon.." The scene in wh * ' f"'' / ""'">'« ^"'^ I'"" out 

riage to /«,!• is Hch in it« hnmo / ^""f ^"//-'"^t P-1 uses the „,ar- 

Yy ^vHo.u hi. .uher ha:^:;:ri f:::^:;;x:f'-'' ': ''- --y 

«ho really is. j/,.,. j/„f„„,„,, ■ ,.' '"' ^^f - »^«t .loes not know who 

-OHt ingeniously misapp Cit . t "T "' '"" "^"- "«^'-* --'« 
I'er nan.e. 8he has moved n 1 11 . '^ '»'«prononnce.l. "' Hence 

best language without u.ulersta di " ir"1^:,"'?'" "'" ^"^^ ^''^^'^ *'- 
co-n-ctly used in one irZ ,?„':'"' ''"'^'^ ^^'^^^ '^ ^-'^ -.,rd 
i-iuiclcer to catch a line ^^I:^l^r:i:T:T''-T' '' ''" ^' 
properly .she contributes largely to t. /T^ '' *° ^^^P'^ '* 

-"A"V>'v>/.o. habits of speed, ), ,'";"'"' "' *''« «<-*-"- ''y her 

"•ece for " wanting to lavlh h^rselV o n ffir'^'^ "''"« ^^''^''-.g her 
f"'l« in love with'.'a t.dl Iri" 1: L^' v"";"* ""'' "^ «'''"'"«•" 
-.^ies on a kind of correspondence :M,,t.£rf'^'''r^' '^"^ 

is the writer. The following i 1 /f H "T'; ' ^'^""^'^ '^'^' ^-'^'/'« 
love-stricken .V... .V./„; .^Z J ^L "/ 'f f V'^'" ^ ^"'^'' ^1- 

/'«/> sends to the deluded ,S'i> Lucius — 

iii's comedy 
^y Almolute, 
of fortuue. 
ai my ; and 
'••ill nmrry 
et, Captain 
ed name of 
>•• As the 
"* iimtnal 
laryely to 
t generous 
Ills name, 
snggestc d 
objpot if 
st demur 
simple — 

lllllTfMJ, I 

liini out 
the niar- 
tlie very 
now wlio 
't wor<l8 
eaid the 
iig word 

her ear 
^pply it 

hy her 
'Hg her 
?/•, and 
laine of 

eh the 
cius ' — 

lyTRODucriox. (jg 

"Sir, -There is often a sudden incentive impulse in love, that has 
a greater mduction than years of don>estic combination : such was 
the comn^otjon I felt at the first supe.Huous view of Sir Lucius O'Trig- 
ger.-Female punctuation n>e to «ay : yet let me a.M that 
It wdl gne me joy infallible to lind ,SV. Luriu. worthy the last criterion 
of my affections. -Dklia." Sir L,aiu. ol«crv es " that she is agreat uns- 
tress of language ;-thougl, she is rather an arbitrary writer, -for here 
are a great many poor words pressed into the service of this note that 
woubl get then- hahc.,^ rorj>u. from any court in riuistendun.." Kead 
J/r«. Ma/aprop'. parts with an air of superior .lignity and self conceit, specal cn.phasis to the ma/.a-propos words both as evidence of 
assun.ed knowle.ige an.l for the Immor of the blunders. Sir Anthonu 
If .oughly courteous, conscious of the pretensions of J/,-.. Muhpro,>, vet 
wdhng to treat her as a lady.] '^ 

Mrs. Mai. Thore. Sir Autiiony., tlun-o sits tho deliherato ,imple. 
toH^ wlio waut.s to .li.sgraco family, and 
herself on a fellow not worth a slnlllnyj 

Lydla. Madam, I thon^lit you once 

Mrs. Mai. »You thought, n.iss ! I dont know any husinoss you 
have to think at a//-thou«ht docs not become a 
young woman.* IJut tho i)„int wis would roqucHt of 
you i.s, that you will proniis- t<. for,j,t this f(>llow • 
to ilUteratc him I say, quite from your memory. 
"Ah, madam I ou) memories arc independent of our 
wills. It is not so easy to forget. 

Mrs. Mai. «But I say it is, miss ; there is nothing on earth so 
easy as to forget, if a person chooses to set about it. 
I'm sure I have as'nmch forgot your poor dear 
uncle as if he had j.m-r existed— ami 1 thought it 
my duty so to do ; and lot mo tell you, Lydia, these 
violent momorieii don't become a young woman. 

s Read this with an air of Kicat .superiority aii.t very <h Ml-ciatoly 





mcut.» for any o„„ " ' t , '. '"' ''"''"• 

' ^^^'^^ ^" matrimony to beuin with n liffi 
aversion. I am 8urn T l,nf i ^ "**^^ 

sot ,„ „„,^„„ arc «c.n.,il,l„ ,vhat a wife I ^L, ', 

Jimi, tw ui,ku,„vn «liat k.are I rf,e,I . n„f 
POJ.. we .„„ g„i„,, ,„ ^.^^ ,.„„t «~ eLTo^" 
«.ll you promise „„ to (;ivo „p thi, Beverley? ' 

iiesn and iiKliflTcrenfo it < ~~ ~" ■ 

^ "This ^,H;e..|, tt^ain (liko r.i„„VH.r m T ^^ ^ '"■•''""* "'"'"iA'ation. 


Mrs. Mai 


Mrs. Mai. 
Sir J nth. 

Mrs. Mai. 
Sir Anth. 

Mrs. Mai. 
Sir Anth. 

Mrs. Mid. 
Sir Anth. 


Could I belia my thoughts ho far qs to give that pro- 
nnse liiy uctiouH would certainly as far belie my 
words. ^ 

Take yourself to your room.- You arc fit con.pauy for 

uotlung hut your own ill-humours. 
'■'Willingly, ma'am-I cannot tlmnge for the worse. 

There's a httle intricate hussy for you ! 

''It is not to he wondered at, ma'am.-all this is the 
natural consequence of teaching girls to read, llud 
1 a thousand daughters, l\\ as sooii have them 
taught the black art^" as their alphabet \ 

Nay, my, Sir Anthony, yuii are an absolute misan- 

lu my way hither. Mrs. Malaprop, I observed your 
niece s maid coming forth from a circulating library ' 
-She had a book in each hand- they were hab- 
bomul xoluuH^, with marble covers !--Froni that 
moment I gues«ed how full of duty I should see he r 
niistress !'^ 

Those are vile places, indeed ! 

Ma.Iau., a circulating library in a town is as an ever- 
^re(m tn^e of diabolical knowledge : It blossoms 
tluough the year !-And dep.n<l on .t, Mrs. Mala- 
prop, timt they who are so fond of handling the 
leaves, will long for the fruit at last. 

Wl' "^^r^"' ,^"*''"">' • ><^" •'^"^•••'v «I»'ak laconically. 
>Miy, Mrs. Malaprop, in moderation now, what would 
jou have a woman know ? 

'=' Contemptuous to„e „„d an i„,lig„ant toss of tho bead. ~" 

o^k!r^'A,U,Zl «fr^'& JSuSV^S::;:^:"'^'^'''' °" '- ^^^y^- TLo re,nai„i.jf «,H,eches 
»« " Netcoiiiancy." This 

*rt' The «,u„e n.iHtuKe ocrum..l iii |-Wh but In J th , "' "' '"<ani.,;^ " the hlark 
was restore*! frtMu the oriKiiial Greek ' ""' '"'Jfi^aKi-'^ the correct xjK.lling 

" Sfco Noie 7. 



M,:. Mai. ■'0;--.e,SirA„th„„,. I .clc, by no „ea„. „i.,. 

don t tl„„k «o m,,ch loaruin„ b.con,c» a younR «'o. 
man; for „,„t,.„oc, I ,voul,l nov.r kt Ikt ■„c,l.Uo 
with Greek, or Hebrew, or .feebra, or si,„o„v, 

b anel, "?'■ '" ■""'"'"™' " ""^'' •"^<™"-'<'- 

ITbe r ''■"■;""■«— "I- »oul.l it be noeessary 

for bcr to I,a,,„l„ any of your matbematieal, astro. 

I wouT • ""f "' '-'■■"-"»-~Bnt. Sir Antbony, 
I woul.1 send ,„r, at „i„e years oW, to a bourding- 

a tfie:. "' '•^''•^'" '«"•» - 'i«U, ingenuity and 

k m!l . ■"• ""■• "''" ''''°"''' ''"■™ -^ ""l-rcilions 

kno-» edge n, aeeounts ;-and as she grew nn, I 

™, bave ber instrneted i„ geometry, that"^. be 

-but alK>ve all. S,r Anthony, she should be mistress 

of orthodoxy. tn.t she might not mis-spoll. and „r 
pronounpe wo. s so shamefully as usually do; 
an... hkewise that she n.igbt rq.reben.l the true 

8 wl a I wouW have a won,a« know ;-anrt I don- 
Sir AnU, »W TV " ""?=■•««"'"« article in it. 

A,Uk. We well Mrs. Malaprop, I wi„ dispute the point no 
further w.tb you ; though I must eonte.,s that you 

_ ___ Sheridan. 

she given wrong naim h. St.enir h . 7'f ''"-"PI"'" es, an.l^cial! v :.n hose (o whi '. 
charjue to «n affectation of m,,. ri" r w Xm as j 1 . i.*'", "'T'""^''^ ^f"" ""'"'"«'• "' "uU 

oir ^n/Aon// mean, sarcasm and cr.urtfously o.v,,re8.sos it 

Refcmnj, to the fact that -ahnoHt every third • word is .nisap.Wed by hor. 

leans wihh 
mrning; I 
young wo- 
cr ine(l('Io 
' simony, 

'al, astro- 
nity and 
iw up, I 
that slie 
juntries ; 
and niis- 
ifilly do ; 
ihc true 
I don't 

point no 

liat you 


of tilt) 




1* for the 

*o which 
'" on tho 
-T should 
I— which, 


ox MV .MoTHKirs PKTl'RRi 

"ol.le, cve„ roy .ill. ' r ^'''^f'r ^"^ '»-'--f"-. JIo was „f 

I)ni.licupp.Jtruncout r ,• ?tin f ""f Y^ ■*'"■";'«'' '•'•«'^'' "^ '^ 
ceive<lt/.iuppoi„t„.cnto/: e.i Fn ' ^nl j'^i^,!^^;^ )' "iTKr 
Unwiu, Jit OliK'v iiii(l..r fl... ....ct •-«>•) to h 80 lie livod with Mrs.^?rw>rk3 In rs . '^'f'";" I'o >»egan to pro<I,.c« 

ana shortly If tcr;;^r^po,u".i-" !:T^;u^'' ?[./ '^^^^ '^' ^'•^-•'" 
ponnhitioii." ()„t c,f a 8torv tnl.l l.i... . ' i ''^'»'«- ''^'k," an.I •' Kx- 
«f "Joh., (^Ipit./- M' icrmJe in. ^^ Jf ly AuHt... .row the l«lla,l 

alHo i..,leht.i fJr th! ,^ U " f -'"lie ^l^?' '"!'' f" 'l'"- '^^ -'^^ 
imnic from the nlavfnl in-mnMr 1 • • ■^' ■"■'"''' "l>tuined itH 

nun ' were pnhhslicl in ITS". ,i..,i i) '"<-.»•'«''« an<l tlie " Jirocm- 

-.pi«.i witi! .1,0 .li, '. i ';• ' r'„ 1 '.r- I'rji ■^"'i;!' ""t- ''■-"y - 

ventionality forme i a 1 h ' ^ f "aturoan.l froe.Iom from con- 

school, an.l^pa^^T he w vA '^thrh^^^i^^^ T'"' "r'i ''^ ''"i>" '^'«» his 
break of the J<Vend reSutioi , !?'"™ '1'''l' ^"""^^"-^ ^'^e out- 
th.c precursor of Scot^ Wo d wo /a "^^ mf,::^ «"'^^ ^'^'^^f- -- 

lunjrrai.hy, Harriet nn I iVcr.lV^ v;^nw r Vln f f ''I""''- f'-|^'.:"e>>tl.v in CWpcr's 
To the former, under better i now n^n.^r/u'? 'cl^.r "^ '"" '''*'''^'-''' brother. 

of the 17th century. " ' '"'!^'^'' •>> ""« <>' them in I he heainiiinK 


t'AXA/J/Ay f"\l>t:K. liOi,K 


O at thoso|,.shH<| ,....,,,,: UU,,,^ , 

V ith ,..<. I.ut roughly .i,„e 1 ,,,,,,, t,,,.^ jjj , 
n-s. 1.,. ,,. „„•„,. ,,,^, ^,^^.,^ ^^^^^^ ^^^.^^ ^ 

n." Huna, timt oft in ..hil,||.o<Kl hc»Iu.-,.,I „... • 

Gnev. not, my d.iM. clu.o all thy fear,; away.'- 


(Hlest 1,0 lh<. an that ,..„ iininortalis,. 
Th« art that hafH.s Ti,n<. s tyranni. c.lain. 
To it !),,,, ,,,i,^,,, ,,,^ ,,,,. ^^.^^ 

faithful i(.iiitMnl..-«„r,.r of ono so dear 

welcon.o ^uest, thou;,di u„„x,,e<.te,l hor. • 
VV ho hidst n,o honour with an nvX\,m son^^ 
Am.ct,onatn,« a nioth.-r lost so Jong, 

1 will ol.oy, not willingly alon(>," " 

lint gladly, as U,„ proc^pt w.-ro'luM- own ; 


Tiroffmu..'. and especially t,,- ^t^L Lut X'.T" "■"'" """ ™"''^'- »«" hi' 
twcH..n°uU';"^'I,Cl'ru„dr'''"" "^ ^""^'- ''"•-' "■""='' ''»"'"' i« "codcl ^s a cushion he 

Tf ^ K.^Rrlr^S.S^'^S^llrr 7'^"" '« '^"-■'--.t .. ..otherwise ■ 
Chaucer'«(,-an(erhury Ta'x>8nin'M.S8^7 : '' "''• "''"'''"'""•^l »« a monosylkblMn 

other/" '"'=''" -"^- -- "H^inallv the Ken'itlvo'L.Ku.arof the adjectiv. ./ 



And whil.. face renew., .^y fili„| ^rief, 
Fancy sh.iil weave a rhuiin.o f,„. ,„^. ,.^,,j,,f^ 
Shall steep m> [n Klysian" reverie, 
A inonientHry (Ireuin, that thou art .- 

My mother! when 1 leurne.l thaf f ^vast .lea<l, 
Say, wast thou cuusciouH of the U^ai shed ? 
H. vered thy spirit ., er thy sorrowing son, 
VVretnh even then, life'H journey juHt hegun?>» 
f'-rhaps thou gav'st nie, thouKh unfelt, a kiss • 
J'erhaps a tear, if souls can weep in hliH8»«— ' 
Ail, that maternal smile .'—it an wers— Yes 
I iicard the hell tolled" on thy l>urial day, 
I «aw tin; hear-se that bore the<, slow iway, 
And, turnin- fn.m my nurser „low, drew 
A Ion-, long sigh, and wept u adieu ! 




'^'^'-''' ""'"■"«-' *<"'"*""t our cliariiifsut will •» 

t.n,.l...ll™. I, retainers -. " liTta T^onS "?'"",'i-,' "■"■■«" ^t.';'™''!, 

H < • .wper U.OH thl8 verb c-orreotlvin \ i Z '^ """"'' ""'"^P *"'"** '"■•'»»•" 
but thU ^se is .norc irene a irSrn ^^7*^^' ""T = '' '''"««'«^'- intransitively 
•'Heniy V./>ai..rusli,,cl6, mXesill, ?^^^ m lorinfr times. Shnkcstxare in 

" The c«u„try ...K-k« ,1 , .-row the l.^ks i r^Jo ' •" Th""^'' '"■""■*"»^ " '" ^<'""" " = 
was to "entic-o ' or -'draw" ; ti.o use of t e in ^^^ ""»''""'' ""'"nii.^r „f "toll" 

•'V\hen hollow miiriimrs of the evenin.r holi- 







1^ {{2.8 



II =^ 



If K 

£ 1^ 


»4 u 






55^ '65J Eost Mcin Street 

Zr^Z Rochester. New York 14609 USA 

'^=i (716) 482 - 0300- Phone 

^= (716) 288- 5989 -Fax 



. 1 


But was it sucli?^' — It was. — Where thou art gone 
Adieus and farewells are a sound unknown. '•> 
May I but meet tliec; on that peaceful shoro, 
The parting won! sliall pass my lips no more ! 
Thy maidens, grieved tliemselves at my concern, 
Oft gave me pronjise of thy ({uick return; 
What ardently 1 wi.shed, 1 long believed^ 
And, disappointed still, was still''' d(!eeived ; 
r>y (expectation every day beguiled, 
J)upe of t(j-morrow even from a child. ^^ 
Thus many a sad to-morrow came and went, 
Till, all my stock of infant sorrows spent,'" 
I leiirned at last sul)mi8si()n to my lot, 
But though I less dei)lored thee, ne'er forgot. 

Where once wejdwelt our name is heard no more,'" 
( hildren not thine have trod my nursery floor; 
And where the gardener Kobin, day by day, 
Dre\v-me to school along the j)ublic way. 
Delighted witii my bauble coach, and wrapped 
In scarlet mantle warm, and velvet capped, 
'Tis now become a history little knowji. 
That onc(i we called the pastoral house our own.-*' 
Short-lived possession ! But the record fair, 
That memory keeps of all thy kindness there. 
Still outlives many a. storm, that has effaced'^' 
A thousand other themes'''^ less deeply traced. 



■r j 

1-1 Point out tlie liyure of sixjcch ; soe Appendix B. 

16 Cf. 1. Tl^cs. IV. 13-18 : Hoi-. XXF. ;}-4. , 

n "Coiitir" The adverb " still ' la derived from the Anf,'lo-Saxon adjective 
Mille, motionless, calm, or silent. The Anulo-Saxon verb atiUan means to remain in a 
stall or resting place. The original force of "still ' is therefore " continually, ' as here, 
but it is also used in tho beiise of "eve!!," "yet, ' "till now," &c. 

18 The obvious ellipsis is : " And through luy whole life." The gloom that was sel- 
dom absent for any length of time from CowpiT's mind runs like a thread through the 
iwem, giving it a luithos that can be appreciated only after a study of his biograj-hy. 

i» Parse "stock" and "sjient." so The rec ory where he was bom 

21 " Out," as a i>refix means " beyond ' or "above." It is much more common in old 
than in modern writings. Shakespeare and Spenser make very frequent use of it. 

22 "Subjects." 





Thy nightly visits to my chamber made, 

That thou mightft know me safe and warmly laid ; 

Tliy morning bounties ere I left my home, 00 

The biscuit, or eonfectioi:ery plum; 

The fragrant waters on my cheeks bestowed 

By thy own hand, till fresh they shone and glowed ; 

All this, and more endearing still than all, 

Thy constant flow of love, that knew no fall,^' 

Ne'er roughened by those cataracts and breaks. 

That humour'''* interposed too often makes ; 

All this still legible in memory's page, 

And still to be so to my latest age, ^ 

Adds joy to duty, makes me glad to pay ,© 

Sucli honours to thee as my numl)ers nmy f 

Perhaps a frail memorial, l)ut sincere, 

Xot scorned in heaven, though little noticed here.^e 

Coidd Time, his flight" revei-sed, restore the hours, 
When, playing with thy vesture's tissued flowers,^^ 

23 "Decreaso " 

M Used in the sense of " capric-j." In " Cymbeline " IV. 2, Shakesi)ea.e says : 

Though his humour 
Was nothintr but mutation ; ay, and that 
From one bad thing to worse. 

K Cowper himself says, in a letter to Mrs. King, that he took more nleamiro in writing 
the above poem than any of i,i« other compositfons oxclpt on^^W.k^h he^dds "S 
addressed to a lady who has supplied to mrthe plate of my own mother -mv own i^ 
valuable inother-thede six and twenty years " The lady referred to was un l^oubted v 
Mrs. Lnwin. and the poem addressul to her was probably the sonnet beginning :^ 
" Mary ! I want a lyre with other strings." 

28 So far from being ' litrlo noticed" this memorial jwem is the most pomilar an.l 

best known of all Ins wri, in-s. and justly so. By his own relativelT lar^'^^^i "e~it 

h 'TV'f'' ^"^ f -■'-'"• *^^°'">' ""^^ it ^"^^ Written he sent it to lidy llLkeU^ vWio 

o'lTdVn skS " •''ri'''-'?T.'>'''r;r'- .'^^'^"'"^' *° **"^ incident he Lys1„ a leS 
motherWtnri " Th S'''*' ^■^'** *''"» »'»"' sent the General those ^ol■ses on my 

n H^ fh?i fH!- .^^*''' "'.'" '"""'•' him -only I hope that he will not miss my mother 
sucnn^™tnt''''"'''l^''''^^K^^^^^ *hut she ought tohave mac'e a thiri. On 

such an occasion it was not possible to mention her with propriety " A few I'avs af ter- 
lvem<f J^"*' \ ^f^^' "^^l^fh: "The General's approbation o my picture v^rts 
raTrtht^ryt&bTotUr.^^'""'"* ^^'*^«"* tears, therefire^ presume it 
21 Parse "flight." 

2s " Flowers woven into the fabric." "Tissiip" ia frnm *.•.... ♦»,» ™ * _i- . , 
the^old French verb tUirc (modern Krench^ir^) "^^^^'J^Zff;, 7l^t£ 





i 1! 

H" '§ 





The violet, the pink, and jessamine, 

I prieked them into paper with a pin 

(And thou wast liappier than myself the while,2» 

"Wouldst softly si)eak, and stroke my head, and smile), 

Could those few jdeasant days again appear, ho 

Mi,L;ht one wish bring them, would I wish them here ?■« 

I would not trust my heart ;— tlie dear d(dight 

Seems so to l)e desinMl," jjerhajis I might. — • 

Jjut no — what here we call our life is such, 

So litth' to be loved,-" and thou so much, 

That 1 should ill'" r.Mjuite th-n^ to constrain 

Thy unbound s])irit into l)onds again. 

Norfolk. - 

39 " While''-f roir. the An-lo .Saxon Imil, tiine-i^ properly a .. an. as Cowneruseo it 
he e. I-or the paroir.K see .Mason's 372. The'erh " while" rfromlome 
(^4itt'^''2=!ru'ft'-' '%^'^^'^\'^% «r,1«tive, l,^nL; the arc hai. form ''whle' " 
» e Matt. V. 2a) is the genitive usee} adverbially ; the form " whilst" has an excrescent 

t. Spenser uses the full spelling, " whilest" ; tee Note 10. i-xcre.cuni; 

•lo Parie "could", " nii-ht", and "would". 

-.„"L^"'''^i^-*''^.^'"'l'^'* "J*'"'' " «°" '^'"^ oriKanal meaning of " dear" is ' ' costly". Whr.t 
co,t8 much IS often much thonght of, and l,ence "dear" came to mean " beloved » By 
an nlnuxst equally natural transition it was formerly used to express the Ncry opposite 
nmlPaLTf";" «hake.sp3are speaks of "My d.ares. enemy.- Wl Jt costs .nuch'inay'carry 
Sisutnrb'o^tsenC^^^ In " Richard H." Act I. sc.'a, thi 

Kino Kichard.— Norfolk, for thee remains a heavier dcKJin, 
\Mii(h 1 with some iin willingness pronounce: 
The fly-slow hours shall not de erininate 
The dateless limit of thy dear exile ;-— 
The ho])eless word of —never to return 
Breathe against thee, ujxjii jiain of life. 

A heavy sentence, my most sovereign liege, 
And all unlook'd for from your highness' uiculh : 
A dearer merit (rewar<I>, not so deep a maim (injury) 
As to be cast forth in the common air, 
Have I deserved at your hig.mess' hands. 
.„^''^"r.r".^^ ^v" ""9'''^ f''ei"ently, in bo h senses, and sometimes a.s a noun in II- 
xi. 34?occ«rs"the li^e"' " Queene," Book I., canto vii., stanza 48 In h 

"Which now him turned to disadvantage deare." 
In "Julius Ca3sar," III., l, .Shakespsare niaktis Mark Antony say : 

That I did love thee, Ca3sar, O, 'tis true : 

If then thy spirit look upon u.s now. 

Shall it not grieve thee, dearer (more keenly) than thy death ? 
32 See >[ason's Grammar, l<Hi and fo.-.t n^te. 

mai'thealll.Hvi'r'; ^""" ''''' ",'"''■'■ ^''^ ^^""'""''^ Grammar, SCO and note. In Ger- 
mai the adjectival form m very frequently use<i as an atlverb, as for example : 

Sic ist Hchon She is beautiful 
Sie tanzt xchihi—She dances beautifully. 
In Rniriish the adje-tive is sometimes used as a', adverb by poetical Hconse ; it wou'a 
be a great gam were the same pnv.lege extended to prose writers, aa in G*miaa. 





Thou,""— a;^ a gallant h;iv\ Alljion's"' coar.t 
(Tho storms all woathoiXHl and \\w. ocoan crospcl) 
Shoots into po-t at some well-havonod islo, 
Where spices hroatlio, and Lrii^ditcr,on.s smile, 
There sits quiescent on the floods, that show 
Her beauteous form relle.-ted clear liclow, 
While airs impregnated with incense play 
Around her, fanning light her streauKsrs gaj' — 
So thou, with sails how swift P' ha.-.t reached t!ie fdiore, 
" Where tempest-, never hea! nor hillows roar ;'''' 
Anil thy lovwi consort''*' on the dangerous tide"" 
Of life Ling since has anchored l)y tliy sid(\ " 


ThP ^^mn ^ \. the pnncpal .enteMce is. after the i arenthesis. repeated in li;,c OJ. 
fllW ■ "f, ^P*-''^-'' '"-\^'"" ,'" 'I'.s Ime a;,d cnitiniied to line 1> 5 s at first in tho 
form ot a sinule^ut afterwards takes that of a metaphor. Sw ApjHjnd.x I!. 

one wifh '.\'.c.o''i[n Tf^ ''f '^.^>'"^'">"> f^ '' sailinK-vossel." is in navi-atic.n restricted to 
one \uth .; CI lam Ivii.d ot r.--i: - A "hark" or "bur(:ue" U a three masted vessel 

mast ' '■'^^"' ''''"'"-■ '"' ''*-■■■'"'•' ^"^' '"'^"' '"'^^*'^- ^"'J f^r*^ and afton her ,nSn 

"Albion •• is another name for Britain. The etyinolojry of tho word i; disputed hut 
It IS prooaWy derived from tho Lain, albm, for white, the reference beir 'to the white 
color of i,echfls on tho roa-st op,K.,s:te Ciaul, from' whieh eow,>tryi was firs a^! 
prauOied bythe Uon.ans. Other roots have been conjectured. amon.-;t tl.c . the nan!^ 

?o UrifaSn'o J'n7\"i- ^'^^•'*;u"•'• ''■'"> 'I':*"-''"';.' to certain mythological le-eTids, ,.ame 
to IJntarn and establislied there a kingdom. ^ o o , ^ 

zy> The rcrorence may be cither to the manner cf hia motlier's death, wliicli wai sud- 
den, or to tile fact that slie died at tlie early age of tiiirty-four. 

n: .y quot^ition f^om Sir Samuel Oarth's mock-heroic mem, '< The Di^ncn ar- " inib. 
l.shed m WiHi. The ,K,em was written to ridicule thc\,H,:hocLi!s of' that^iay'who 
assumed to prescribe as well as compound .iicdicines, (Ja, th hi:nre f being an cn.incnt 
physician. Tho ra-ssage from which the above line is taken occurs in theVrandHo- 
quent speech of Colucynthas, an apotjieeary : hr-»"""o 

To die is landing on some silent shore, 

Vtiicre billows never break, nor temiicsts roar: 

Ere well we feel the friendly stroke, 'tis o'er. 

Th"? ii;..ncuracy cf the citation is probably owing to its havir."- been n-de fro-n 
memory, as Cowper wrote the lines to his mother's picture witliin I short interval 

89 Her husband, the poet's father, who had died in 175C. " Consort "-litorallv one 
who sbures another s lot-is applie.1 to buijbaiids a:id and r.l^o >bii.s whVi kJ\ ^l 
cimpaiuois oi a ; < yagc. In Cowper s time, when piracy was common, shins wi'l, 
valuable eary^jes seklom ventured on long voyages alone. -^ " " '"""' ""'•'^ ^ '' " 

39 -Tide" is from the same root .-vs "time.- and meant originally a division r f fin^o 
ofT,"o wf l^.'rr '" .1-? T'^f}^^' the regu'ar llow and ebb of the .ca. This ,:t Jn ai 
?L wlffn. . ^f'',^'' **."'«. and ul imately the ; ame was transferred io the movement ■ f 
the water within the uitcrval. Tho transition to the sense in which it is used here • 
I.e., a stream or body o water-was easy. I„ ".Julius C-sa-." /ct ii .scene 1 Stake. - 
!r:':.!!..?^,i::i,n^S.''°" "'"•*''" *'^-' °' ^'""^^"t^ «i?"ify the whole inten-alsl^c; 

T t\ 





me/o scarce! hoping to attain lliat rest, 

Always fnnii port wiLlilu-M, always distresseil, 
Mo liowliii; blasts drivo d 


ovioiis, IciiiiMjst-tossed. 

peiiiiij Wkb, iiiid (;oiupus.i lost 
current's tliwartiiiL' force 


Hails rippc 1, scams 

And day by day sonic current's tliwartiu" f 
Sets nio more distant frctni a prosperous course 
Yet O, tlio thought tliat thou art safe, and he ! 
That thought is joy, arrive wlii-.t lUiiy to nic/' 
My boast is not tliat 1 deduce i:iy birth 
Troni loin J enthroned, and rul irs of the eartli ;^» 
But higluu- far my jToud pretensions rise,— 
The son of parents passed into the skies. '^ 

And now, farewell 1 — Time unrevoked has run« 
ni;i wonted course, yet what I wished is done. 

By contemplation's ^elp, not souglit in vain, 

I seem to have lived my childhood o'er agaiif; 

To have renewed the joys tliat once were mine, 

Without the .sin of violating thine. 

And while the wings of fancy still are free, 

And I can view this mimic form of ihec, 



« A tjood exaniplo of anastrophe ; see Appendix B. Cf. " Panuiiso Lost," I., 44 : 

And II., 17 

'* Him the Alin'ghty Power 
Hurled headlonj,' fliiuiirif,' fiom the ethereal sky, 
With I'.idcous juin and combustion, down 
To bottomless perdition." 

" Me, thoujrh just ri^'ht, and the fixed laws of heaven 
Did flrst create your leader." 

41 Parse "sails," " seams," and " compass." 

^r:. T!"® '•«'<"'C'"^^o >>' tf'ese few lines is to the poet's chronic religioug desiwn.lency. The 
poem was written duini- one of his longest intervals of con.,>arative',H.ace but in a 
short time afterwards his mental malady returned with full force. In ku pi'obab litv 
SualS^r sS'oSitr. '' '''""" '"'^ ^^"""'''^ ^^ ^ premonition of^hut wa^ 

1 f J.n-'' .''■^^'^"o" 0/ ^11 'afher with his mother in such an expression of his feelings 
Isasufticientanswer totho statement n.ade by some bioj^'raphers of Cowper. that he 
cherished little alfection for the former. o t' ^'^ "» '-owper, mat nt, 

44 Cowper was af;tually, on his mother's side, of royal descent. Sou'hev. In his bio- 
^X'L'i'n^'f '^'•*' T^^'^'■ "Throuifh the Ilippcsleysof Throu.-hley in Sx" and the 
Pella-s of Bolney m the same c unty, tliis lalv wai descend, d from the n,,ble 

« See lines 88-99 above, tt Q,, LinQi 80-81. 





OX )fy MoTllEirs PICTlJIiE. 

Time Ims l»ut half succeeded in liis fhi ft ' - 
Thyself renloved, thy powci- to su(»the iiir 1. •[[.<< 





As the roruhn^' of thi. pocn l.o .narUul by intense feelin-, tender and de icato 
amlfre.. from all violent. ; It dc>na,..l,s the purest touts of the vol.,, .^nd su.h provalcn.o 
of the semi-toMcs and the tremor a. best expresses the sentin.ents of deep sorrow an I 

Line 1 : The first sentence i. one of fervi.l exclamation ; the voice trembles In tho 
utterance of "O" and the interjection ii prolon.-c-d until it jx^sses like a s ;,''., without 
l«use mto the next word ; " la„^^a.,'e " is the en.pi.atio word, the voice dwellinjr upo-. 
It with warn, tremor. Ten.len.ess and warmtli n.ark the deli^ery of the line t 


Line 0: Head ihis quotation a little hi-her and slower, but in the purest tone 
Real the parenthetical clause, lines 8, 0, and D, a .k-ree lower but faster and more 
anunatcd, then rise in pitch from "here" to the end. 

Lines 11, 12, 13, 14 refer to line 1.5 and end with risin- inflection, and "obey " with 
fallmt' The succeedintr words to "own" are .lelivered with earnest wann'th ; an I 

fcdadly and ' own ' are emphasised. Read li.,e 17 -leeper and with tremor, expressive 
of trouble, but rise in tone and warmth on the succeeding lines to " she - "ivin- ir- 
creased emphasis to "Thou art she." " " 

Lines 21 to 31 : Uea<l these lines with the tenderest pathos, but avoid extrava;rance 
G.vea n.s.nj. inflection to "mother" and ".she,i," and tremulous en.phasis to "con- 
scious and "tears." Line 20: Give emphasis and risinjr inflections to "weej" and 
••bhss. Read the next line with ^reat warmth with a risinjf inflection on "smile - 
Read the succeeding,' lines n:ore deeply and and solemnly. 

Line 32 : Emphasise "thou" with feeliiiLf. 

Lines 34 and and 35 must be mad with similar deep feeli..,., expressed esjMicIallv on 
'meet thee, " peaceful shore," and " pa.s8 my lipa no more." 

Lines 41 to \-, : Read this passa-e deei^r and with a moumful expression < ' ■ 
Give emiihasis to " submission." 

Line 45: Give emphasis and a falling inflection t , " .leplores." and emphasis and a 
risin- inflection to " forf^ot," and the tenderest tremor of pathos 

From 46 to 73 the passage is di.stirjfuished by tender but delijrhtful memories of 
childhood ; henee it must 1 e rendered with mingled expression of cheerfulness and 

■iTCf. lines filO. 

« Mrs. Cowper lies buried in the chancel of her husband's chnrch uf,n-n n „ 
was erected to her, bearing an epitaph from the e^o btT ec7 Tadv X^i"""" 
The following lines from it, descrlptiv*; of her character, may h^^u^l:^^^: 
Bupenor description gi ven above : i^ompai eu u itn the fai 

Hero lies, in early years bereft ( f life. 
The best of mothers and the kindest wife; 
Who neither knew nor practised any arr, ' 
Secure in all she wished, her husband's heart 
" . * * t * ' 

Still was she studious never to offend • 
And glad of an occasion to commend •' 
V\ ith ease would pardon injuries rec-eived 
Aor e'er was cheerful when another trileved 


I, ■ 


t 71 



pathoH. The picture., of childinh pleasures must bo read in a higher and livelier tone 
as the ix^ct carried away by these reminiscences forgets ids present woes ; but touches 
Of suffermjf, as in lines r.2 to 57, denian.I dee,K;r tones, slower time, and tremor in leading 
words, as "little known," "our, own," "short-lived ,>ossession," " thv kindness." 
many a storm ; and in line 7.3, " not scorned in heaven " should be read" with solenm 
warmth, with a risiny: inflection on "heaven." 

Lines 73 and 79 being jarenlhotical and superior to the interrupte.1 clause must be 
read lower and slower, and with feeling. Ask the question in line 81 .IceiK-r and slower 
than the conditional clau e. with emphasis on " here." In lino ^5 rcatl " thou so mu-h" 
With emphasis and finish " again," line 87, with a rising inflection. 

Lines 88 to t»5 present a.lengthene.1 simile, distinguished for its exalted images, and 
must be read with sustahied warmth from "as" to "gay." Commence "Thou" 
higher than the simile ; terminate each clause of the simile as referring to the 9Cth 
line with rising inflection, giving " gay " the greatest compass; and read that and the 
next Ime higher and with swelling tones, increasing tie force on line 07 

Line 9!) : Mark ' me " with a slight emphasis in this lino and incrcas'e it in line 102 
with rising inflection in both instances ; read line 101 and the next two lines with 
tremor and mournful tone. Do not give emphasis to "me " in line 104, 

Lino 105 : Give lengthened time to " O " and do not i ause after it but let its tone 
pass into the next word. Emphasise "thou," "safe," "he," and "that" but not 
"thought," in the next line. 

Line 110: Emphasise " my," and r«Ja.I the next lino witli force, elevated pitch, and 

Line 112 : Head " farewell " with a sigh. 

Line 110 : Emphasise " renewed," give rising inflection to "mine," and in the next 
line emphasise " thine." 

Line 120 : Emphasise " half," rising inflection to " theft," 

Line 121 : Emphasise "thyself " and " soothe," pause after " me," and give emphasis 
and tremor to " left." 

It may be regarded as a safe rule, with very rare exceptions, that the interjections 
O and Oh should never have a pause after them, and that their tound should be pro- 
longed into the next word. 




Henry David ThoreaU was bom in Concord, Massachusetts, in 1817. 
He was educated at Harvard College wlicte he gradiiattil in \K\~. After 
teaching foi- a tew years he aiU>pteil the calling of a land surveyor and 
spent much of his time in tiie forests of New England. In 1845 he bnilt 
for hinoelf a tmall house on the shore of Walden i'ond, near Concord, 
and in it he lived entirely alone for tw ■ years. He was eccentric in his 
habits of life but was an earnest student of nature and an extensive 
reader of literature. His wo:ks are largely made up of descriptive 
accounts of the grand scenery of New England, but thc^e are illununate<l 
with frequent fhiiliCQ of satire and witli ix.\>t literary allusions. 

One diiy whe!i I wont out to my wood-pile, or rathrr luy i)ilo 
of stunii)R, I obcrvcd two l;irgo ants, the one rcil, tlm other 
nmoh larger, nearly half an inch long, and l.lack, lierecdy con- 
tending witli one another. Having onc(3 got hold, they nev(;i' 
let go, hut i.truggled and wrestled and rolled on the chips inces- 

Looking further, I was surprised to lind that tlie cliips v.'o.n 
covered with such combatants; that it wa.s not a iJudbnn, hut a 
hellunr — a war between two race? of ants, the red always pitted 
against the Idack, and frequently two red ones to one black. 
The legions of these myrmidons'' covered all the hills and vak'.T 
in my wood-yard, and the ground was already strewn v»ilh the 
dead and dying, l)oth rod and black. 

It was the only battle-field winch I hav(^ ever witnessed, the 
only battle-field I ever trod Avhilc tli(> l)attl(! v/as raging; inter- 

1 This pince is taken from Thoreau's " Waldnn, or Life in the Woods,"' which » 
published in IS.'vt. Tho work s,''.vc3 a semi-satirical aco )mit of the author's cm ..', 
freak of livinjr al mo, almost out of vv^Wt but actually within easy reacli cf the hiifherit 
forms of ntodcTu civilization. 

2 Duellum and helium mean etymolopically the snmo thinp— a fight between two. 
Bellum is the more modern Latin form, and its meaiii-'r has been widene<l so as to In- 
clude a war between two sides or partiec, as well as between two individuals. Tlie 
narrative from this point takes the form of a mock heroic episode. See Note 13. 

3 Tho "Myrmidons" we-e an AchaRan tri' o in Thessalv under the chleftanship of 
Achillea, the hero of tho " Uiad." Tnul tion states that in order to people the island 
of M'/ma, from which tho Myrmidons mitrrated into Thcssalv, Jupiter changed ants 
into human beings. The Oreek name of the ant is munni'x', hence the name of tho 

• tribe. It is in evident allusion to this myth that the swarms of ants are in tho text 
described as " legions of mynnidons,' hut the word is now used to designate any 
rude marauders who are completely subservient to a leader. 






f »i 

m.-,Mo war~tlu, hmI r,.,,nl,li.ans on tho <,„o han.l niul ll.o l.lack 
•mp.nalists ou tI,o otl.,-,.' (),. cv.ry ni.lo tlu.y u-.r. o„gaj^...l in 
|l<''t<ny cou.hut, yet witlMM.t any nois. that 1 cuuM ; a.i.l 
Junimn sdldiors n.-vcr fnii-ht so rasolnU'ly. 

I watd.,.,1 a <-..ui.l,, that worn fast Ln-k.-.l in ,,u-h otlu-r'.s cru- 
brace, in a little sunny valley an.i.l thn d.ips, now at noomlay 
1"'<'1""'*''1 to fi^ht till the snn went .low,, or life went out. The 
smaller rc.l ehan.i.ion ha.l fastened hiniself like a viee» to his ad- 
vemiry'H front, an.l throu-h all tlie tund.lings on that Hehl never 
for an instant ceased to gnaw at ouv. of his feelers near the root, 
Imvin- ain-ady oause.l the other to go l)y ti»e l)oard ; while the 
stronger l.laek one dasiied hini from si.!., to si.le, and, as [ saw 
on looking nearer, had already divested him of several of his 

They fought with more i^rtinaeity than l.ull-dogs. Xeitlier 
manifested the least disposition to retreat. It was" vident that 
their l,ii^tle-ery was "Con.iuer. <.r die!" In the meanwhile, 
tliere came along a single red ant on the hill-side of this valley, 
evidently full of excitement, who either had dispatched his foe,' 
or had not yet taken part in the battle— the latter, for 
he had lost none of his limbs— whose mother had charged him 
to return witli his shield or upon it.« 

Or perchance he was some Achilles, who had nourished his 
wrath apart, a nd had now come to avenge or rescue his Patroclus.^ 

selected as their emblem Sinn' a Iv llaJk is aS^ 'l*^ <^°'"' 

stni applied to the Lihe^i.? l.£'S^^.a£l3^'o^'^s^ 's^:^'s^;:.£^ '^ 

derived from the Latin vitu., a viner wWeh dimbs s'l^tally "p it.^upport''^""' '" '' 
c The chartre of a Spartan n.other to her son as he .et out for the battle-field 

tion he retirp] fn.^^ H f Agamemnon, the commander-in-chief of the expedi- 
Tuso snffprpH i^LP *""« f''o»'--'ct.'ye participation in the coi.test, and theOrecia'i 
resume Ws^lff,flL°fin*'°""*°'.'"" *'r"'=«- ^H attempts to persuade hm to 
The dl ir« toT^ *K- fifHu''>'''^ ^*'" """• '"« ^""^"'l Patroclus was killed in battle 

after wTthe dTsZfflW of h"?'""^ ^'"V' f ""•"• '^"'^ "'^ «•■«* achievement the^ 
iwr was me uiscomHture of Hector whom he .slew in single combat. 

TUt: liATTLE OF Tilt: ANTS. 


Ho saw tluM uiu'tiual ci.mlmt fn.iu for tli.^ hliuks wero 
ninirly twicu tho she of tlio re<lH. Ho divAV iK-ar with rapid 
patio till ho stood on his guard within half an inch of tho .oni- 
l)atants ; tluMi, watohiiij,' Ids opjiortiiidty, Ik* spran;,' upon tht^ 
l)lat;k warrior, and coiuiiicnct'd Ids operations near tho root of 
his right foreleg, h-aving th<( foe to select among his own nu-m- 
bers ; and so thero wore thnuj uidtcMl for life, as if a ntiw kind (»f 
attraction had hoon invented whidi put all other locks imd 
cotnonts to shame. 

I shouhl not have wondered l)y this time t(i Hud that they had 
their respoctivo musical })ands stationed on some ominent chip, 
and playing their national airs tho while, to excito tho slow and 
cheer tho dying com])atants. I was myself excited, 
even as if they had heeu men. Tho more you tidnk of it, the 
less tho diir(!rence. And certainly thero is not the fight rec(jr(led 
in Concord history" at least, if in the history of America, that 
will hear a monujiit's comparison with this, whether for the 
nund)ers engaged in it, or for the patriotismand heroismdisplayeii. 

For numbers and for carnage it was an Austerlit/ or JJresilen.'J 
I have no doubt it was a principle tlu^y fought for, as nuu^h 
as our ancestors, and not to avoid a three-penny tax on 
their t(u;i° and tho results of this battle will be as important and 
memorable to those whom it concerns ai ihose of tho battle of 
Bunker Hill, at least." 

8L xirigton, where (he flrtt blood was lirawri in the lievohit 

111 the fciainc day a more extensive skirmish took jilaee in tho vicinity of Coneoii'. 

Sh rtly afterwards ho was overwhelnud at Leipsic and compellea to retire to Elba. 

10 The tea tax impose! by the Britisli Parliament on the Americam colonists was ro 
offensive that a numb r of inun m 1773 boardei a teti, laden vosstl in Boston harbor and 
threw her ear^'o overboar.l. 

11 Biinkor Hill is a low cinineneo on Charl stown peninsula near th ^ city of Boston 
hrJ'jr/"^''' "' !^° 11'*" of June, 1775. it was seized by 1 200 American tr<K)ps,whf 
held It for some time the next day against General Ga^re's aitack but were flnallv driver 

sf 1 












I '-k „,, (la, .hip on wind, tl.. thr.-o I luvo partic.Iarlv 
. esen .0.1 woiv Htn,;,.]!,.., .anicl it inl.. n.y I.oum.. unW pl.uvu 
It undo, a tuiuM..,- on niy uin.lMv-Hiil, .-.. onl.r to mh, tho 
i«8uo. HoMinjr a microscope to tho'iitiono,l vA n„t 
i Huvv thn', thon^li ho was aasi.InouMly j.„awin^^ at M.o noar foro- 
«g ot hH onomy, havin- soverod his n.nainin- fo, l.-r, his own 
broast was all t..rn away, ...vposin- what vitals h.* ha.l thoro t., 
tho jaws of th(. l,< wirrior, whoso l.roast-plato was apparontly 
-^oo th.rk for hi,,, to pioroo; an.l th.^lark oa,-l,u„ch.s of tho 
8uin.rors oyosshono with forooity s„ch as war only ,um,I,1 oxoito 
IlK'y «tn,u.l,.,I h;,lf ;u, hour lonjror un.lor tho t.nuMor, and 
wh.m 1 looko.I a.i,.tin tho hlaok soldior ha<l soverod tho hoails of 
l'i.s foos fro.n thoir l), an.l tho still living, woro han<r- 
ing on o.thnr sido of hi,n liko ^hastly tn.phi.s at his sa.ldlo- 
>ow, st.ll apparontly as iirnrfy fastonod as .-vor, and h., was en- 
«l<'avoring with fooblo stni-rgles, lu-iu,. without foojors and with 
only tho ron.nant of a log, and I know not how many oth.r 
wounds, to <livost hi,nsolt of tho,,. ; which at length, after half 
an hour n.on, ho acco.npHshod. I ,-aisod tho glass, and ho wont 
off over the window-sill i,, that crii,plod stato. AVhothor ho 
<'":.ny 8,u-v,vo<I that co,nl)at, a„<l spent tho remainder of his 
days in some HoM de. InmM..- I do not know ; but I thou-difc 
his mdusti-y would not ho worth much thereafter. I never 
leai-,,od which party was, nor tho cause of tho war ; 
but I felt for tho rest of that day as if I had had my feelings 
excited and harrowe.l l,y witnessing tho struggle, the ferociry 
and carnage, of a human battle before my door.'^' 

______^ i^cnn/ J). Thorean. 

I'" Mock-heroic Man-ati\c has always been a favnrito fnv.», «» 
cs.scmi..lly in the em,.l,,v,„ent of the ri^ fie, "r ua^^o Ld stv^n^lf ^ J* ™"^'«' ^ 

cycnts in tho .leBerl,,tion of minute aneUrifli J aS At this s? , Th '*'' *° f"'''* 

A LOST vnoHD. 




Adelaide Anne Procter, tlio <laiighttr of the poet Bryan Waller 

Procter, who is hettur kiiOAii iiinKr his n<,m dr /,hnne of " Ikny Corn- 
wall," was horn i.i LoihIoi. in iSiT., uii,l .iio.l in \HM. Sno »li«i.laye.l 
even 111 infuiiey a loiuiirkiihlo lon.liu.«H for poetry, hut was -'ifted 
al^o with u capacity for intellectual pursuits that are usually found 
less congenial to women. Her liist poetical conipositioi s were puh- 
lished in iHo.'land I Mot under the assuiiK^d name ot "Mary HerwicU," 
in Dickens' Ihuixilmhl Wonh, and thoui,'li tiie novelist wat intimate 
with the Procter tamily, he <lid not for Home time knowtiu! real name of 
his contributor. In JHoi Mi-^s Procter joined the Roman Catholic Chiireli 
Always of u fragile constitution, herardiiou, and .self-impoHcd lalx.urd 
m the cause of charity gradiudly un<lermin«'<l h.-r stren th, and for 
hfteen months before \wr (K-ath she was forced to remain i i bed, a con- 
hiined invalid. The gentle clieerfulnessof her poetry was characteristic 
of her wiiole life, and of no part of it more than of this chtsing ej)isode. 

X. Seutotl OIK! (lay at the ()i;i,'an, 
1 Ava,s weary ami ill at caso, 
And my lingers wandered idly 
Over the keys. 

a. I do not know wliat T was i)Iayin- 
Or what I was drcaiiiiii!^' then ; 
Ihit I struck (tiH! chdrd of niutiic, 
Like the sduiid df a ,L;rcat Anuii.3 




'A i 

3. It flooded the erinison twili<,'ht,'' 

Like the close of an Angel's P.saini,* 

.. B'?' . "J-'i'^'A**^? '^'■'"'.''' <'^''"f^' astrinjr made from an intestine- i^ a doublet of 

cnni, but while the 1 ttter is now used for any .small rope, the former is applied to the 

string of a nmsK'al instiument. It i-* used he.e to desi'..'iiate a sound made up of two or 

more sounds 111 concjrd. " *^ """"r 

2 This word is the only real «pondee in the .Jiglish language. See Appendix A. It 
has been imported unchan-ed from the Hebrew tlirou-h the Greek and Latin The 
Hebrew amen is an adjective meaning " true' or "firm." It «;is used adverbially as 
an expression of .issenr, to, or coniurretice in a prayer on the |>art of the members of an 
a.ssembly on vt'hose behalf it was ottered up ; in tliis sense it is equivalent to " so be it " 
It IS frequently translated " verily" in the New Testament. 

3 Deflne the figure of speech in this line. Sec Appendix B. The word "twiliL'ht " 
comes originally fron the An-lo-Saxon /tv,\ double. Instead of meanin" ".louble- 
light, however. It means " half-light," the ideas of double and half being 'xmfused 
Xhe same confusion exists in the German zwidicht, with the same meaningr 

* This word, in the sense of a sacred sonc. was en.rlv imnnrfxui infr« T?r.»i)Hh Tt«" t $- 



And it liiy on my fovorod spirit 
Witli a toucli of infinite culm. 

i. It quictotl pain and sorrow, 

Like love overcoming strife ; 
It seemed the Imrmonioua echo 
From our discordant life. 

». It linked all perplexed meanings 
Into one i)erfect peace, 
And trembled away into silence 
-^sif it wereloth^ to cease. 

6. 1 have sought but I seek it vainly, 
That one lost cliord divine, 
Arhicli came frbm the soul of.tlic ()rgau,« 
And entered into nihie. 

T. It may be that Death's bright angel 
Will s])eak in that chord again, 
If may bo that only in Heaven 
I shall hear that grand Amen. 

Aih'lalde Anne Procter. 


The p-cncral expression required in reaiiiriL' this r,«..,., ,•„ ti ^ , , 
\>y .u,,pre««ecl e.nofional fervor ^ ^ '' ^''''^ "^ solemnity, tenun^rei 

;;::s';:::::.::si.;s;s:;:r^;;z,r:"::; ■•'■;-■'- 

tlie expression, slighl.v .liniinishe.i to en.I of verse ' '""" °' '^'*'"' '^"^l ^"""""o 

Verse 2: linos 1 and 2: Emphasise "know " "nhvinL." on f .. > 
"then" with rising infiention Lines -JanaTin / *'• '''•eamintr," and end 

jmny the siri^ing of sacred melod esX'iranMtion to^hV'n? ^'''T''''^y "«ed lo aceoml 
IS quite obvious. David, Kinir of Israpl in i^ . u- ^ present meaning of " nsalm" 
to tlu) sound of the ha,^ "rih ri'ns 'n m^nt^*^^^^^^^^ 
bee Psalms xxxiii., 2; xliii.,4; ixxi., 22 xcir 3 """*'" ''" """^^ l-'ayer 

n^^d'enr •Mi;f"':j;'er or'Vi^^^^^^^ ^"^ '" "^'^ English the opposite of -teef "-tha 

What is the figure of speech ? 


^ erse 4 : E.n,.ha.sisc with tru:.>or, " pain " and "sorrow." Line 2 • Emphasise •• lovo" 
jW^hrcnulous fervor and fallin. .nflcction, and r.u. the rcnaiLoMZT. s f or 

verse ., . hi.u >. L, "i-erfoct peace," not by force tm. hy lon-thcncd ti.ue 3 : lower the pitch and read the li.e in soft tren.ul^us tone., d we L >o "r 1 b S 
awuy, and softening- the voi.e ahnost to a w),isper o„ " silence - 

^M•. linel: Kn.phitsise "so-frht" and ",- but re.,l the latter elause 
ower. it is parenthetical. lUuse the pitch on line 3, and rca.l ,he e na nde of Lniphasise "soul" and "Oryan." Rea.1 "into n.ine" deeper and more 
solemnly with emphasis on "mine. " 

Verse 7 : Betfin slowly as in doubt ; emphas'.e '■ Death's " ar.d road it Igwer. advan.c 
n^h.j;her on " bn^ht an^el." Une 2: ".peak " takes a slight en.pbasis^ bu "ara n ■ • 

Ainen wuh swell almoHt like a chant. 




William Howard Russell-Letter known a.s Dr. Russell-mav be 
called the ongu.ator of " war correspoudence " fur newspaper pmZes 

^.nJnnl 1 • • ""/!?' ^""''- ^'" ^^^^^''^ f''"'" ^'^^ ^^^''-''^i^ tO that 

journal, descriptive of the events of the war, brouglit hi.n into deserved 
fn,r'"'T'r*'' '■" I Tl^ subsequently c oUecte.I and requblishe*! in book 

fonn Ifo represented the 7Vm.,s .luring the Indian mutiny in 1857 

FsG6 u. 'tlf 'f ''"' V *'>« United Stated, the Austro-l'russkn war of 
IbGb, and the Lranco-l'russiau Mar of 1870-71. 

After their ropuls.j in tlie plains of Bulaklava by ll.c Ili-li- 
Lm.lers, two deep,^ " llmt tliiu red streak topped by a lino^'of 
f^teel,"~-and by the lieuvy brigade, the Kussiau cavalry retired. 
Their infantry at the same time fell back towards the head of 
the valley, leavi ng men in three of the redoubts they liad 

W n") 7^'"' '''"'"'* '[''*" f ^"-n <J'-'*«baek8. The i-.cide. t ha^ iZl f Je " L sub 
Jcct of a lanious poem by Alfred Tennyson. See Fourth Ueador" paire lfi5 
.u!^''.^ V"!'r'i''^'«'ers" referred to were the soldier., of the eol hmt .1 os«i r„„i..,„„f 
tucn u::dcriao commana ol liir Coliu Camybcil. ai.c.wards Lord Clyde." ""luTttad'^ 




taten, and abandoning the fourth. Thov had also nl , i 

I.nsmlicr A.rey, t!.,„hi„g tho ligM cavalry Jn.l nj ! 
fcr enough in front vl.en the ,.„on,v^ l,or.,o had fl " 

wluU a,„ t„ , „„e„*„,l ,,he„ ho roach.,, hi. lordship.) 

>\ iien J^ord Lucan received tlie order frn,n r , • \^ . 
• ■'»" -• ". >.o askod, wo are Jl ..m ro f™ t"'"';' 

'.^""•'°"'» '■»">"'»' 182. .„d loot note. 

6 See Mason's Grammar a?" 4-409 n r . , " 1 
. « Tha^ is. Cap.'ain Nolan ifl ' """^ ^''^' "'•*'^ ^''^^ »°tes. 


of the Kussiuns, and sai.I. -There are the enemy, and tliere are guns, sir. before them; it is your duty to take thorn "^-or 
words to that e(n,et. |> . Lucan. with reiudaneo, .a^e the 
order to I.n-d Cardigan advance^' u{>on tlie gur.s, conceiving 
hu his oraers .on^pehed him to .io so. The noble ear], though 
he did not shrink, also saw the fearful odds aj^^ainst then,. Don 
Quixote in his tiit against the M'in.lndll, was not nearly .orash 
and reck ess aB the gallant fellows who juepared without a 
thought to rush on almost certain death 

It IS a maxim of war, that "cavalry never act without a sup- 
port ; that "intantry should be close at hand when cavalry 
carry guns as the effect i. only instantaneous", an.l that it is 
neceasary to have on the flank of a lino of cavalrv H,me squa-b 
rons in column, the attack on the flank beting m^st •l.^.gerous. 
Ihe only support our light cavalry liad was the reserve of heavy 
cavalry at a great: distance behind then., the n.fantry and gun. 
1-ng far in the rear There were no squadrons i,: cohinm .t 
all, and there was a plain to charge over before the enemy s guns 
could be rer.ched, of a mile an.l a half in length t 

At ten minutes past eleven our light cavalry l,rigade a.lvanoc.l 
The whole briga<le scarcely made one effective regiment, accor.l 
ing to the nmnbers of continental armies, and yet it was 
Oian we cculd spare. A. they rushed towards the front the' 
Russians opened on them, from the guns in the n^doubt on Mo 
r.ght, with volleys of musk(,try and rifles. They swept proudly 
pas^^glittering in the morning sun in all (he pride and splendour 

\\^ could scarcely believe the evidence of our senses. Surely 

at handful of nien are not going to charge an army in positioi/J 

iUasl^iUva^ut too true. Their desperate ^■alour knew no 

■» Seq Mason's Grammar, 3S7. ~ ~ "^ " 

all quite ridi<-uIou8. though |.ro,npted by e "c-el c^ motfvL f ' 'm ''^'^f^r^^hi^h ^^ere 
to, that of tilting at a windmill. lYoinThe ,•! ar ", te^o ft ". ^^^^ 1'^" ^""^^ ^"f'^cd 
otic" ha. con.e to be used as a synonyu/loi- '^'^h'.''or .'^ool-huX •'*^^ *"™ " 'i"'^" 
sLrotesis. See Appendix B. . •""» nartiy. 




i' uisoiouo]!. ILoy advanced in two Jincs ouicl-rnh.^ 

hH ! t f T" """'■ """"• ^^■'""'' ""■ K"-'"™ ''•■"' lai'l - h 
.0 >„ost dca,lly .ccumoy i witi, a )„ao „f, st,„.I above 

o,„]. crjlhej (low ,uto the smoke of the b,-.t(.,.i„s ■ l,„t ere 

ami with the carcasses of Jioi-sca. ' 

They were eposed to an ou'iquo fire from the batteries on 
«.e 1„1 s ™ both sides, as well as to a direct fire of „u iTetn 
Through the clouds of smoke w.- could see their sabres fla^ in!' 
as^hey ™le np to the guns and dashed into their r^^ 
down he gunners where they stood We saw them ridin° 
Un'ongh the g.,ns, „s I have said : to our delight we Tw h m ■ 
.otunung after breaking through a colnu.n of Russian ilf.,^; 
and scattering it like ehaif, when the flank fire of the •' 
on the hill swept them down, scattered and br:.;,! a hey w^^ 
^. ounded men and riderless ho«,s flyi„g Awards „s ,o d tht 

after te.ff, n.sdea- h to avoid bei.^'knied savs- •" tIo'i^?* ^ ' !^T*^ '*• ^^'i^" Pfl'^tuff 
m tlic vvhicii better part I have saved .ny We "• ^^"^ '"'"'''' P*'"* ' ' ''^^"»r is discretion i 
11 Personification. Sec Appendix B. 


At the very moment when thoy . were about to retreat an 
enonaous mas3 oi Laueera was hurled on then- Iknlc/ Tolone" 
.She.-ell, the Mr Ilu3.sars, saw the danger, and rode his few 
men straight at tliem, cutting his way through .ith iV-arfuI loss 
iho other regim.uts turu.d, and engaged in a desperate encoun- 
ter A^ ith courage too great almost for credence, they were 
breaking their way tlu-ough tlie columns which enveloped them 
when there took place an act of atrocity without oaraliel in the 
modern warfare of civilized nations. 

' The Russian gunners, wlieu tlie storra of cavalry p^issed, re- 
turned to tlieir guns. They saw their own cavalry minglcl with 

!LrT;V ; ' '■"^' ^'''"^ "'^^ ''''^''' ^"*^' '^ ^^- eternal 
di grace of the Ku.uan mnne, the miscreants poured a murderous 

volley of grape and canister on the mass of stvugglii,. men an.l 
horses, mingling friend and foe in one connnon ruin - 

It was as m<ich as our lieavy cavalry brigade could do to cover 
tne retreat of the miserable remnants of the band of heroes as 
taey returned to tlie place they had so lately quitte.I.u At thirtv- 
five nunutes past eleven not a Ih-itish soldier, except tlie dead 
and the dynig, was left in front of those guns. 

ir. //. Rmscll 

wThoform "qui'," aftor -Jio analo,,-y of ~hlt " "knit •• x '■ T " 

tlio el arises trow the iaconVonien.c (A lomulllV ^ . ^^ '' 'fV'''~"'>' ^"•''■'^P 
proximity to oaob other. »-"'tii..c oi bounam^r tuo dent;il letters inclose 




of tl.e East In.lia Con.pany He was t '.t t ^ ^^ ^'"^ '^^ ""^^^''^^^ 
to be e. ucate.1, an.l after pass^f, Th, o H^(tX.n ^^=^' *«.^^"g'"n«l 
out takn,g u degree he settled .l.nv ^ti e stu v of i!..^'''"'''"*^ ^'''^• 
1 US I,e aban.loue.1 after sou.e years fm- I Jp,? .^ T, ""^ '' P'-^*e^«ion- 
hKs way t.. well .leserve.l iK>,Uar tv v f f'?"'^-^'*' gradually won 
zinesan.l to Panel, . Fo^ ? f' L ^ 'f f«"*''l'"t'ons to the maga- 

Hi8 first great work ^ oi e o .T. T'l'^' *''" ^''^'"""^ " ^""^^ ^'^V^> 
and his rtputatio w.'™^^^ l» k.,-,wn novels, "Vanity kir," 

others. His lectures on the '' Fm,. ( W "'. ^\'^} "■«""ans," an.l 
traiture. As a satirist he It indsb uT^^^ ^'^ ^"" ^^ ^''-'-^P'^^ P"' ' 
comic ballad writer he i7alm if u I .' '^'"^ ^T'^ '•'^'^' ^"'^ ^^ ^ seVio- 
Kensington in IsS. V***"^ ^''1'°''* a uval. He ,lied su.ldenly at 

1. In tattcrcl old slippers that toa^t at tlie Inrs 
Aiul a ragged old jacket perfmued ^,[V.i ci.rarl 
Away from the ^yorld an<l its toils and its ° are. 
- 1 ve a snug little king.loni up four pair of stairs. 

^. To mount t> this realm is a toil, to 1.0 «uro 

But tlje fire there is hright, and the air mtLr pure : 
Ami the vtew I helmld ou a sunslu-ny day 


' Ihrougli the chimney-pots oyer the Ayay. 

0. This snug little chamber is eramm'd in all nooks 
A. I loyonhk.-.s ol.l knickamcks and silly old hooks. 
And foolish old odds and foolish old end« 
CrackM bargains from brokers, cheap keepsakes from friends. 

. ()ld armour, prints, pictures, pipes, china (all crack'd), 
Old rickety tables and chairs broken-back'd • 
A txyopenny treasury, Avondrous to see • 
What matter? 'tis pleasant to you, friend, and ma 

1 employee 
o England 
■sity with- 
liia^ly won 
tlie maga- 
ity Fair," 
Hch make 
aiis," and 
phic por- 
if a sciio- 
lilenly at 


«. No better divani need the Sultan reqinVe, 

Than the creaking old sofa that basks by the f.rc; 
And 'tis wonderfid, snivly, wliat music you got 
From the rickety, ramshackle,'^ wheezy q.inet.' 

6. That praying-rug came from a Turcoman's* camp; 
r.y Tiber* once that l,razen old lamp ; 
A ]\[amoluke« fierce yonder dagger has drawn • 
'Ti3 a murderous knife to toast muffins ui)on. 

7. Long, longtlirough the hours, and the night, and the chime. 
Here we talk of ol<l books, and old friends, and old times ; 
As we sit in a fog made of rich Latakio,^ 

This chamber is pleasant to you, friend, and me. 

8. But of all the cheap treasures that garnish my nest, 
There's one that I love and I cherish the best : 

;ii'irS=SM^:?.-'S;s ==s; ^^s;,- 

A 1110 


nnl bv a not unnatural tmnsit /.n if h,a " . "". ine serine of a council chamber, 
! Oul of repair. An EnfUh colloquial provindaliinii. 

L I 


-I V 



countries lies their rer;;;'^ Oolone B rna .v in'Z" m^X^k^^'": .^''''?^ »^" 
raidinfr propen.sitie.s of .theVurkomat li^e { l4 "greath S.^^^^^^^ 
M an excuse for attackin- theui with a view to coHqucst *''"'^^*'"'**^ ^^ ^^^ "u«,ians 
6 That is, in Rome. An example of synecdoche. See Api^ndix B 

astics in thatc^^.mtn, tL Ct tin, ^n 1^^^^^^^ ^^""^^ Mameluke Uyn- 






For the finest of coucl.o.s that's i,a,Mo,l with hair 
1 never would c]uu,,..thoo,,n,cane-botto.nMli, 

'*■ Whh '::'';"''''''; ^^^^'''"^^^''^'''' —-ten seat, 
^ th a old hack, and twisted old feet ; 

h riT the fair n...r„i„, when I^u.ny sat thei., 
i bless tl^ee and love th.o, old eane-bottoni'd chain 

An..],, ,,^,,^,.^^ your withcr'd old ann. < 

I'-k d and I long'd, and I wishM i„ dosj-air- 
I ^v^'<h .1 myself turn'd to a caned,ottoni'd chair. 

n. It n^s but a moment" she sat in this pLce 

A s n, e on her face, and a rose in hor hair 

And she .at then, and Moon.'d in n.y can^hotton.'d chair. 
12. And so T have valued my cliair ever sinco the shdne of a saint, or the throne o^ a prince; 

feamt Fanny, my patroness ,.weet I declare 

1 ho (iueen of n.y heart and n.y cane-bottom'd chair. 

- Wh.n the candles burn low, and the company's ^one 
In the sdence of mght, as I sit hero alone- ^ 
I sit here alone, but we yet are a pair— 
My Fanny I see'- in my cane-bottom'd chair. 

M. She comes from the past and revisits my room • 
She looks as she then did, all beauty and bloon.' • 
So snnhng and tender, so fresh and so fair 
And yonder she sits- in my -cane-bottom'd 'chair. 

— ^ V/ acLera y. 





Thtre will be a strong tendency to sing-song or excessive verse oo^nf i„ ,-»ji .u, 
^. This tendency c.n be cheeked and avoide,i by bri" rZZl ^^.^1:3 ^ ' 
t.f «on of quantity on expressive words, and by eq.uU a<'cent as far L^ Zh n 
unun,K>r..nt won.s. Th.. in the second stan/a ^t the Z^M^'ZrZI^:^:: 
o : :,^ ',?•:/-'";-;; ^-inK it exaggerated innK,rtance ; then pause aTterVt. ml 
^' bri. hr "a. T^ "■'""""""■ ""''''■ '" *"•-' «'*'""" ""« «""'""" the word, to 

I^^^r n. tb7"";:r* "'''""""•" -^ -" "-.-shinyday-Hiower'and with t, al 
n a .L fasti 'rr, T """""" " ^""'"^ "" ^'^^ ""'^'^'"^ '«"•-• "»* ^-^ the re- 

t lorein^lLn f humorous: but it changes to 

lltrUv, .hf T i i"" '"'"''"' '" ^''"^ '•"■"''"'inK «tanzas. Observe t hat the metre 
Is tns llabic (see Appendix A), two unaccented syllables being followed by one acc^ tei 
exceptn..' .,. son.e of the lines where the first foot is an ian.bus : * 

Liie conies | froni the past | and rcvls | its luy rOOm, 

, -5 



Beryamin Franklin was one of the seventeen children -of a soan im\ 
ranUi'""'''^^''" -^^i «""fe"-«te.l from OM to New CLnS 1^682 
Fmnkhn was born m Boston in 1706, and, at the age of ten was taken 
from school to learn his father's business. His diflike to it Toweve? 
and l„s des-re for a sea life led to his being appren ced to lis bSer' 
ri«b ^ occupation a printer. The fondness for books of wh"ch iS 
speaks seems to have won him from his early aspirations! and Tfter ac 
2 S.1 /r^' '^'^^ ^ r^^'^ knowledge ancfsoiSe mech^nTcal sktll hj 
S nShTT''*^ business for himself, in Philadelphia, a^ a pr iter 
an<i publisher. In an unassuming way he exercised an imwrtant infln 
TboutVi^lf '""^ community ofwhich he became a proSntmem tr" 
About 1/42 he commenced the electrical experiments which resulted in" 
his discovery of the identity of lightning with the electrc fluid and 
his invention of the lightning conductor-Lhievements wS nlace hhn 

Sot :S '■^V'nVl""" ^'V^'""" >^'hen the Se"olu?ioC; w" 
^T. .If took an active part m asserting the rights of the colonists 

^self-government, and m 1778 he went as their representative to Pa ?s 
where five y^rs later he signed, on behalf of his countrrthe treat? bv 

^ok pkceln 1%"''h' '^ '\t ^"'^'^ ^^^*^-^ "^ «ecu?ed 'ffisla 
took place m 1 90. He was the author of many philosophical and noli 

A erbs, ki OH 11 as ' Poor Richard's Almanac, " and by his "Autobiocranhv '* 
from which the following passage is taken. ^utouiography, 

From a child I was fon.l of reading, and all the little nionev 
that came into mv h-mda wno lawi ^..,f ;», i i.. -r^t , . " 





the 1 ,l,n,„ s J.„,„,V" my fi„, c„|l,.eti„„ „s „f ,I„1,„ ]lu„- 
y«..» work,, ,„ »,,„,„„ ii,u„ ,,„,„„„., I „f,„„.„,.^, ^ ™ 

fc. ..m.,i„ ,„.. t„ ,,„, ,, ,,,„,,„„ ..„.^,„^.^,^, ,,,„,.^,.„, ;; 

"i"l I st.ll tl,„,k that tun.. »,„.„t t„ «r,.„t ,„lv„nt.,f.e. ThJo 
w„» alsna .„,„k of I,„ F,K.',,. calk.,1 "An Ks,ay on Vroj,. , " 
"." «notl,,.r of I,r. Muth,.,-',,. ..Ilcl " K»s„y, ,o ,,o . ioo,!," v , h 

Kouio of til,. i,r,n,Mpal futinv ,.v,.nt,8 of my lifo 

Tl..» bookish i,„.li,.al.ion at l..„,-tl, ,I....,.n, 1 „„ f.,tl,er l„ 

». on,„ a ,„„t«, tl,o,,,l, ,,„ ,,.,., already „„., ^.JjC 
tliat profession. In 1717 i,,„ i „. n t \ / j^ 

^^ , , ., »» I'l/ luy l)rothor Jainos rotuniMl from 

."'■- , "" ""- ""■"■ To prevent the a|,prel,en,le.l otfect 
"f sue. an „,el,nation. n,y f„„„.,. ,v„. i„,p„t „t to have m 
;-™;^J»-yWo^ tLe, bnt at ZZ 

*'l-*'u*u"" "•»*'=' niinvan and otherto% wr!f5i ' ''^,"'' ''^"''* '"oiiUled to sonio 

W hiS^,^?;;.^'^f;;,^«^|^]^-;^^^ a n„„.heror pop,,. 

Nathaniel ( rouch. of London. The nai o " Roh'^rf n, f^ between IJSl and 1730 l-v 
fh plnm^ of tho publLshor. It was mi e famo^M ', r?''^?' '? *'i'inK>«td lo be a „„ ;, 

I^. is ciS7 frorrheT^.'uie";'.;^^^^^ 'J;:r ^"T=^"-^- ^^--'.v-o-s .Hh merchant 

^.jf^LSpC^^^^-,^^^ - ^JJr^^T^- to Which Fran.l.„ .Ido. re- 

is\m "LivcRof I h.striou8 Men '• wh^^^^^^^^ ^~^- "is n.ost fammn work 

and has been translated irfto all literarv^f *"'^" P*'^;" '''' ^■''^ '^'1 <-'las8es i, a'l Leg 
Bible of heroisms. • ' ''**'''"^'^ ' u,{n,a-08. Emerson has well styled H "The 

^<^^'^rStlS^'1l^^S:^;f7l^^,P^^ the rei.„ of the 

6 The Rev Dr rnff„„ m *i. , ^ roj^^cts «as published in 1097. 

in ICci X ?Is ?"v ne' f .t^A'rn'i!;^ '^T ^'^ "I," ^'"°.^'' ^^ ''-" >" Boston 
than one learned body in Eur^ He di^lf in "Jo^ '"'^ """"'^^ °' *^°"°'- fro,n n/or" 
? Metallic tjTies for printin- with 

9 Apprentice I. '' "" 



l)nrsua.l.-.l, mA sigijod tho indi-ntmos when 1 

\Vii-4 yet hut twcivi 

uKl. I was to soivo (IS iiii uppiciiti. i» till I was tw.'tity- 


.veaiN of n;. ^ only I \yas to bo allov,.;.! jounicyinairs"' wa^'.'s .lur- 
ing 111., liist y.'.ir. In a littl.^ tinio I iaa.l» gioat ptoficioncy iu 
the lmsim.'..s, nml ljocaiii.3 a useful ium<l" to my l.rothcr. 

r n..w had access to l»ettor h-juks. An a.; luaiiitau.o with tho 
appiciiliccs i.f hooksclJors euiihled mo sunu'timcs to bo 

• row a 

iru soon an«l l1 

small hook, which I was careful to ivX 
Often I sat up in my nKUii reading thi» greater part of the nivl 
Aviieii liie book was lM)rrowed in tl 
early in the moniing, If4 it shoidd l»e missed 


m eveniii'' an. 

I tol 
or want.'d. 

»e IV turned 


Allivsonie time an ui-enioiH t:ade-man, Afr. >ralthew Adi 
who li:td a preKy collrciiiin (,f h.icks, and who fr.'.|uent.d 
])iintiiigliou-r, tdok notice of me, invited me to his libiarv, an.l 
very kindly lent mo Ijooks as I cho.^o to km.!. I now took 
a fan.y to poetiy, and made some little pieces, ^fy bmther 


thinking it might turn to account, enc.nirage.l m.', and put 
<jn comi)osing** occasional ballads. One was called the *' Light- 
liou«e Tragedy,'' and contain.;.! an a.-count of the drowning of 
Cajitain Worlhilak.', with his two daughters, the other was a 
sailors song, on the taking of Tea.di (or, the pirate. 
They w.!ie wret.'.hcl stuff, in the (Jrub Street'' ballad style; and, 

10 From the French >h,-, a day ; one who works by the dav. The wo-d is an old 
one in hnv'l.Hh. Cf. Shakespeare's "Richard ll." Act 1, Scene 3, where DoL2^', 
on the UN e of hia banishment, says: v""" . 

" Mns' I not serve a lonjr apprentioehood 
To foreisn paasau'e.s ; and in the eml, 
Havni!,' my freed, m. b^ast of nothin:,' c!se 
lint that 1 was a journeyman to grief V" 

11 Synecdoche, See Ai; endix B. 

12 The word "roiniK)sin.,r " is n^ed to si..'nlf> the act of p.ittinp words together so as 
prilrivnlS'-""' •'''*''''" "'^ tos;i,^nifyihe act of putting type to^avher to form 

n A street in London, now Milton Slrnet Jt was much frequented in and before 

[' ' "^ app! c I t(a any niferipr literary production. Poiie refers in very uneompliiufntarv 
language to Grub Street in h^s Dmiciad, JJoc.k I. : ""voii.i>iiiutui»ry 

Close to those walls where folly holds her ihrone, 

One cell there is, concealed from vulg'ar e\e, 
Tl e i«ve of poverty and poetry. 
Keen l:«iiow winds howl throuyrh the b'eak recess, 
EmblLiii o'. li.uaic tan: ed 1 v mm. Ji. (.■."!<, 




when ihay w« i,ri?.( i k,, ^,., - , 

ihe Hm sold ,f„Jl3. tlu, .vcpt heiug nu..,.!, Imvin. nuulo 

a great 4M»l*«^. rhi, »<i niv v hut ,„v n . 
as," 1 ..o ..y rui„.„J„„ „„ ,„.,f„,„„.,„,„, ^,„, 

n.».t ,.m*„Ujav«y ba.l „,. M„,t a, ,.,J,. wnti,,; ,„1 ,, ,.„ 

mean,, 0, „„ ..,,„«„,,, j „,,„„ „„ ^.„^ , ,^ . _ ^^^^,1 | 

t.on r „.,,nm.,l wuat I.ttlu ability I havo in way 

About thi, tiu„i r „,.t will, an odd v„lun,. „f the, S,:,rtat,^ « 
t was the tbinl, I ,„„, ncv,. b,.f„,o ,e™ any „f 't,,.: I 

r 1 ti ' "r; „" "■" "■"' ""■■•• "■"• ^-"^ ■'-'" '•'■'i^'"'"' -* 

mif to r^ W H """'"''.•!■''-"-". ""J -i»l.-l, if possible, to 
"" , . ^V ,th this v,o«- I t„ok some of tb„ ,,ai„.rs, and 
mal<,n« short Innts of U,„ scnti.nent in caoh scntonci, laid tluM,,' 
l.y a few days, „nd then, without loolun, at the book, tried to 
c.«n,,Ieto the papers again, by expa.ssing each hinted sentiment 
at ength, and ,„ fm|y „ it ,,.,i ^^^ ^ „,^,^^^,, 

suitable woKls that should eome to hand. Then I eomplred „,y 
Ik 'taor „,th the original, diseovered son.e of „,y faults, and 
or^eted them. But I found I wanted a st,.ek of word, or „ 
read,ne,s ,n reeolleeting and using then,, which I thought I 
should have acquired before that if I had gone on tn^kin.. 

Hence burds. like Proteus, lonjr in vain tied down 
Es.;a|.o ,n monsters, and amaze the t*wn ' 

Honcu i.vmnmH: Tyburn's ele-riac lines. " 

«„!'!,Tk^"".T'^' ""^leys. me- curies, magazines- 
Sepulchral lies, our holy walls to grace *» '""*^*' 

form, contaming some account of thmr iivLand exploits ^ *"' °^ ''^^^'^^' "' '""""I 

Ef!i;;j':;^r^j;ei^;^rt;,zt*;;LS;x^'i^a^;i^'^""' -^ *"« --<^ o. 

trlbuS rc;ilSred"^.*,iv"s'a;;aS^r "^e^^f^rlS"^'^'^ '^ ^"''^'^ "^'^-^^ - 

of'yS^^Tllri^JVi:^ and wen worthy 

Iwh. Dr. Johnson savs : " Whoever wishes to attninlT-p^'v ^^^''"''^ *" ^^''•!ti"'r Kul 
coarse, elegr.nt but n.t o.tentSs. n Sst give h s dav?'^ d'^nf 'l'^ [''"'[''''' '"■' "»* 
A H.son." In spte of tnl- high pmise howfver nlLrl^^u "'^'^**' *« ^'^^ 8t""Jy of 
who.e styles are at least . .Jy Sy orbeln'r/eScte'd'X'a'* ''''''' "^ "-^^"l 

LKAUytM: To WHITi: I'llOSE. 


VftMOH; sincn tho continual occiusic i for words of tL «• -e im- 
port, but of (lifrm-nt l(!ngtli, to 8uit tho measure, or ot diflrrcnt 
Hound for the rhj.ins would h)iv(! iuirl uio under a constant nts- 
cossity of .HcardiinK for vurioty, and al.s<j liavo tended to Hx that 
variety in my mind, and nnike lue master of il. * Therefore I 
to(ik some of tlic talus and turned them into verse, an I, uft*>? o, 
tim«s when I had pretty well forL,'ott<"n the pmst., turned theui 
hack agiin. 1 also Konictinu's jumlilrd my collection of hintb 
into confusion, and after some weeks endeavourt'd to leiluco 
the?n into the best onhsr, Iwifore'l be-^an to fitrm the full Hen- 
lencBF. and comphite the paper. This was to teach me method 
in th.! arrangement of thoughts. \\y comparing my w.)rk after- 
wurtl with the original, 1 dis(M)vered many faults, and amentle(l 
them ; but I sometimes had tin- pleasure of fancying that in 
certain partiiujlars of small imp<.rt, I had been lucky enough to 
improve the method or the language ; and this encouraged me to 
think 1 might possiblv, in time, come to be a tolerabh; English 
writer of which I was extremely ambitious. 


;'' J i 
i 'J 

My brother had, in 1720 or 1721, begun to print a newspaj)er. 
It was the second that a})p*'ared in Anierica, and was called the 
New Enyland Couraut The only one before it was the Boston 
Neics Letter. I renn'mber his being dissuaded by some of his 
friends from the undertiking as not likely to succeed, one news- 
paper being, in tluur judgment, enough for America. At this 
time there are not less than tive-and-twenty.'^ Ho went on, how- 
ever, with the undertaking, and after having worked in compos- 
ing'2 thp types and printing olf the sheets, I was employed to 
carry the papers through the streets to the customers. 

He had some ingenious men among Iiis friends, who amused 
themst^lvos by writing little pieces for this paper, which gained 
it credit and made it more in demand, and these men often visited 

" in 1881 the number of nmspapers :n America amounted to upwards of nine 
tnoiisund. FninKliir* enumeration was for the jear 1785. 






« , on tl,c.r ,«,,„,. >ve™. r«.„,v,Kl with. I „., ..,„it«l to try my 

uy or wo„l,l „l,j„a to |„i„ti„g anytLin^ „f „i„o h, H, 
.or .f ,„ k„„„ it t„ 1,0 „,i„., I ,„„t„voa t.,.]i,,,„ise ,„yl.^ 

.loor „f the pn„ti„«.l,„us„. It wa, found i„ ll,„ ,„on in, .,„! 

rr'T '",'':: '"'■""" f''™'- "'- t..,.y : a"„: 

"«< . . rhoy read <t, conm.ontcd „„ it i„ „,y ,,e„i„„ and I 

a Id ■n„a„ , tj. I «„,,,„,,, „„,,_ „,^j ^. ^^_^^ o 

u, g.«, and tlut, porLap... t!,oy wcro not really .o vry -u^ ," , 
M I lUeu csteoincd them. >i>oOWonc3 

Henjamin Franklin. 


and hi. mother the daJhter of a D.l^n^ ''.'''?.' * ^T * M"a.-,J,man 
this sketch wa« their fiftrchVhl ai^llto , of ' fni ' *'" f '''^^'^ ^^ 
M-a. removed from hia rative pla^-e to Wexf,^^ At the age of eight he 
M'urds lost his mother, from wtom ho in. > f^^''^?''' '°<*" »^^ter- 
aiid legeiKlary lore He visifrll a • ."''\«''t«<l '"s love of poetry 
J.dy in that year ma,le lu-s S/t?'?''' '* 'f -\^"'^ *>" *''« f«"Vth Jf 
Mluch. young^ashe wa^;i!^ntfh?,^,aZfr''^ ^leliverin.^ an a.ldr.s 
fVot Two ^years later hJ becLme d^'* Htor" ^''Tf'^" "^ *'l« «««tou 
speeches during the Know-nothing and l4noLr^^^^^^^ "^/'^'''g^ ^"'i 

attmcted so much attention thK was oS^ril f h ""^^ "^*'''^* *''"« 
Dublin Freemm\,Journuf, within three^ouinl u ''f '^PT^.p of tho 
to push unaided his fortunes Ame,ii'''V';^ ^r^'^ left Ireland 
was too cautious for his taste he tVamfr^:.! T " *''•*' '^""'•''«'' ^ »»«'> 
t!.en edited by Charles gSZI Duffr T 'e l llu ff?/"-'' ^**'"^ ^«'*"". 
propagandism was the -paratioa^of tie'^/w'^^-^J'^f'^^i^^P"^^^^^^ 

July. 184!s. m.v.0^ m^)^r^L ,V" "'"'■''^'•^ i"-.n-..otion o 

nnssion i„ connection wit! t he' S'vnna t L? "'r '" '"/^^tlan.l on a 

escape.] to America, where he sh ,,t v ff *•* V '^•^'""^'^ *« 1'<-I»'..1 and 

tion of the New Y. k JV,/,V^ ' i ^ """'^"•■^'' the publica- 

Bishop Hughes of that d y o'^r tt at"t STf ;;'''t t'"-\^.^— '^thoWc 

the " Voting Ireland" insurrX^Jn 1 i 1 1 "^*''''^'■'**'' '"<^'archy .fMrinff 

a..d the starting o the " r^SH'^^ ot thcU'^y.-^ 

<'roppe.l the revolntionarHa, u—^^^^^^^^ '^^^•, "<^ K'-ad...lly 

writings, and became an ea S Soc^ Tl ' '''^, '*^V^ "^ '''^ ^"''''^'^ 

promoter of all schemes for imnlt • ?i ^'',''' ""'^^ *"''^'' "»<I azealoiia 

In 18.-.71ie remove tr.,. 1^1.'^; *''^' ?""«'^tion of the peon-r 

he started 7;::;^::s's:'^^;:t::' t ?t';^i" ^-treai,^,^.; 

elected to represent part of the citvo \Innf ! f'' '"«;"'g year he was 
ment, of which hr,,ly lierenSned n .no.,\ 1 \';^ the Canadian I'arliu- 
an active part in hxi^X!^?\TTl '"^l'''^^'- t' 1 Confcde.ati.,n. He took 

viuces aniw.sclo ;tan^XrlT;Vr ^"^«'''^'^" l'">- 

career was, ho^-ever 1 o u ? 1 1 ''l'^^^, "'^" « "f C(,m„,on9. Hi , 

■ted as he returned from the l'«. inmr,?/ f' V • *'^' ^f was .vsi^assi n- 
1. i^' ll.e ^«»l;;'rt of St. M.Io 'twa, „ ™ili,,, „,„„, j,. jfav 

:!,;" ^"'""'°"'"" ^"^■i™^ ^■"■"■"'■'" "- -o.,twar,K;:ii.,i 

jiwciy , 

In t]>c crowdcl old c.-.o.lral all the town^ wore on tl.eir 

F..f th. safe ,,,tnm of ki,„„„.n f„„„ „„ ,„„,i,„,vcr'a seas ■ ' 
And every a„tu„,n blast that swept oW- ,,i„„„ele and pieri' .1 manly Loarts with sorrow, and gentle hearts with fear. 

" wr""',!T'' '''"'^'- "'''"-"Sain eame round the ,,av 
W hen the Connnodore Cartier to the westward .iail'd 
away; ^ 

But no tnlings from the ahsent ha.l oon,e tho way they went 
And tearful were tho vigils that ,„any a n.aiden spent ; 

t Jacques Cartier was the diseoveror Of thpSf ra„,, d- ' 

distance iit IM4. It in 1535 timt he ,,^.1^1"-""" '^'*''""' "P ^''hich he sailed somi. 
a 8ea-p<,rt of the island ,.f .V o v H h t-o nnm. o J''-^'''--?J''''u«'"''^'* to^'-ove. St MaK,!^ 
moans of a mt.lo. Its excellent iu o. rS^it ^r vVV. Ko*'^'? ""*""'""• "^ P'anci hy 

. %n.doche. Of. the Trench ex.ressiot ;r;;^.::::7o;:?e^^^^^^^^ 



And manly l.carts >vere fiUVl with gloom, and gentle hrarta 
with fear. 

When no tidings came from Cartier 

at the closing of the 

8. But the Earth is as the Fnturo,^ it hath its hidden si<lB • 
And the Captain of St. Malo was rejoicing in his pride ' 
- In the forests of the north-while his townsmen mourn'd his 

He was rearing on Mount Royal the. fleur-dc-lrs and cross ■* 
And when two months were o.ver,'^ and added to the yea/ 
St. Malo hail'd him home again, cheer answering to cheer. 

4. He told them of a region, hard, iron-hound, and cold 
.\or se^is of pearl ahcJund(,d, nor mines of shining gold • 
Where the wind from Thule freezes the word upon the hp 
And the ice in spring comes sailing athwart tlm early ship •« 
He told them of the frozen scene until they thriU'd with fear 
And piled fresh fuel on the hearth to make him better cheer! 

«. r,ut when he changed the strain-he told how soon is cast 
In early spring the fettei-s that hold the waters fast • 
How the winter causeway^ broken is drifted out to sea 
And the rdls and rivers sing with pride the anthem of ih^ 

8 A ve:y poetical simile. See AppendixB ^ ' ' 

wh^eta^S?^^^^^^ behind the city of Montreal, into 

.n5t£K-^r-e-l Trb!/;^^^^^ '" ^^^ roya, arms of France 

torn, appears a.s"flower^e-hu.c'^"*"' ^ *''^ '"^"'''^ """'«••• ^n old English t?e 


How the magic wand of sun.mer clad the landscape to his 
Like the dry bono, of the just, whe„ they wake in Paracli^a 
.. He tola them of the Algonquin hraves'-the hunters of t!,o 

Of how the Indian mother in the forest roek, h'er chihl : 

Of how, poor souls, they fancy in every livin,, thin- 

A spnut god OP evil, that claims their worshi,,pin..° 

Of how they brought their sick and maim'd for him to' breathe 

7. He told them of the river whose mighty current gave 

s reshness for a hundred leagues to Ocean's briny wave : 
He told them of the glorious scene presente.1 to his sight, 

1 i!;r» """ "'^ "'"^ ^"^' ='■""•" «■' "-"'"i'^ 

of the 

quods and Nan-ajransett^of New E.^'la^^lhe^M^m^^^^^^^ J' embmc^'the pj. 

of New Brunswick, the Montaffnais an Ot awarof n?. f ^^'"k* ^^<'"*' '^e Abenaquis 

thr„Uljr^a?rofes? OntaHo. and Huron, and 

apmst that of the Iroquois, or I'u^Nftions a pI^^.'^c-^^ Al-onquin confederation 
•State of New York. The fi^e nat onsvfere th"e mX" U ^J'^T^ho occupied j«rt of the 

of 8iK>ech is synec^oclie ^ "'' ^""'*"' ""' synonymous with " wa- rior." The figure 

tn^^S&i!].^^ ^S'aJ^'iaiSS?^;r;!f :ff • *^'« ^'^^t the Indians brought 
disclaimed supernatural piwer but iV^' rp^.Hf ? "'1' ''^ '"-"'* *" cure them. Carticr 

K--.^and respectful ad^iiSii^iS^S?^! ''^^^^25;^^ 

wh^t'Kot^i^t^^^^^^^ t^j'ft^i?\rn"if ^"i^'- -"'^'^« -•t-t.d .„ 

circular, {xilisadcd enclosure, and" ontaLl ^1.0?,^ fl?."^ It was built within a 

and about a thousand inhahitan s XZd ,on.e .J^^^^^^ vvcll-built house, 

their sustenance was derived fron. crops of F„dla^, oorn tII'*''*' °' '^(fr'^u'ture. Fart . 
ir.vo„ to one of the counties into whicS Mo S isL^d is di'videT "' ^'^^'^'^'^ *« «*'" 



An^l of the fortress cllffn th„t keep, of Canada the koy 

Thomas D'Arcy McGee. 


time. ' '• " '""^*' *''^^«'°''«. be read in pur« tone and medium 

The 4th stanza, which presents gloonn- picturefi of fho 
covered, should be read in deeper to^s but Th t T ""'"'^ '^^'^^' ^"^ '^'«- 
deeming feature, of the land the ton! L ' t h! ^ T " '^""*'''' *'''' ^*''^'" *« ^^e re- 
the last three lines den.and an ncr I o7 fl ' ? ,"' T' """"*^''' '^"^ ^^^-^f"' = 

A Similar expression must mark the L^. o th 'l: ". '" *'^ ""''"^• 
Of triumph and power on the last line. TheL , ' oTth T'r"""^ '"^'^ *°"«'' 
expression of religious reverence. ^^'^ ^**"'* ""^^ ha\e an 


born in 181 L He belong to thf ^-^^ r / I Rochdale, where he Mas 

the flrrt time in 1847 wLX ™ Sr,^ ''" '"""'™'' Parliament for 
Chester. More reeently he was elcted ft nf """T' """ ""^ »' Man- 

thesufferingcauaedhvcropfalureslndih "''''• *^ the condition of their tenantrv 


ni 1854. He wis equally oEdo2i V . nnv ? t'«'»g *« war witL Itussia 
Turkey from dis.nembe.S in IS'^ ^ ,"t"'^* '"""- '"'-^^'^ ^o protect 
the (Gladstone Minis ryri4> a it th'nh'^' '■"''^''"'^"' '"'^ !">«•*'"" "> 
on the .ebellious subjects of the JvvV,t!^^K if' r^ "^ *'^.'*^' *" '''« '^"^^^ 
speeches were made before a .d S 1?+) n '''^•' '^^""^ «^ ^^^ ^"est 
made during the SecesJirWa tZVv^it^^T^ ^'^'" ' 'TV^^^ 
poused bemg that of the North • „nJ V.^^ . '^K^^^^' *''^ S'<^e he es- 

discussiou of the state, /lrei„;d?h.^*''''>'''.^""' '^^^'"^^^l *« th« 
socal and political evi s in ti a conitrv"^'"' !' B»gfevste<l for the 
head and his heart. Mr Brkht'^Tl ^- '*'"*i '''^"^'^'>: ^-''^^litabie (o his 
as his nmnner is b^ sincerity ^ A fl^ " characterized by simplicity 
stated that he ooul^ not Sn a sentei^c'l" b.^/" * P"'^^*^ «l^««^'' »>« 
he had ever written which he id n t . '*'* ^'f- "**"^'*''^ «»■ ^ !'"« 

ami literally true, and the sta ern^n; J n*'"'^ Relieve to be strictly 
either his assoc-at^s or his oppSients '^^ "'""'' ^'' 'l"«^^t'«"'--d by 

e^d ictf f "'^l^'?^^'^^^ !---« -ho live in the distres. 

8 trov^^ T .r^"' '"^'"'"' " '^'^°"^' ^^ '-^^"-^^ totally de- 
troyed. The e they are-men .vhom God nmde and permitte.l 
o con^ „»to this worM. endowed with facuUies like ours ve 

but who are unable to maintain thon.selves, and nnJei^T; 

starve or hve upon others.^ The interference with their property 

has been enon^^ons-so^^t as absolutely to destroy it Lw^ 

character. In 1847 as in isho « .1 • , ~^ — 

rapidity in tho British^ent and'umior"!""*''''*''"." *"" ^'"^ F'^^^e.l with preat 
we e "proclaimed;- and some o the lead n^ •/i'''' ''*''' •'^'*^"' AistticU in Ireland 
ex.e. JhedlstresU-hichwastoa Irge"^^^^^^^^^ convicted und sent into 

Ireland" upr.sin^' in 1848, hecanie at il! c "mnediate occasion of tlie "Youne 
mcnt o Lord John Ru.sel'l n??^uced a W in?o ?hr«'' ''f o''*';'--^' '" ^^*^ *>>« GoS 
grant of .tro.OOO to certain districts fnwhkhthos.^ff^"^''''' Parliament providing- for a 
on the motion for the second ret^in.^of this billin fh'^^rY''' 'I'*^''''^"-^^ ^ " wa.s 

Bright made, on the second of Apr 1 \he 1 le nn.^h « *^'' "(.'"i^^ °' C< nm.ons that Mr. 
passage is taken-a sjieech whi.7Ji efali os a™^'''^^ rom which the following 

Mr Bng:ht called "alms and force" was np^sX,!,-.,*- ^^^ ^"^^ nialady by what 

1881 and his Arrears of Rent Act of 1882 In tho ,.n!n *^ Mr. (ilatfstone's Land Act of 
he proposed certain reforn.s in the wav of abridL^hi'? th J ' *'* V* ^^'- ^rifrht's speech 
W,._and prevent .t passin, freely from'o^J S^'J^SCrfcC ^^!^{X 

« Pronounced " Ke-deeve." 

sfiir Robert Peel, then in Opposition. 

tio^'SViSSe^SrS'"^^ '"^ ''"'' ^"^P'-y^d by the Land League in the .glta- 





which I L:;x^irz:"T' "r "■-" "'^' 

decliiv. fo 1 1- ./ ' -^^ ^^"^ gontlemeu of Ulster 

;' hlr::;';;';::t'^ "'■"'"^' '- -" "" -^^"'^ -^ -p-^y- 

i .nui:';:" ^1^1' ■'",'/;"' ';'^"""» "*'°-"-' -.d 'errU„rial 

token of your di, .™„ ' : f .p V ""' ""^ ™'^ ^^'"'"'' »'' 
she n. humiliation to the whole world? I, 

the Union 5 Tf 1 , ^ '' '^'^^ ^^^'^^ ^^« «hall weaken 

and west of Ireland. ^ ^ ''"'^^'^^ "^ ^^^^ ^^'^"^^^ 

The condition of Trnlmii n<^ +i • 

-naced with n,i„ ::t;:;„r::°r i r- 'r'""'-'- "™ 

duat... There ar^nouraMe gentlemen' in this House, and 

' It is the invariable custom of members of Parii. n, * • ^ 

of Parlmment ,n England and the British 



there are^othor landed proprietors in Ireland, who are as admir- 
al.le in the perforinanc, of all their social duties as any men to be 
found in auy part of the worl.l. We have had l.rilliant examples 
mentioned in tliis House; but tliosi, men themselves are suffer- 
nig their characters to bo damaged by the present condition of 
Ireland, and are undergoing a process which must end in their 
own ruin ; because this demoralisation and pauperisation will go 
on in an extending circle, and will engulf the whole property of 
Ireland iu one common ruin, unless something more be done 
than passing poor-laws and proposing rates in aid. 

Sir, if ever there were an opportunity for a statesman, it is 
this. This is the hour luidoubtedly, and wo want the man. 
The no],lo Lord at the head of the Government^ has done many 
things for his country, for which I thank him as heartily as any' 
man— he has shown on some occasions as much m-raf courage 
as it is necessary, in the state of public opinion, upon any ques- 
tion, for a statesman to show ; but I have been much disap- 
pointed that, upon this Irish question, he has seemed to shrink 
from a full consideration of the difficulty, and from a resolution 
to meet it fairly. The character of the present, tlie character 
of any Goverinnent under such circumstances, must be at stake. 
The noble Lord cannot, in his position, remain inactive. Let 
him be as innoccTit as he may, he can never justify himself to 
•Jie country, or to the world, or to posterity, if he remains at th-. 
liead of this Imperial Legislature and is still unaljle, or unwilling, 
to bring forward measures for the restoration of Ireland. "l 
would address the same language also to the noble Lord at the 
head of the Irish Government, who has won, I must say, the 

colonies to speak of each other as "honourable pcntlemen." There arc of course fre 
queiit opportu/uties of urnxg the epithet ironically. course, fre- 

8 Lord John Russell, lonpr a prominent member and leader of the Whitr partv was thr. 
author of many measures which, in their operation, were hKlTl^neS to 
Liifiland. He was raised to the ueeraL'e a« Farl Kiis!p1I ••. iw«i „. i ii ! . 

made a speech in which, after'^Sw^? tt^SZfi'h^' ^ky^'h^d^^^^^^^^^ 
lie advised thejn to "rest and be thankful " Th^ fnfiuf,, «* „„,>v, i • '*»-^"'"P"8'i<;ti, 
the rapidity Ah which that party hLprosress^ in thS^ „f Viwi^r'*''^" ^^ 

ids translation to the House of' Lo4. E^arlCS dU in ^^^X^^'atZy'^i^ 
wid after being more than once Prime Minister. ° '-'g'»V-3ix» 



•4} 4 



CMf.'An/AM headbii.-uour ri. 

Hut ho m„,,t ITr,,. i„ „,i„ I ' H'« H'»er„m.„t of Irdan.l. 

atatc,„,.„,,,ipt: , ; " , ' " " :-^ ""^ "'" '"■"'"••^' '>'n>rtof 

ve.T few ,„.i .,,::: !::::„'■:;-;■'■">■ "■""■" '""'■" "■•» 

too, with 50,000 „n„rf ,m „ " •' " T"'" "'° P'^"'"' 

»d peaco „t „„ ha..,.a.. ,„„ , .fi !',;: 'f T/TT"'' 
guis ltd iK.hlfman int,.,,.!. , . , "'""""I . ''"t if that distiii- 

-'•«. -«ard to ■ ^ ^"r™ '""■''''" "^ " ^""-— 

«ost .noLuro, to the Gv ,,::'; '! "'"' ''" ""^'■""'^ '° ^'S" 


raided throe .yca,s a,o fo I,' a"^t "^ ' "''^^"'•'"""" """ "^ ' 
03 was vorj- natural, .suh.oribod ; the hoa „ 1 , „'" ^"'''• 

™:.stpa..t3„nhooa.h»nt;„Xlt ;r'S^^^^^^ 
d.a.,s on the AnuTicancontinontsont th,.,V , 1 . ' '"" 

■nans applied ir, a defer -..hI^ ^^"'I'a'-ative forn^ ,,.,;/„r,va:. .vonf '"■ '' ''«"^«--<» 
several E,,ropea„ Ian!?, '^'^ i" one forn. or" another U .'"""''''* '''^ ^'''■ 

of dij^nity. Aco, d";;^'^,'^,,^ *^^^ ^ '.nark respect a, d somet merth'f ^.t^.^i''!" 
senum-m. 'Shi: VaMUU > Jw" J , "- '''-^'''ved forms are from til „ *"« attribute 
is contraclpj fro. tlw ,.i Tl °- yo"«l"ial usa«-e, as wd as fh •• J' ..^T,'*''**'^'-' ^'•'^^o 
mancenudiJic'tioMo '!."•' ^'■''"f'^ xeimear, alod ami thl^^.f '^"i «/ l<"i;;!ithood. 

the Spanish is .V.^or fl '1' n 'm l..- ^''''. '*='''"" '""" is *l,m^f "^'t a^ I f ^^0 

^^'•/vm.u,. appear,; i/; .ij . ^^.J [«; >•' P-'onundation the ^fe^'* '^::'^J I/'*" ;%>">/•; 

anstocracv was ereat.-.i i '^f . ^ *'"^' ''""''"ill 'W/ne in OiiX. .1 '^'.'^ ^'^' "'"^ 


the Carolinas subscribed tl.oir sorrowful n.ifo that tho miseries 
of Ireland might be relieved. The whole worhl looke<l upon 
the condition of Ireland and helped to n.iti,.Uo her n.i.eries. 
\Vhat can we say to all those eontributors, who. now that they 
have paid, must be anxiou. to know if anything is done to pn.- 
ven a recurrence of these calamities ? We must tell them with 
blushes that nothing has been done, but that wo are still going 
on with the poor-rates, and that, having exhausted the patience 
of the people of England in Parliamentary grants, we are com- 

• ;;•??' T ::'"' "^ ^'^^^ ^^^^^-^^^^^ altogether to the property 
of Ireland Ihat is what we have to tell them ; whilst we have 
to acknowledge that our Constitution, boasted of as it has been 
for generations pact, utterly fail, to grapple with this grc-. 
question, " " 

lion, gentleinen turn with triumph to neighbouring countries, 
and speak in glowing terms of our glorious Constitution. It is 

rue hat abroad thrones and dynasties have been overturned', 
Avhilst m Lngland peace has reig,.! undisturbed.'^ liut take all 

ho live3 that have boon lo.s^ in the last twc.lve months in 
Lurope amid.t the convulsions that have occurred- lake all the 
cessation of trade, the destruction of industry, all the crushing 
of hopes and hearts, and they will not compare for an instant 
^uth the agonies which have been endured by the population of 
Ireland under your glorious Constitution.'^ And there are those 
who now say that this is the ordering of Providence. I met an 
Imh gentleman the other.iight, and, speaking upon the subject, ' 
he aid that he saw no remedy, but that it seemed as if the pre- 
sent s.ate of tlun:;s were the mode by which PI•o^ idence intended 

upi« >n « ,., .: ^"*- niifeses of Y]^'^ Peo|)Ic m several Ki-ropcan couiitri> 

' took 

■ some 


parts ontaly: >e onl7cH«ru"ba^ j/'^he'^.^^fi;:^:^/!!!''''- -^-^^ ^ SSu 
Garden uprising: of Smith O Brien and Iils Siti vh i'''^ '^'^ '^,'^'''"«' " <^M.a-e 
" Iro.-iy. See Ari-enJ.:x B. '^^ouates, wh,ch was quelled by the politic. 


e i, 


• - (i 



CAXA/j/A\ i:i:m>ei:. hook n. 

to solve the question of triHl, (Iiffic,,lt;,.s Vui If 
«..'! the .sh„«r; .till tl,,/ , " t ll l" T ^'"^ """"'"■'" 


T"n.ty College, Cainbridg! at I oth if wVfo m,?''""""'' "' '^'<"' »'"' " 

of hisca airv „.. I • ^"•^'^^ the atterwas ioinn,! k, i> • ^VJ^ °' Newcast o, to 
men . 'o*'.';iv? ' nT'.h^'p^'^'^^" J"^'^"»o''t he was tZZ\^T''j'' "''^ ^'^^d 

MAILS Toy Moon. 


1. To horso! to h,.r.o! 8ir Xid.ola., tho clarion's nnto is hi.r], - 
To l.orso! to horso! Sir Nicholas, th. hi;j,ln:Mi inulcos roi";!--- 
lv:o this luith L,»<.as-' marohe.I, with his ^^llant cavaliers, 
An.l t!ie bray of Ruporfs' trutnj.ets j^rows fainter in onr oars 
Tohorso! to horse! .Sir Nieliohis! White r;„yM.s at the <!o,.r; 
And tlio ravca v/het; Uii beak o'er the liehl of Marston Moor. 

=. TTp ro'^3 til. Alice from h.-r brief an.l broken prayer, 
And she l)rou-!it a silken banner down the narrow turret-slair- 
Oh! many were the tears that those radiant eyes ha.l .hed' 
As she traced tlie brij,dit v,-ord "(llory" iu tlie -ay and' 
f:lancing thread ; 

And luuurnful was the .mil. which o'er (hose lovely features 

A:: dio .aid: <'.(; i. your lady's ^[ft; uiifu:] it in V,.o va;. !' 

3. "It ihp.U jlutlcr, noMo wench,'^ where the best and boldest 

» For a dcanition of " vers de sociM " see Appendix A 

War-want^^fc^^fom^LL^rr ^--vol,, in the C vi. 

England at the outbieal< of the war, and durin - the aHl«i v . ! J " '''""*-• •''■<^'' *» 
ered good service to the Royalist as a ca alrrotHc! m '^ '1 '"^ 'V'"""''' '"'''"l- 
ever, was the source of fre, uent niisliain ami hu f .^ "" '^'^f*' inipetu..>ir,y, how- 

the fa.nons regiment tmineVand "S^^^ nitin.ately ecli.Wd by 

served in the navy and after the close of the vn.r T.?f * f "*•'*' '^"»'*""* subsequently 

\Vejt Indian Seasf Ho returned t^L la ml X.r' fh,* P 'T ^'T ""' * '""^^«^"eer in the 
of his life were devoted to philosoph cal I rsn^^^^ ^'"-' '»-^' .var^ 

siderable aptitude. His naine is st prJserv e^in c^^^^^^^^ ^e .seems to ha^ e had con- 
with the region known as "Ku..ert'8 Laiid/' Canadian gcojraphy in connejtion 

5 The name of the knight's horse 





Midst tho fltocl-clud flloa ,»<• VI • 

An,l the r,.|„.| |i,„ ^( uZ I " ""'*'"■'■ '' '"' 

AndLoa,. I.,.,- l„y„l .„,,ii„r, «l,„„t . ,..„,,,„,, „.,, ,,^ „,^. ,.. ^^|„, 

A 1 coU >,„wc,.„I„ „iutt,.,,, ,,, ,,„ M,„„,, . , ^,,^.^,. , "". 

Parhau.ent faUuousi;diYjS''MW^ ,l';;"'^'*,'»'P"'«'on of members of the Lon» 
9 At the coiumencomont of f-a rivii viv- i, i.' . 

onnna ,l'oV't\ »'-'— ^^O" forccJ^i^S? S.nt; ^r^ '^''«-' «- •"-«« Lord- 
oomniatiil of the ariny Oi.eratiii); in tiie NnVh nf p V^''^^'*'' was cntruHteil wi'h the 

13 A short time elapses. Tlie hattl.. of \uS \. ' ' '^ * «^'" <''" 'i^vour. 


let sW Ik, ,v,.ve, hi, ,„.„„.,, „,„, ,.,,,„ „, ■,,„ I '•'"' 

^n,I now 1. ,v„rd» . U,„„„,|K.a,lV pik., „,„! „„w 1,„ |„„„„ 

A...I n„w l,„ ,,u„te, „ ,ta^.,..,,l„.v, a,,,! ,„.-,v l„. SAU a brnve.- 
.. Oo,l „i,l ,|„.„ „.,„, Sir Xi„,,„,„,, , ,„„„ ,,,„t „„ „,„,,„ „f ,, 

T ,0 rclH,!, I„.,„ tl.oc ,„, „„,1 at ..vcy ,.,,1 „,„! il,,,,.., 

u"; 'IhT;" ""*■ "'' " "■"'•' ""''"' ■" ''"'•" "'"' '''"' '" 

"I woul.l" ,,„„tl, g,;,„ ,1,1 Oliv,.,-, .',l,a(, lidial', ,n„ty 
Thi. .lay wore <loing battle fur tl,o Saints and for the Lord!" 
T. The Lady Alio, nits with hor ,uaid,.ns in her howr 
^ iho gray-hain.d vard..- watches frcu the castle'. to,.,„ost 
tower; ' 

MVhat new,s? what new., ,.Id Hubert ? "-"The battle's 
.'.'st and Won: 

The royal troops are melting l-p nn.ts before the mn t 

And a woun.led ap, ...b.-.s r,., blind and .annot s-e 

\et sur.. I an. that .tunly «tep n.y niaster'n «tep n.nst b.- • ' 

'■> Sir Nicholas. 
^'^^^^'''t^':^:^::>?^^Z^^^^^^ ^'-n. .ho French 

mcthetic in their cost.nnes : the Pu.itans ^crc*^^^^^^^^ ^."i' ""'^'•'' «o'"owhat 

prevalent amongst then, of wearing their hair do'^y croS ^'°'^ "'« '"^^""" 

JY^'S^J^^^'o^'^-JSrai^J^rS^^^ It i, 

idea of dishonesty intended to be con* eyed °''1'°''*-" ^^ '^ gentleman." There is no 





8. "I've brua;,.ht tlieo buck tliy banner, wench,« from as rude 
and red a fray 

As e'er was proof of soldier'. theuV. or theme for minstrel's 

Horo, Hubert bring tbe silver bowl, and liquor quantum suff.- 
Ill make a shift^. to drain it yet, ere I part with boots and 
buir — 

Though Guy through many a gaping wound is breathin-. 
forth his life, ^ 

And r eome to thee a landless man, my fond and faithful 
wife ! 

«. "Su'eet! we will fill our money-bags, and freiglit a ship for 
J^ ranee, ^ 

And mourn in merry Paris for this poor land's mischanee; 
lor If the worst befall mo, why better axe and rope, 
Ta.n li e with LenthalP for a king, and Peters for a pope 
A as! alas! my gallant Guy !^-c, • on the erop-eared boor 
Who sent me, my standaru, on foot from Marston 
Moor 1 " 

Winfln'ojj Maclacorth Pracd. 


The 1st, 3re1, 4(:h, antl the last half of the Sth stini'a^ of th!<, ««„.>, 
power and amn.ation. The best qualitie of fi^n / J ^T '""'* ^' '"'^^ "''*" 
(Section vn., are required t. ,' e ^^^0x0 e tn^ r "' '''' "'"'^' ''''"^ 

th3 war cries: '.To inrso ." 4or God and fo'the „: "'' ^o. C rh'^^ f'^'T^ 

The 2nd «tanza s„..,ests tenderness and pathos, and the 8th and 9th . *";• '"''■ 

withanexp re ssionofcon.en .pt approaching to disgust. ' ""' ""'^ " 

19 This word (.ccurs in the singular form iri vprv^nlrl Pn^n^v, 1 ,. ■ "" 

the ph^alhy n.a<lern writers irfthe se^.];^ 'SS" W^1l^;;U5'^"^Jr''^Sei51 

Sthet a'nd bufk"*' '''' ""^^'^^^ '^'°"« 
«o A sufficient quantity: abbreviated fron. the Latin rjuantnm sufflcif 
21 The primary ineaiiiiig of "shift" is a v„,f ;.- u , 
artifice or ex,edie,«t. To" ' n.ake a shi ft ?o dn i^^'ir" nl^^Vs^" ^^i^. *<> si.trnlfy an 
in spite of wounds and exhaustion. ^ *° succeed in drinking it 

M Lenthall was the speaker of the Long rarliament. 




tlie western part of the 8tate. Young < oone • reed vo. 1 .o 1 <'>tsego ,n 
cation and in 1802 entered tho navy inXehh^ if^''**' ''''"■ 

years. On his retirement he took ,p' his L km e n r^ \ *"''" " '''' 
he spent his suhseouent JitP xviH. f . I . i Cooperstowii, wliere 

to a^ojonrn in Eu!^ ^^li^l^^^', ^ ,^::-|;^|- ^^^ ^/- yearsdevofed 

beJore the pul.l.c as an anthor was n li in S->1 ^^^^V^^^f^ 
nove he n<' "Tim Sr.v ' ll^ .. . "> l^-'l, iua hrst successful 

merit, the %est as v dl ns 1 1 > n oi' "'' 'T '^'^^'^^ ^^^''•>'"'^^ 'H^'^^^ of 
depicted life oVthrfonfipr nf V ''''''''" *^'"« *''^'«« in wfiich he 

Bof ing sun. SI studli^ts^ ;^;^jr r ;^::is:::::j r^';!^ ''^ 

nal udiabitants, and alsonf tl.,>„ Ji!!^ i , c'aiactei ot tlie aboriLri- 

ininated or drim w^^fwa <1 ^^M ^^ '^^^^^^ *'^7" ^^ ^''«y ^'«'-« '^'^ter- 

tions of character as weU as in d. ' PnW '?'"'' '" ^''"'''■^>'1« ^^lim..-,- 

i"ci<lents. The airbv Vl I .?^ V"'."^, *""^""'" ^""^ '» «t>-rriug 

'Leather-Stocl^ing'' LrL n, ev ^^''^ ^''"^'^^ ^^ »'- 

find •" "Th.. I'tst of if,; V 1^ "ihe Deerslayer," "The I'ath- 
iv.,,\.;„ •' 1 • 1 ^ '"^ Mohicans," " The Pionopr^ "i nn.l wri 

^'^^':^;:s-^^ -- of ^l;: 

By this time they- had gained the .summit of the mountain 

the shade of the stately trees tliat crowned the ennnence. The 
day was becoming warm, and the girls phinged more deeply in- 
to the, as they found its invigorating coolness agreeablv 
contrasted to the excessive heat they had experienced in thei; 
ascent. The conversation, as if by mutual consent, was entire]^ 
changed^ejtllc incidents an.l .scene., of their walk, anu 

has ,tH sounv. The date of th. e entV«hi h f^^^^^ ''•'"'• *^. «»-^'l>'« Hive- 

is 1793, a (leoad.,. after tlio rei-oLi iVion nf 1,» ;? "'^•'pe""'g I'lci.Ionts of the roiiu.not 
interve.dns jh3 i.,d had been ct Sized bVhe'llrlt'';'""-"^ ^^'i 'i'"*«^^ ^''^f^**- This 
ife amongst the enmncipated colo.dsts a d 1^^^^^^^ the pulse of national 

"was directed to the ,levllop,nor?t o ' th^ naturaradvn 7^ ^"''«^ P»ts it, 

donmnons. ' Before the war the inhahlte J mrti of Cw v '' ^' '^''"' ''"1^''>' '-'■^terxJed 
one-tenth of the area of the .State ; within tC ten v^l J ^f'^ aniounted to less than 
had spread itself over five de-rees of lat"tu e In "If '^^^f '"' *". " **»-" t'"l'Ulation 
the MU.nher of nearly a million iind a haU" fro>n L^ I I;',', ?! '^."''"t"'le. =""1 -^^olled to 








every tall pine, and every shrub or flower, called forth some 
simple expression of admiration. 

In this manner tliey proceeded along the margin of the pre- 
cipice, citching occasional glimpses at the placid Otse-o "^ or 
pausing to listen to the rattling of wheels, and the sounds of 
hammers, that rose from the valley, to mingle the signs of men 
with the scenes of nature, when Elizabeth suddenly starte.l, 
and exclaimed : j ■, 

"Listen ! there are the cries of a eliild' on this mountain; is 
there a clearing near ns? or can some little one have straved 
from its parents ?" 

''Such things fre,,uently' happen," returned Louisa. "Let 
us follow tlie sounds ; it may be a wanderer starving on the 
nilJ. < ^ 

Urged by this consideration, the females pursued tlie low 
mournful sounds that procee.led from the fore.t, with quick and' 
impatient steps. More than once the ardent Elizabeth was on 
the point of announcing that she saw the sulferer, when Louisa 
caught her by the arm, and, painting behind them, cried • 

" Look at the do'^ !" 

Brave had been their companion from the time the voice of 
lus young mistress lured him from his kennel, to the present 
moment. His advanced age had long before deprived h'-m of 
Ins activity ; and when his companions stoppe.l to view tlie 
scenei-y, or to add to their bouquets, the mastiff would lay hs 
huge frame on the ground, and await their movements, with his 

bad his protot.v,>e in the father of the novo s a Llli "''•''' ^'"/^''^ '"ay have 
of nan,e botweon ' Tenipleton " and ''Coowrstow^, "''^a, ''„'"°'"^ **'''" * --""ilariry 
scenery arouiid the former is undoubtedlvWBi,,^«?ifi" ^^ *" ^'■«"'^« f'e iniajrinarv 
round the latter, for both are locaS'S'lhe So'fVh^/S^^^^^^^ '^''■^-' -«"? 

s Various aninia's of the cat kind which wr.,.,. nr,„„ 
or the northern States, amon^'st e^rtho , ntLr fh "'T^"' '" ^^^ ^"^^^^^ «' Canada 
are popularly creditetl'with the habit of in i • ^A'.'^^l'-'***'"""^ '^■•i fhe wolverine 
alluring victiu.s. There can be no doubt oti;^.^KrM,7r *"f ^^'^ Purpose of 
people were freciueutlv misled bv these crif«viWhV-" *^,'' ^"i"* of early settlement 
tation of the human vnice bv the do,ne«t o l-nt i« T*'"""*"^ f^*»' ■■««»lt«- The n 
cases of deception credible el", wth those who h-^v^."""","'" *? "•l!"^'"'- «uch allj"ed 
by .to uiore savage relatives in their natve haunts '**"^ **"* '«^"'"1'* "t'^'^d 


k n y set on ,om„ distant object, his l.ead bent nl.r ' I 

r a ": •,. T ™-'.P"l-Wy tl.0 latter, for he was .rowltn! 

11 a low key, ami occasionally showin.^ his teeth in , . 
t^ woiUa have terrified his niistr;:^:^ "no Z'Z 
ivnown his good qualities. 

fel!l!!r™'" ''° ""■ "'" -1"'^'- ^■■•-- ' -•"' J" you 'soo. 

boit! Itlllln' °'^: "'"• "" "■'" "^ "■" "-""•' "■"»<• of 
mliontof the ladies, and seated himself at the feet of his 
nils tress growling ,o,,der than before, and oecasiona y ! v ^ 
' ™' '" '"« "" ''y a sliort, surly barkii,.. ° ^ 

her ll^ and 1X7; f™''" ^"'P™'™' ^^'" ^^P''^ '-ned 

no. head, and beheld Louisa, standing with her face whitened 

he colourof death, and her finger pointing upwari, t h a 

• k Led :S ™"'""-'|-""- Th-e.uiclce'yeof Elizabeth 

See front Tr'""'''' ''^ ''" '""'"'• "■''- ^h« »- 
he fierce front and glaring eyes of a female panther, fixed on 

There was not a sin<fle fpplfntr ,%, +r.-. * 
beth --ernnlo fl, f , , ° ^ temperament of Eliza- 

beth .emple that could prompt her to desert a companion in 
uch an extremity ; and she fell on her knees, by TZl 
the inanimate Louisa, tearing from the perso^ of her friend 
with an instinctive readiness, such parts of her dress as S 
obstnict her respiration, and encouraging their only s e^ ^ 
the dog, at the same time, by the sounds of her voice. 


•- ♦ 





if >M 




,10 If' 

"Coumgo, iJmvo;" .sl,e cried, cnvn tone.? becrinnim^ to 
I rem ble; "courage, courage, good Brave!" ^ "" 

A quarter-growu cub, that had hitherto been unseen now 
appeared, dropping from the branches „f ^ sapling that grew 
inuler the shade of the beech* whicli held its dam. This Kmor- but VICIOUS creature approached the d„g, imitating the ac- 
tions arj,l soun<ls of its parent, l)ut exhibiting a strange mixttire 
of the playfulness of a kitten with the ferocity of its race. Stand- 
nig on Its hind legs, it woukl rend the bark of a tree with its 
fore-paws ; and play all the antics of a cat, for a moment, and 
then, by lashing itself with its tail, growling, an.l s^-ratching the 
oarth, It would attempt the manifestations of anger that render- 
ed its i)arent so terrific. 

All this time Brave stood firm and undaunted, his short tail 
erect, his body drawn backward on its haunches, and his eyes 
following the movements of both dam and cub. At every Jm- 
bol played by the latter, it approached ..ighor to the do. the 
r^'rowlmg of the three becoming more horrid at each moment 
until the younger b3a.t, overleaping it3 intended bound, fell 
uirectly be ore tiie mastiff. There was a moment of fearful cries 
and .tru.rgles, but they ended almost as soon as commenced, by 
tnc cub appearing in the air, hurled from tne jaws of Brave 
wit. a violence that sent it against a tree so forcibly as to render 
lb completely senseless. 

i:iizal>eth witnessed the short straggle, and her blood was 
waraung with tlie triumph of the dog, when she saw the form of 
the old panther in tlie air, springing twenty-feet from the branch 
ot the beech to the back of tlie mastilF. Xo words of ours can 
dc scribe the fury of the conllict that followed. It was a confused 
struggle on the dried leaves, accompanied by loud and terrific 
cries. Miss Temple continued on her knees, bending over tlie 
form of Louisa, her eyes fixed on the animals, with an interest 
so^-id, and yet so intense, that she almost forgot her own 

< The panther, like some other animals nt f ho ,, * t„. -i '■ ', ~ ~~ 

preferring a tree to the ground a. ^S^^! ^^^^^U^ ^^^ '*« h-^bits. 



eUntlj ,u he ,„r, ,vl„lc the dog nobly faced his foe at each 

! h ■/ ' "'•' "'^"-tont""". old feve, though ton 

floedfrV""' '""■""'• "'"' '"^ °"" '"-' that'ah.eaT; 

",^m, ,v,th his jaws distended, and a danntless eye. Ent J 

::.::!:;;:;";"' f -■ «'-^""^' '"^^'■»'"->' «- -^^ >- r fo-; 

e ."e °f t, • i" r™''^'"""'' '"' ""'""S". >» was only the 

mtjd the w °'"'' '"''"• ^ '"«''- ^<""'^' «'an ever 

.a..od he wary and iur.ous beast far beyond the reach of the 

d g, who was making a desperate bnt fruitless dash , her f™m 

thert 1 ^ZT'^", '"°'"""' °"'^ '=°'>''' *» Pother remain 

fforl' * S;=;^7';f "of "-dog returning with a convulsive 

illoit ]>ut Elizabeth saw, as Brave fastened his teeth in the 

, iim, directly, that Ins frame was sinkinir to the oirfh 
where .t soon lay prostrate and helpless. Scvo« ,lh ! 7l 
of the wdd oat to extricate hei.eif from the jaws of U.e do^ 
01 lowed, but they were fruitless, until the ma tilT turned o„ his 
^ck, hts hps collapsed, and his teeth loosened, when re sho 

;::t.:: "'" ""'""^ "-" ':'"^"'' ---■-^ «- ^-«-f 

Elizabeth now lay wholly at the mercy of the beast Th™ 
.s said to be something in the front of theima4 o 1 J L 
that daunts the hearts of the inferior beinl Tf\ 
it would seem that some suerZlr "^tb """"°" ' ""* 

suspended the threataned blow ^eev If t, """" '"''""' 
kneeling maiden met, for an nstant Zlnl" 7 ' T ''! 
to examine W fallen foe ; ^exttoslit herhtkWuT T^ 
theUtterexamination, it turned, U„wever,wt:fJ^rappa^:- 

. r 




knitting flashes of fire, fe tail lashing its sides furiously ,„d 
Its cia,vs project,,,, for inches fro,„ its broad feet, ^' ™ 

■ Miss Icmpie di,l not, or could not, move Her hand- , 
cMsped in the attitude of ,„,,,„, huther e s , ' itd I^ 
t hor tcmble ene, check, v.-cc bla,fehed to the hi w 
of .narble, and her lips were slightly separated with horro it 
moment seemed now to have arrive,! f„. ti t , i . 
and the beautiful ti.,„re of Knrb , , ter,n„,ation, 

. , , 'io"i^ 01 i.ii/,aboth was bowiii" nieeJdv to f!.r 

« roco when a rustling of leaves frcn behind se^emec ather to 
«iock the organs, than to meet her ears. 

"Hist ! hist !" said a low voice— <'^fp ms i^, 
«t hides the creutcrV head » ' "' «"'"' •>'°"'- ''°"- 

h,»n.. ^pected ordc,., that caused the head of our heroine to 
s,,k on her bosom ; when she heard the report of t^e „T „ 
-hiding of the bullet, an.l tl,e enraged Jric of th b t'' " 
was rolling over on the earth, bitin- 'his „" , «', , /' 

the twigs and branches withi, its re,; « I „ ' T ""' 


Katty n,ai„tai„ed his position in front of the n,aidcns m„s* 

ca,.lessly ,,„tw,thstandi„g the violent bounds and t e^ten inJ 

a p-.ct of thowonndcd panthe,-, which gave several i "IntZs strength and ferocity, untifhis rille was "a ,? ltd 

ed, when he stepped up to the enraged, anc^l itl i, l the" 

rdtctr " "'''' '''-' '^" "':'" - -^^ i 

James Femmore Coo^Jcr. 

6 Western frontier provincialisms for ' sto^" u^,. » 777^7" ~~, :. " 

..«,,esof tHe eareie. use of .or^^^eo ^iHlr ^"-:,,. .,, „ ,„, 

the American l^^^^'^^^^ ^'ij^^:^^^ '^12Sil!!T ^^^^^- ^^n^^ 
« The name of the hunter's doff i^c^tlier-stociung." 

prSilS?*'^^*^ °^ '"^ -ongst animala of the ct Liad i. wcU known and ha. be«..e 

riously, and 



'lamlo were 
still dran-ii 
le whiteness 
arror. The 
-liiy to tlio 
I rather to 

; jour bon- 

anco with 
heroine to 
I'ifle, the 
oeast, who 
id toarincr 
nstant the 
lo'l aloud : 

sns, most 
jain load- 
icing the 
ished bj 

"his," and 

on between 
•'.»/; but ho 
Ml amongst 

las become 

Thomas Babington Macaulay was bom at Eothlev Tpmni. 

Leicesters are, EnsrlaiKl in I son ij« xi y •^"'^'''ey Jemple, 

astern Scottish ^"eXt'ianmpVh^. T *J''.'°° '^ ^^^''^''^^ Macaulay, 
slavery agitation. Fmm h sT,n th hp l''^ ^T""- ^" ^''l'^'" P^''* '" ^^''^ "»«' 

anrl range. After craduatincr in rl^i • i ^ it *]"'ckiiess, flexibility, 
himself ft Lincoln's ?m am "fvacaVledtTi^^^ University, he entered 
destined to be his calli r Lil «, ] ^^ }^'^ ^^^ '• b"* literature was 

bis brilliant pen was never idle Tn iK^n C" 4. . ., ^'"'*' forward 
in the House of Conimons s ' essivp'v ?• ^^^"**^'*'^^ P"»'>ic life and sat 
important offices .ndriU'lVo^m^^r oVieTf hT .re?'?- ?%"^^'^ 
an appointment to tl.e Sup, erne Ojuncil S Calcutta^ v'"*' ^'""S 
he occupied himself with ^litics an^le? L. . but for / "''""^ ^'^'' 
before his death he gave himself nn almnS^nti' 1 * .. ,*^'^'^e years 
in that interval he wrote h ^^ Histo^vTl^ 1 1^ ^V-^'^ ^^"'^'•- '^^'^h- 
work ; but in addition to t h^ wXa nu^nZ T'"'*^ '^ ^"^ ^''''''' 
in tlie language fc. lieirbrillLnov nnd uIuk I m "^ ^""^y^' ""'ivalled 
also the .^La^s o. ^c^l^RZ^te^:^^^^;^^ ■ ""' ^"-'^^t 
sketches, etc In 1849 he was elected U>rl Rector of tv'T:!?^'"''^"'^ 
Glasgow and in 1857 was creuted '' L^rd MaLk^'^ Hr'r^ 
Kensington in 1859. iuacauiay. He died at 

I. Oil ! wherefore come ye forth in triumph from the North 
With your hands and your feet and your raiment all red ? 
And wlierefore dotli your rout* send forth a joyous sliout ? 
And whence be the grapes of the wine-press wliicli ye 
tread? ■ •' 

2. Oh, evil was the root, and bitter was the fruit, 

Aud crimson was the juice of the vintage that we trod j 


in hun,orous allusion to uVewen!Low'n™m 

vogue anionjfst the Puritans ^ ' '"""'^ nomenclature so much in 

shjr?S,;S:i5^K,- ^^;^ a^/^^S'l^^r-" 'V>'^-"f Northampton. 

The battle of Nasoi.y. fon^ht on the H^h of tfl^f/lf '""*>''] '" Leicestershire^ 
tueen the Cavaliers and the Roi ndheadrafter fCrpA. . •' 'T ^^^^'J^ encounter he- 
army under Fairfax and f^omvvT S^R, lit rZf^'TT "' ^^"^ J'arliamenta.T 
Royalist force... Henry Irelon. son^n'law o ^romwpU o^^ ^"°^'" ^n^nanded the 
Fairfax' left, as Coniwell himself did on Ihe rio^^t TrLn^'"^",**''' ^^^ «^^»''-y «» 
judges of C, arle^ I. ^ ' '^'"*- '"^eton was afterwards one of the 

2The word "rout" ireansacrowdof rcoiilp « R/^.t •• *« i ^ 
8 etyn-oloffically the sam • word, and s.,Woute '^a wnv Tn^lT ''""^"'"'" '*"'^ «'>h* 
It 18 used here " rout " is repeatedly used hv r";f,' ... ^I'J-JP ^^^/V: ^e"^e in which 


■ iT 

I ! 


For we trampled on the throng of the haughty and tlie strong, 
Who sate in the high places and «lew the saints of God-^* 
8. It was about the noon of a glorious day in June, 

That we saw their banners dance and their cuirasses* shine • 

And the man of Blood was there, with his long essenced huir,» 

And Astley and Sir Marniuduke and Kupert of the Khine !« 

4. Like a servant of the Lord, with his Bible and his sword 
The Generar rode along us to form us for the fi<rht 
When a murmuring sound broke out, and swelkd into a 

Among the godless horsemen upon the tyrant's right." 
5. And hark ! like the roar of the billows on the shore, 
The cry of battle Hses along their charging line '— 
For God ! for the Cause ! for the Church ! for the Laws ' 
For Charles King of England, and Rupert of the Rhine ! 

fl. The furious German comes, with his clariras and his drums 
His bravoes of Alsatia* and pages oi Whitehall -'^ 
They are bursting on our flanks ;-grasp your pikes ;-closo 
your ranks ; — 
For Rupert never comes but to conquer or to fall. • 

7. They are here;-they rush on! We are broken-we are 

Our left is borne before them like stubble on the blast. 


implied, made of leather. onainally, as the etymology of the name 

« An ironical reference to fondness of the Cavaliers for personal adornment 
6 Pnnce Rupert. See Note 4, p. 115. «"ornineni. 

' Fairfax. See Note 9, p. 116. 

Charles I., who an pei^on conarS tL^'e"il[ Jhis 'cfw^^ '^^^ ^^-^''^ » 

yelr'Sr^s^L't^t^ftm Fr?ncr ^' " '* "''" '" '""^ ^^^^^ °' ^-^ ^"P^rt. In that 

.wi" ?:Sd onTSt oflaE.'j^r^ft^e."' '^' ^'""^ '""^ ' '° •'-"* «' >* Charles 



O Lord, put forth tliy might ! O Lord, il,,. right; 
Stand back to back, in Ood's nunie, and light it to the hist. 

8. Stout 8k opon'i Hatn a wound ; the centre Inith given ground ; 
Hark ! hark ! ^Vhat means th.; trampling of horsJInen on 
our rear? 

Whose banner do I see, boys?-'Tis he, thank liod, 'tis he, 
boys ! 

Bear up another minute. Brave Oliver is here !'■' 

^ Their lieads all stooping low, their [)oints all in a row, 

Like a whirlwind on the trees, like a deluge on the dykes, 
Our cuirassiers have burst on the raidcs oi tlie Accurst, 
And at a shock have scattered the fonjst of his pikes. 

10. Fast, fast, the gallants ride, in some nook to hide 

Their coward heads, predestined to rot on Temple iJar.i'' 
And hp— he turns, he flies !— shame to those cnud eyes 
That bore to look on torture, and dure not look on war." 

11. Ho ! comrades, scour the plain ; and ere ye strip the slain, 

First give another stab to make your guest secure ; 
Then shake from sleeves and pockets their broad-pieces and 

The tokens of the wanton, the plunder of the poor.'* 

15! Fools ! your doublets shone with gold, and your hearts were 
gay and bold, 

"^^^ ^^ y«^ J^issed your lily hands to your lemans^" to-day, 

n See Note 7, p. 110 " " — ~ " 

12 After broaMiiK throuRh Ireto' 's force Prince Rupert failed to follow n„ his arJvan 
fe:;o72^crali^;«!"^" '""''^'^^ •'y Cromwen. w,.o' had .n^l.linS'SpcT.e'd'YhS 

he"K \^^zz K^uXist^s:^ j^s^ -*""^ "'^ ■- ^-^'-^ p'-« ^^^ 

to hirrLTSacter' *° '^'''^''' ^- '^"'^ '« '" •'^«I'i"g -ith the testimony of history as 

to Ml™ni!"*l,'^''"*,r^ """ '*""'^ 'r "°* ^"'* *« *^*^ Rrundheads as a class. Accordinir 
thnc ^i, ^ il""'**" "^""y ""«;"r<.hyrcison8 joined Ihe ranks of tho Puritai.s at the 
ChaperTr '*''' '" ascendant. See his "Hii>tory of England,' 

ic Levers. Thefniaiof Ihewrrd in Middle Eng ish was "," and an older 
lortn ctill was Iccfman." tnmi Ai rIo Paxon leo/, dear, and mann, a man or won..'m. 

f . 

I- II 




loill. iKT tawi.y cuhs to l„nvl ulu.vo the prt^y 

Yot";!,:';:;,:;;:f:,:'::', :r° ""° "- '"-'^ ^""' ^■"- '■■■•"™ ■• 

Yo, ,. »ta ' r ; "■ ^""""'"''"^ "■"! i-our oath,. 

Pope.'. "' "'" *^°"'' "'"' "- »'""'"-' of the 

There ift woe in Ovfonl Tr^ll^ . *i 

Stalls ; ' ^*"' '" '""' '" J'lilwmW' 

The JesuH «„.ites hi I„,s„,„ ; the IJinhop .«,d, his cope. 
And the kings of earth i„ fear, sl,all .hu.l.ler when they hear 




In the, Cth, 7th. and 8th stanzas, the battio cv\^ n 
vooat ons. and espoc'all,- the shouts o tn^Xh i Je «rT "' '"'"""'"'' *^« •"• 
with full force, rapid, abrupt and loud TnTn . I ^ '**"'-*■ """«* ^^ '•^"'ler J 

expression of the suc^eedinr t^nli i^t'hat oft.i;:'^':'!' '^ ''^' ^'^'='*'^--'* The 
ness. A tone of reli^ous felo. .rC^l;: ^ ^S ^^^Jlf "' -" ^^^ fitter 

" Cf. ' Marston Moor." stanza 5. p. iitT ~ • — — 

i« The " diamonds " and " snadpH " aro tv. 

.. B, ..,„.ed„he ,„r .he opiC" "nd JL " "l^""'"' """'•■ 




THE SCirooLMASTKK KL()G(;ed.. 
Charles Dickens Htands. ami alw;ivw u,ni .♦ i ,-, . 

great Ki.kIihI. novdists. H« was t\u T, ^ ""'."''. '"«'' '" the list of 

waa sent to earn his livimr .. „ r "^ ' . ''*• '^^ '* ^^'' ye liv ul'c ha 
a clerk in an attonu'^'Sfi !«? J^: ' il'^^-f""- '^,:^,';,!;: 
of a newspaper reporter. WhHe lu !« „ 'ater poruul took np fho role 
Mornuuj Chronicle his "Sketches of iX „ Tm"''*"" "^ *'"' «^^«' "^ the 
|-epubli.he.l «n.ler the title o'skii^lfJ'l/JV^'^^'t^'- "-■ "' 
"»g edition of that journal ThHr «. . ^i . . "PP^are.! in (he ev,.„. 
resulted in the ap,Lra, t of th^' S I""' ^■V>'«K-"'-e«t which 

speedily foUowcl l.y -XicholuTNiVkM ^ V''""' '^'''' these wore 
Cunosity Shop/' and oth..;t^^ ^^^''-•- T^^iHt," -Ohl 

the Unit d States in 1841 proS'hfn uin .'"'* ''■'""•'' ''« Pai.l to account of his tour wh h toZ. -.^ ""^terials for a de- 

•" h,s "Martin Chuz.lewit '• n^o^Sj 7r ' '^^^^^^ 
that country. In 1845 ho hJca/rchie/^li l . f ^'t ^'^7 ""P^Pi'lar in 
'•••fc the po.t was not sufKcieX cSn?e r[ /^ 
work of novel writinrr «at' 'f congenial and he boon resi:me.l the 

"Bleak House." ''^, Dorr "'•Tn,r"(>;\''''"^''' <''?!- Veld. '« 
each other with great rani,?? J "*'^* J^-^P^^taiions^' fallowed 

the strong fannly ElsT 2'd rpon Thv r^ "'^ /,''"- ^^"^ '•'-•• 
and moving patho-. Amongst E later wrir^n '"^''T' «'"'"' »"'"'^'^ 
Chnstmas Tales" an.l th^two no eh "( f M TP"'''' 

'The Mystery ol Edwin Drood " Tho'lo f ¥-"^"''' Fnend " and 
nnnnishe.l when its great author died s", /'| /"^"t.oned work was still 
ester, in 1870. From 1850 to svih ^"' ''^''^y ^^ Oadshill near Roch- 
journal. Household Wort an d i n fo,P,"',"'"^'*«'l tl'e well known week y 
where, in spite of his fo^e^ m Ipukr/rvT'''*'":' '^-^ ^"'^^'^ S^«^«^' 
enthusiastic welcome. Unlike tK.if^'- ^^K ''''**' « ^^''^''al an, 

Je^tine.1 to r„,„ai„, ]L..„ ilTf ' ,''""' " ""' 

..uoutiir, until afiuinooii; when .S([ueor<i 

f 't 




CANADIAN KMAnm.-lluoK I'/. 

lmvin« r„fr..,l,„l hi,„„.lf „ii|, |,i, .,;„„„, ,„„, ^ 

"I» ovc.>y l„,v 1,,,™!" „.k.,,l S,,,„.or». i„ „ tre„,„„.I„,„ voioo 
Lvery „,y w,.h tl.or., but every l,„y >v„s „f,,,i,, u, J a™ t 

drooped u„a every l.eud eowere.l do»,, „. ,.„ did so. ^ ' 

avounto blow „. tbe desk , „,,,„.di„ with gl«^ " wl,t„ 

It was renmrkod by more timn one small observer that there 
w.«a very e„r,o.,s and „,„«„al oKp^sion in the ushert aee 
bu ho took ,„s seat without ope„i„« his lips i„ reply Snuee" ' 
casing a trnuuphant «ln„ee at his assistaut a„d a Lok o eom 
pn.-he„s,ve despotism on the boys, left the roo„»d short y" 
afterwanls rotume.!, dra«,.i„,, S,„,ke by the eollar^r rlther bv 
hat fragment of his jaeket which was nearest tbe p Je whe« 
h.s eollar would have be,., had he boasted sueh a .lLrItr„„ ' 

In any o her place, the appearance of the w«tebed, jaded 
.p.ntless object would have occasioned a nmrmur of eompS 
and .^monstrance. It had some effect, even here ; for the Zk 
ers^n moved uneasily in their s.ats; and a few ;f the jde! 
venture, to steal looks.t each other, e..p.ssive of indignation 

on'u;7l,irei"s''\''""T' ''""°"'^' *""™ «»- -- f-ten^'J 
o., the luckless Smike; as he inqnired, a,vor,ling to custom in 

s..chc,>ses, whether he l„.d auythi„« to say for hiLelf 

a«djd by cruel t™,iment Infl cS ,:„ i^'l^^'? ".jL'^T """"'I relttlcSSf 

THE SCIlOitLMASTKli rU)OGEl>. ,3, 

••Xothin-s r" sui.l, with a .lial,ol,Val .rin 
Sm.ko Klunccl roun.l, «n,l his ,.yo ..(..stnl, f,.,. un instant 'n 
Nicholas, a. if ho ha<l oxpectoU hi,a to iate;ede 1:^ 

" Havo you anything' to say?" d.Mnan.h.,1 SmuMTs a..,in uivin. 

1 havo hardly got room orioiijrh." J'"'"', 

"Hparo mo, sir!" cried Smike. 

"Oh ! that's all, is it?" said .Spuu-rs. n'.. I'll flo. you within 
an inch of your lifo, and sparo you that." 

;;H", lui, ha," laugh.Ml Mrs. S,p,<.or.s, -that's a go,,,! 'un'" 

was cnv.n to do it." .said Snnko, faintly; and casting 

another nnploring look about him. ^ 

'■■ r )nvon to do it, woro you ? - said S.meers " ( )], 1 if w„ '. 

your fault ; it was mino, f supposo-eh ?» "'" ^ 

ao^ '' ;::^';^;:t M^"'i ''"•'"''"' ''"^^'^'^' ^'''«^-''^^' --^-^^ 

nrnT and • ; " ^^"""' '''^'"" '^""^•^''' ^'«-l under her 

arm, and administenng a cuflT at every epithet • - wlmf n 
mean by that r' i"("tii, what does he 

►Stan(l aside mv il/i.n." ,. i- 1 r. 
find out,- ^ • "■'"""' ^"'l-""^'* "Ve'U try and 

Mrs. SqueeK, Wij,,, „■!' i,„..,,i, „.,, , 

and utterin, a .can. !^ ^^ZZT^''^'^ ','" '^"' 
abont to f„ll_wh,„ ,\-,cl o|.., \'U - ,,"'",""' '""' '"^■"" 
cried " Stnn 1" ■ :^"-" "'" -^l';lvll■b)', ...uddfiily startinff in. 

cned Stop ! ,„ a voice ma.lo tbo ..afters ri,;,. ' 

* Who crii 'stoo'?" «.i,M (J . ''' 

"I" said \„.b, , ;'""""■ '""'"'« ^™8«'' ■■""•"■■ 

Mlur, r 'n '.''''"«'""™''- "Tl.ism„st„.,tgoon" 

Mu t , t go on "cried Sqneers, ahuost in a .hriek. 
i>o! tluiiidered Xicholas. 
Aghast ami stupefied by the l^oldness of the interim 
Squeers released his hold of Smike -md f.ll 1 "f ^^^^^''^^^e, 

omiKe, and failing back a pace or 





" I .say nrnst not," ropoato.l Xi.holas, notliing daunted , '< shaU 
not. I will provont it."' 

S.,..m-, conti„„.,l t„ga^o„ro„ him, with his eves «furti„., 
ou ,,, h.>,|; hut ,«to,.ish,„„„th,ul„ctuaIly, forti.e moment: 
ucrcit him of spoedi. , 

"You have ,liar„j-„r,lc,l all my quiet iuterfcrenco in the«hela,r., hehalf, - «ai,l Nicholas; " you have ,.tn„ ,/,,. 
answer to the letter in which I lK,gge,l forgiveness for hin" » 
offere, h„ responsihle that ho wonhl ren»in ,,uietly her" 
nou t name n,o for this pnhlic interference. You 1 ave broul 
It upon yourself ; not I. " "«''' 

" Sit down beggar !» sciieamed Squeers, almost besi.le hi„,self 
with rage, seizing Smike a, he spoke. 

" Wretch" i.joiue,l Nicholas, fiercely, "touch him at your 
peril - r will not «tau,l by an,I see it done My Wood is up ail 
r have the strength of ten such men as you. Look t y„T;eH 
for by Heaven I will n<,t spare you, if you drive mo on'" ' 
"Staml baek, " eried Squeers, bran,li»hing his weapon 
"I have along series of insults to avenge, " .s„i,l Nicholas 
flushed with passion ; " an.l my indignation is ag-ravated bv he 
dastai^ly cruelties practise.1 on helptess infancy^ s fl/dt 
Have a care ; for if you do raise the devil me, th con 
sequences shall fall heavily upon your own head !» 

He had scareoly spoken, when .Squeers, i„ a violent outbreak 
of wnith ,and with a cry like the howl of a wild beast, spat upon 
!.», and struck him a blow .across the face with his iis' r ,men 
of torture, which raised up a bar of livid flesh as it was ^"0^ 
Smarting with the agony of the blow, and eo„centr,it ! t to 
that 0110 moment all his feoIin<r« nf . "" 

-n -v-.ias sp^ng upo,:t:r;rL:rti::::a;:" s: 



fn ^'^'.^^j;'V^"' ''^° "''^^^'"" ^'^ ^^^^^«tor Squoor., who, couuug 
to his fa hors assistance, liarassod the enemy in the rear-moved 
"ot, han.l or foot; but Mr.s S.pieers, ,vith many shrieks for aid 
nmg on to tlie tail of her partner's coat, and endeavoured to dra^^ 
hnu from Ins infuriated adversary; while Misn Sqneers, wlio 
been peepnig tln-ongli the key-hole in expectation of a very dif- 
ferent scene, darted in at the beginning of the attack, and after 
launching a shower of inkstands at the usher's head, beat 
.^ icho as to her heart's content : animating hei-s.-lf, at every Tdow 
with the recollection of his having refused her proffered love an.l' 
thus imparting additional strength <o an arm which (as she took 

welest' "'"""'' "' ""' ""^""^ ""'"" "^ "" ^""' ""^ "^ '^'^ 
Nicholas in the f.dl torrent of his violence, felt tlie blows no 
n^oro than If they had been dealt witli feathers; but becoming 
tir.. of the noise and uproar, and feeliKg that his arm grew weak 
besides, ho threw all his remaining strength into half a dozen 
finishing cuts, and flung 8<pieers from him with all the force 
he could muster. The violence of his fall precipitate.l Mrs. 
Squeers completely over an adjacent form ; an.l Squeers, strikim. 
Ins head against it in his descent, lay at full length on the 
ground, stunned and motionless. 

Having brought allairs to this happy termination, and ascertaine<l 
to his thorough satisfaction, that Squeers was only stunned, and 
iK.t dea.l (upon which point he had had some unpleasant .loubta 
at first), Nicholas left his family to restore him, and retired to 
consider which course he had better adopt. He looked anxiously 
round for bmike, as he left the room, but he was nowhere to be 

After a brief consideration, he packed up a few clothes in a 
small leathern valise, and finding that nobody offered to oppose 
h.s progress marched boldly out by the front-door, and shortly 
afterwards struck into the road which led to fJivta lirid-^e 

• gc 

Charles Divkem. 




1. It was a time of sadness, and my heart, 
Although it knew and loved the better part » 
Felt wearied with the conflict and the strife', 
And all the needful discipline of life. 

.. And while I thought on these, as given to me- 
My trial test of faith and love to be- 
lt seemed as if I never could be sure 
That faithful to the end I should endure." 

8. And thus, no longer trusting to His might 
Who says, ''We walk by faith, and not by sight, 
Doubting, and almost yielding to despair, 
The thought arose-My cross" I cannot bear: • 

4. Far heavier its weight must surely be 
Than those of others which I daily see. 
Oh! if I might another burden 
Methinks I should not fear my crown« to lose. 

5. A solemn silence reigned on all around- 
Een Nature's voices uttered not a sound- 
The evening shadows seemed of peace to tell. 
And sleep upon my weary spirit fell 


2Cf. Lukex.,42. 

a Matthew xxiv., 13, and Mark xiii., 13 

* II Corinthians v., 7. 

'on? thKhou licZlf Ko7h^' witTelf whif"^ ^'I'H' ^''''^ "im, and said unto him 

and thou Shalt have treasure in hS^ i,,?*^''*^''^.*'''" ^'«*' ''"'» ?ive o the poor" 

Cf also M.^."* **''^* ■sayi„^"and vent au^vTrievS' ^ uK'T'' ^'"^ 'o"ow me''- 

e I. tLX r 8 • ?"" """"'' f--'^^- iSS bSpet'"^ ''''' possessions." 

lunothy .v.. 8 ; James ... 12; I Peter v.. 4 ; Rev. ii., 10. 


«. A moment's pause— and then a heavenly light 
Beamed full upon my wondering, raptured sight; 
Angels on silvery wings seemed everywhere, 
And angels' music thrilled the balmy air. 

7. Then One, more fair than all the rest to see^— ' 
One to whom all the others bowed the knee- 
Came gently to me as I trembling lay, 

And, "Follow me!" He said; '^ am the Way."' 

8. Then, speaking thus. He led me far above, 
And th ire, beneath a canopy of love, 

(^ -osses of divers shape and size were seen. 
Larger and smaller than my own had been. 

p. And one there was, most beauteous to behold, 
A little one, with jewels set in gold. 
Ah! this. meth(.ught,o I can with comfort wear, 
For it will be an easy one to bear : 

10. And so . !ittle cross I quickly took ; 

But, fc' ^ once, my frame beneath it shook. ' 
The sparkling jewels,'" fair were tliey to see, * 
But far too heavy was their weight for me 

11. "This may not be," I cried, and looked again, 

To see if there was any here could ease my pain ; 
But, one by one, I passed them slowly by. 
Till oil a lovely one I cast my eye. 

13. Fair flowers around its sculptured form entwined, 
And grace and beauty seemed in it combined. 


' Cf. ' Song of Solomon" v , 10-16; Rev, i., 12-18. 
« John XIV , 6. 

form of expression. """g'wn iiangu^e, im, tor conflicting views of this 

10 Mason's Grammar, 383. 




Wondering, I guzed ; and still I wondered more 
To think so many slionld have passod it o'er. 

13. But oh ! that form so beautiful fo see ; 
Soon mack its lu.Men sorrows known to mo ; 
Tiiorns lay benoatli those flowers and colours fair f 
Sorrowing, I said : -This cross I may not bear." 

14. And so it was wit... each and ail aronjvl— 
Xot one to suit my need could there bo foimd ; 
Weeping, I laid each heavy l)urden down, 

As my Guide gently said : » No cross, no crown, "'i 

15. At length, to Ilim I raised my saddene.I heart : 
He knew its sorrows, bid its d.nibtri dopart. 
"Be not afraid," He said, " but trust in me— 
My perfect love shall now be shown to thee."!^ 

10. And then, with lightened eyes and willing feet, 
Again I turned, my earthly cross to meet,° 
With forward footsteps, turning not aside. 
For fear lonie hidden evil might betide ;" 


And there~i;i the prepared, appointed' way, 

Listening to hoar, and ready to obey 

A cross I quickly found of plainest form, 
With only words of love inscribed thereon. 

13. With thankfulness I raised it from the rest. 
And joyfully acknowledged it tlie best— 

n Cf.Il Corinthians iv., 17; and II. Timothy ii.. 11-13, and i.i, u 

12 Isainh i. 8 ; Jeremiah xxix., ll * . 

13 Cf Madanio Guyon, as translated by Cowper : 

'Thy choice and niitie shall be the same 
Inspirer of that holy flan e ' 

Wiiith must forever blaze ! 
To take thi Cross and follow ITiee 
W here Love and Duty lead, shall lie 

Aly portion and my praise," 



The only one of all the many tliore 

That I could feeJ was goo.l for nie to bear. 

10. And, while I thus my chosen one confessed, 
I saw a heavenly briofhtneps on it rest ; 
And, as I bent, my burden to sustain,' 
I recognized my own old cross a-ain. 

.'0. But oh ! how different did it seem to l,e 

^ow I had learned its preciousness to see ' ^' 
No longer could I unbelieving say, 
Perhaps another is a better way. 

21. Ah no ! henceforth my own desire shall be 

Tnat He who knows me best should choose for me • 
And so, whate'er His love sees good to send, 
ill trust It's best, because He knows the end" 



Cf. Dr. Newman s hyn.n, ' Lead, Kindly Light" • 

'' ""sh"ou.d7jS'^e"o;i y"^'"' '''''' '^^- 

Pnde ruled ., y will : ren.ember not paat years. 

''%rn^iSi!rKont'"'"^^"''^«''^"*' "» 

Whlu'rH.*^*' V'°'''i *''<"'« »"2'e' fa^-es smile. 
^hu:h I have loved long since, and lost avthile. 





Archibald Forbes, the most successful of war corresnonrlpnt« Jo « 
sokher by profession. He is the eon of Dr Forbes a PrSKr^nt ' • ^ 
ister of Morayshire, and was born in tho manse ofBohann if ?^^^^^^ " H^e 
was educated at first in Elgin and afterwards at King's Col We AbJr 
deen. where he took a <leg,eo. He went to Edmbumh to s&v law 
M'ltn a view to become a " writor to t'lf ^i.,n*.f " K„f \,F\, ,^"^"7 'aw 
intentbn and emigrated to a.nI;L''lJ^?,^^^^^^^^^^ 
suit his disposition he recrossed the Atlantic ami cidiS in"? !..!n1 

With tlie intention of making his living by his pen he aonlipd fnr ," i 
obtained journalistic work in connection with tne LondS L " ' L 

pa S c^^^^^^^^^ ^"^" ^^«"' S'^^tl-"^! he sta te< anows 

papei calle( the Lon.lon ScoUmnn, and it was while editin^r ,t tlJf nl 

tl ?;; Sv AV: *'r *^'-^"-lV--"; --, he accepted a commssiorkC 
inejJoi/f/ Ahm as a war correspondent. He soon l^ccamp nr,t,.,1 fl.. Vi 

are who „ 1 wn ten on th: spot, often iin.lor very .limoult conStiofJ 

>vay cis uesc Jie cotiltl, Mr. Forbes after the c ose of the Russn TiirH=,K 
t?Lg7pt.""* "^ *'" ""^^ ^^P^«^^^ ^« ^"^"^"-J' --' BtVll^r:'r^e" n«J , 

ti^!^nt::il:^^i!l'rC^^^^^'^^^ insu.rc.ct.o„ broke out, amongst 
larK:.r province of Bo.nii The Zmenta Sad.iritrif =^1^^^ «^,/api<JIv mto the 
senu-independeiit principalities of Servifflmi M^^^^ "j Kuernlla bands b> the 

the H,n,pn,tl,y of th\. Powe? S E u o^e JS d,' lfi;:?.;<r"f ''*" •'ly by 
redressed by the Porte before the rebel or;.n,v,'i"'t^^.'^^,.?'L"':"'^'"«7'?^,''"'^^ I'^i'-K 



11.C gro m.l „l„di .„torvono,l botweon ns an,l tim vallav ,™ 
hi;:' TT''- '"''■'''- '"- «-' ■^""" -V w tt 
•nd on o n aku. The central wave i., the wi.lost of the three 
ana a ck,.aP „f u are the n.ain Turkish position., ^ ZZ 

;.o h,gh that one on the erest of either ean look ,lo,vn across the 
n tervemng valley, into the positions of the central 4 v B 
then the lurk., are astride' of all three waves. Th,- erest o 
our wave, the ri.lge ,a„ove they <,„ n.,t l,„ , ^tr^ 

the'^hf' 7, r '"*'""'"■ •"""" "'^ ■"-' norther y'vat^:f 
the three, that which liaron Kriulener i. op,..; ;„„ „° 

;i';:;,,'Mf ::'•'■'■ ™".''"'.^'" "■™ — -« >^^^Tz;i 

plateau,' if the exjiressi,,,, i, not a liulp— the T,,,-!,- I • 

trenched position behind intrenched po tio P , " "\ 

«.Yi,„.eana ef the central .well C^Z a^:^ r,',, J 1' 
Turks wab tents all sta, ding behind the earthworks. I i elea 
they don't .ntond to move if they can help it. 

— — — — — JL__ ' * *' * 

on the banks of the Vid. one of its tributa ef ^h ^' '', '^^ ""'^^ «"»th of the I>anX 

was to place their anuks in a series orintrn .^hfn'^''''^.-"^ 

general movement of the Knssian forop, frn?n fi^*i^ positions to prevent or ddav a 

fortifli^tiona ^-reatly strengthened It is an^>n^^"'' Ht'-' ^'"'"^^y increa.sed and the 
scribed. It may be added here that a thir,f « ^^^^ °' *^'« ^-^^a"'* that is above de 
Czar, on a still more e.xtensive scaL Ih.I i^Jh^*^'.''*. '*''*^ '"*^e, under the eve of thn 
ber and that on the lltHfCembei Plevna fin.'jf""' '""'T^' «" "'e 11th of Septem- 

like a mTrl'L aTor'r'^'^''-" '^'^ '"-" ^-'^'"h position; were perched on this hil, 
^ A continuation of the figure referred to in Note 3. 
» Oxymoron. See Appendix B. 

0^ Henry VIII.. .as addicted tisuSiZI' S^^Sffi^Sf^lS 

< /I 




Two h-igarlcs of infai.try were lyin- down in \h. P r 
valley behind the <nm^ ■ fho S9„,, jl •" " ' ^''^ Radisovo 

1 . ri""" ^ tllO OJlUl J )l Vision —fw.iii.i.ol T«^l 1 XI" 

.»i,. 1 1 r , 'o» i-" auack. i lie order M'fis haied wifh 

ng m company o„h,„.,«, ti,.. rino co,„„a„L I. „Ii Tl.e m 

Wy .ad h,„.aMe,l this „,„v<.,„„„t witi, i„.,,.„,, ...^pMit; „V H^" 
"Inoli was i„„„itoii„.,l t., cov.T and M ll„. ,•, . * , ' 

...0 latte,. „a,. „o..., t,.e .«t i:^^^"^:^::^.:^ 

a..a ...03.„„g tl. i„to,.v„„i„,. vaHc,- to the assault o L TuSh 
>.«>t,o„. Just before veael,*,,, the cre.t the ha.talion.s le , . !• 

lis V i t I I '; r '"*"'™ "'" S""-^ The Turkish 
Shells M„, le,i through theui as thoy advaneed in line an,l men 
ve,. already down in „,„„,„,, ,,„, ,,^^ uudu 1 " 

ranrps steaddy over the stuhl.le of the ridge, a^d c.shJ ZoZ 
h mulergrowth on the descent heyond. A'o skirurishin. li? ' 
Lvown out n. advance. The fighting line retains th^ f" 
m tron or a tnne, till, w],at with in.patienee and what w,tl „ t , 
M,„g,.» , breaks „.to a ragged spray" of hunranity.-and Ir" 
on sw,ftly, loosely, and with no eohesion. The npport :" 
close up, audrun up into the fighting line independenyJJ 
eagerly. It ,s a veritable chase of fighting men impelW b; a 

?™nu;;Kr,„i;,'';',?e'?..".irsstr ,'?";»" ^."" i»r«>n^^i^ir7^, 
».u*,e,„d .„ „ edict, ,,.„;r. s Sfio" ' ;; .Tsrsss* " ""*• *™" 

that u, a« ton.iea Iron, prcci,,^ l^.fj , ! '°""""S?'"''"»<Joul<l<ilot -JinKr;. 

,>;c.b,«mr, h,t„ld.v,llUrp;,,,, r™ rt^"^ <"'Sl«f' root I. theSln 

.lie Frmcl. *j,(„y„, to unroll. "^ '" """^ ™"" '"'» Enisll.h thiough 

'' At a limart run. 

^^0 Fo^a,. explanation of this use of ..what" see Abbott's Shakespearian Gran,- 

11 Name the figure of spcjch. 


burning desire to get forwanl and come to close quarto,^ witli 
the enemy firing at them there from l.ehind the shelter of the 

Presently all along the face of the advancing infant.y-men 
burst fortli flaring volleys of musketry tire. Tiie jag-^ed line 
springs onward through the maize-fields, gradualiv a.sumin^^ a 
concave shape. The Turkish position is neared. tIic roll of rFne 
nre 1.S incessant, yet dominated by the fiercer and louder turmoil 
of the artillery above. Tiie ammunition waggons gallop up to the 
cannon with fresh fuel for the fire. The guns redouble the 
energy of their cannonades. The crackle of the musketrv fire 
rises into a sharp, continuous peal. The clamour of the hurrahs 
o the hghtmg men comes back to us on the breeze, making the 
blood tingle with the excitement of the fray. The full fury of 
the battle has entered on its maddest i>aroxysm. The supports 
that had remained behind, lying just un.ler the crest of the slope 
are pushed forward over the front of the hill. The wounded 
begin to trickle- back over the ridge. We can see the dead and 
the more severely wounded lying where they fell on the stul)bIos , 
an.l anud the maize. The living wave of fighting men is pourim^ 
over them ever on and on. The gallant gunners to the ri-dil 
and to the left of us stand to their work with a will on the shell 
swept ridge. Tlie Turkish cannon-fire begins to waver in that 
earthwork over against us. More supports stream down with 
a louder cheer into the Russian fighting line. Suddenly the dis- 
connected men are drawing together. We can discern the officers 
signalling for the concentration by the waving of their swords 
The distance is about a hundred yards. There is a wild rush" 
headed by the colonel of one of the regiments of the 32nd Divi' 
sion. The Turks in the shelter-trench hold their ground and fire 
steadily, and with terrible eflect, into the advancing forces The 
colonel's hoi-se goes down, but the colonel is on \is feet in % 
second, and, waving his sword, leads his men forward on foot 


^ II 

la A shoulder place : in fortiflcation a kind of bastion. 







wai'(l8 lio was killed. 's 

Wooa„l,„ar th„ t,.m,,o,t K„,,t of ,v,atl. Imlf-howl, I,alf.y,.ll 
h „-l,„,.„ ..,., ™e„, ,,a,„„et, „t the cha,,.,.' n,.,h „u ., avi^' 
m. .ri„.v ar„ over tl,o i»„„,,.t a„,l «),dt.r.trench and i„ „m„L 

l-s».an am,,. Ti„. out,-,. .,,,0 of tl,. fi.t'pnsitL, i , 

n.l tal « l,R out ,„ ti.e „,».,,■• They .li.lai,,,.,! to ulifcc „,„.i,.st 

^rT;'"? ' ■"-"V""'*'' ''^'""^ l«^.lH't„f thiasheU.,.' 
re.,h but pushed o„ ,„ l.roke,. „,,|oi. up the l„uo slope. I„ 

|.la'« they !„„,« a httle, for the iufautn .re fron, the Turk, was 

very deadly, aud the slope ,va, strewn with the fallen da „d 

wounded; but for the ,„ost ,„rt they advance" „in„,,y 1, ' 

^ct ,t took then, half an hour fro.n the ' ,helte,.-tren h l«ft e 

ca,th„„k Th„t„„ethe Turk, did not wait for the bayonet 
I'"'"M.nt w,t,, „„„ „„„, ,.,„, ,,^^,,,,_,_^^^, work., We 

wa^ehed ti,e,r huddled „,a,s, in thegar,len, and vi„eyar.l,bel, , 
the p,,s,t,„n erannni,,,, the narrow t,-aek between the trees 

tioii. feo fejl the hrst position of tJiu Turks. '^ 

Archibald Forbes. 

'-* Explain this construction. "»"»c. 

's Point out the figure. ^ 

subsequent retreat Ho actualiv j^aine I the seJonrt ,lM I'epulseand 

te. .00a rccov^ro, both, and turned ^^^^'S.^^^:^ S'tSufiLti^'" 




THK TWO AIi.\r[ES.i 
Oliver Wendell Holmes is cno <>f th.. lca.liiiit nocti of \mn\.^ „.,j 

oii« uf tim li«,t wntor-i ii> Kii' „f tli/.t i„...,.l ... i \ ■''"'""? '""' 
known 0. nr, ,h mri,t : I? "w.7l ,.,,.,, , .1" "'."' "'"f "' ■■"in|.,„itions 

nuy or which ,J,r,:;:rir:ar,',::7r ,;:«;:: ,;;■ ; —hi:?' fe 

I. As Lif( 8 uiifmlinq coluiim jiours, 
Two marsjiallcil hosts aro scon,^ 
Twj armies on tjie trampled shores 
That Death flows Idack between. 

2 One marc.lios to the drum-boat's roll, 
Tlie wide-mouthed clarion's bray, 
And bears upon a crimson scroll, 
" Our glory is to .slay ! " 

a. One moves in silence by the stream, 

With sad, yet watchful eyes. 

Calm as the ])atit'!it i)lanet's gleam 

That walks the clouded skies. 

4 Along its front no sabres shine, 
Xo blood-red pennons wave ; 



^nt^^'i'XZ'^TZl^X^^^^^^^ '^^ '^ almost «,«ciently sustained to 


l) I 


Its Iwnner hi^aw tho singlo lino, 
"Our duty is to suve." 

». For tho«o^ no a.ath-l,o,l's lingering shade; 
At Honour's trunipet-culJ, 

Witli kiutted brow imd lifted blade, 

In (Jlory's anas they fall. 

«. For those" no .lashing falchions bright, 
^o stirring but(,lo-cry ; 
The bloodless stabber^ ealls bv ;,ight,— 
Each answers, '^ flere am l ; " ^ 

7. For those the sculptor's laurelled' bust. 
The builder's marble ])iles. 
The anthems p.-aling o'er their dust 
Through long cathedral aisles. 

8. For these the blossom-sprinkled turf 
That floods tho lonely graves, 
When si.ring rolls in her sea-green surf 
In flowery foaming waves." 

Two ixiths lead ui)ward from below, 
And angels wait above, 
Who count each burning life-drop's flow. 
Each falling tear of Lova 

10 Though from the Hero's^ bleeding breast 
Her pulses Freedom drew. 

2 The former : the army of destruction 

8 The latter : the army of salvation 

* Death. 

5 Wreaths made of laurel werp in nnw,.„* *• 
• n athletic or intellect" a Sveae^"* Sn™ '.f ^'' ''"''*"« '°' ^^o^e who exeelied 
statues of great men. sculptured in the marb^e"^ ""^ "^'^^^^ °"«" "PF^ar on the 

7 rZ'J"^ ^^"7 ''^P'"'^ ""^^^ ™"« tf^r^^gh this stanza 
nearly ^^S'^-^^^^'^^^^t.^i^^J^^^^^ Iit>erty h« . 



Though tho whito lilins in her crest 
Sprang from that scarh^t dow, 

n. Whilo Valor's" haughty champions wait 
Till all thoir srars aro shown 
Lovo walks un.thallongcHl through the j^ato, 
To sit buside the Throne! 

Oliver Wendell Holmes. 


tl^oZ^Z 17 Ik "'""'"'' '" ^"'^'"^ *^'- >-"' = ''^' -" B-evo.c„cc. With 

pir'nTl?; l7:izT "r r^^'™"'"" «' *="> '«~^'"'^- •^^« -«. ^var. 

•ontimcnt, calmly, .olcm I but n'ot' r ; ' r'n ''""" •'*""''"^- ^'"' '»'o««vatcd boln no..o=<, with tho spirit o, ,ho pS :pros:ntcd " ' **"' *'•' *~"""°" 

an;t::;rs-trs"i;r:::itttir r • -«-~ 

qwallty. , "'"" •'^ •" *onos of soft, effusive, but 

. Point out all the Instances of Pc-r.oni:ication;;;7:;;;;;»;;;;^^ 





Joseph Addison lu.Ms a «oll.earii..,l nn.l , 

consHleial.lo ability und learnii.a ... T' ''^ •'" ^^"8J»'«n divine V 
i«72. He received is e. ^^;a"': ,r" 'T';/'* •^^'■'''^^'^'' Wiltdi .^ h. 
^l"-'.e he nr.tbeean,euc, „ai . iit tf m/k"* /v^ < ''»'t^"i"»-«« «cho< 1^ 
l'a«^ I with credit tiu,,nld. Oxf ..ritiw? ?'' '^*r'''' "'"' «"'«^''l»i'nti; 
work of httle i".portu,.ecrhe sm ,d ,fh^ '^'^'' «'^"'« P'«li."i"ury 

gnu.te.l an annual pen.sio,, of ison f .' ' . ^•'"'" y<-^'« later he was 

good „He of his cpjH^-t ., t es «t /*• "'"''^'^ '"'" *" ^''■"'^•l. Me mSo 

Secretary to the I.or,i-Lie„t..„a„f /,:",' / ^Hil\ "^'^^ '^»'' P"«'t'"» of 
country .Steele he,,.„ the jn.l Si n i1 '.'''-r )/''•^^ ''«, ^^'^^ "> that 
contnhnted, and when in 1711 th • V^l/ ' ' ('''^'l/" T'"'^'" Addison 
fan.ons precur.-or, Addison Wane its^^n /in J '\i''"' '''"'^^ "^ 't« 1'''8 

or the ;«W/a«, ««d again fuj he 's '. f^'. *'"" '•"^'^'^''''l^ wrote 
for the hitter j)erio.liea! have Lm f, n^'*' '^P'^'t'^tor, and his esKays 

0».t ese his literary nuatt^^^ ■epuhlishcl in hook f /» 

wnt,«.s won the plaudi s o f" ^U'^'- '"l. "'"."«'' '' « •''"'"•'t c 
so favorable a ver.hct from a r ».,"'•'"'"', <''''^' '"'^^ »'<'t secnrcd 

.•.n,l«fi;.,«l„|,,„y „„„•,„■ , ' "^' '""■'"" ^'■''«l'"l '"P>-lf, 




"'>■» mu,,,,., I east »y eyes tmvunls the s„„„„it of, \ 

"pon i. The .,„„,. „v , ,,: : j r;:;: ':;;^"' •- 1";.- a variety of tunes were i»,J^'» ' l ■""»'" 
"lto, .lifferent fr,„„ anvtl ". 'i I, V''' :'"""' '■""' 

m<^ i" .»i,„l of tl.o.s„heuve V r,., ?"' '«"' ■ "'"J- i>"' 

■ -"'^ "f «»o„ n,en„po;i'L';r./ :/■;'''?''"'''■'■'"*'' 

<'"t tl.e,mssion3 of tl„. l.,«, ""\"'"™ '" ''"nuliso,. to wear 
I-l-sures ol that 1 , y . ;' "«;:":,■;'■"' '';;•";'>■ ' ' for'lu, 

I I..-..1 l,oe„ often t.,M that the roek before ,„„ wn- .1 . . 

'■■"",of. J.r:::i: '■^:;;'''^;^;::"'''-"- ^^^^ 

'l-"Kl.t» hy those t..ns,,„rtin„ ; J^ '", '"" ■ '■^"'»'"' "'y 
pfcasures of lus conv,.rv tion is , ' •""' '" ^"'■"> "'« 

to-^'.e,,, he beokone t 2 , , .f"' """■"■"" '*" —.".•- 

di-te,I n,„ to a,,,,,,.,, ,„ ^^ ^l^ ■^^^,, , -v,„, f , , han„, that reveniiee whiel, ;. ,1 , , """««'■ 1 .h-ew near 

n.y heart was ..ntirel'n: t.'," ""':""": '"""■" ^ ' ^ 

>-•■'> If.'lM.Mv„ath,sf , t, ." "f """ "'"""^ ''-' 

Imv^heard ta«. in thy ^h,^,. ,„„,.; „f r'' -"> '■". "I 

Wn the "AniMa-i Ni,rh*a»*».„ ♦ .. >-•"<««,» 



^ He then led me to the lughest pinnacle of t].e rock, and pjndn. 
me on the op of ,t, 'Tast thy eyes eastward," said ic - ncS 
mo what thou seest."--! see » said T - /> n 

thou secst," .akl J,„, "i, tl,„ val« ofMi..„. a„ . ,' "fl 1 

water that thou scost k , f ,! ,i 7'..""'' ""= "''° "f 

"Wl,,t i. M ' ' "'" «'■''•■" ""° of Eternity." 

til, mi^ r '"""; ":' '' """' ""= "'■'■• I -" "- »' of a 
he.? \M,„t thou secst," sai.l he "i., that portion of Ftor 

fiom the of the world to its consummation." 

E.>:amine now," said l,e, "this sea that is hounded with 
;«„ess at both ends, and tell n,e what thon cliseov r st in"t ' 
__ I^see a bn.%e," said I, , "standing in the n,i,Ist of th fe - 

cons,,I of three score and ten entire arclies,' with ^evenl 
ken arches, which, added to that were ntire, made" 

he nun,l>er to about an' hundred. As I was countin- h ar, ,^ 
the „ d n>e that this bridge n,.t consisted of°a .^s td 
a ches;. but that a great flood swept away the rest, and ," 

bridge in the rumous condition I now beheld it " 

if "it" ""Iff"^': ^''"'"'' "'''"" "'°" 'li^-verest on 
t I ee mnltUndes of people passing over it," said I "„n 

a black cloud hanging on each end of it" As I looked' n o"e 
atte t vely, I saw several of the ,,assenge,. dropping throTh 
the bridge ,nto the great tide that flowed unde .cHr , u":,! 
^■po ^ther examination, percei ved there were inlnlble 

' Cf. Psalms xc, 10, " — ' — 

" See Mason's Grammar noi-iw^ n-h««„ <k • - 

correctly given. Even befo e Shlkerp^re's t1.n!.''''••^"'..*^^ '""'^«"-" "«° «' "an" is 

co:„pl.a„cewith th. denmndsof eiipC befSrwo^^^ ''''opp^d, il? 

p. Abbott staea that he fliids ''an ■'^uscd bvT4kes,^iri^h^^^^^ ''','*'? * ''""s^naut. 

w but not with any other consonan ^ S'lak.speare before words bejfinniiijf will, 

•Inferring to the l.ngth of human life before the Pelu-^e 

affec.KK^^uilK.e'JrToZ::''*^.;^^^^^^^^^^ and .how how it 

furnish. oxamplo3 Of slipshod 1^^^^ ^s tll^^ t ^^^^^.^^^SS 

^ i'lCTUIiE OF HUMAN HFK. ,^^ 

trap-.Ioors that jay concealed iu tho Lri.l.o .vhich fl. 

gors no soonor trod upon but- th.y f.-Jl ul . H "'^ ^•^^''^'^"- 

t^de, and innuediatoly disappeared/ tJI '" t ^[^.^'^ ''- 

set very tluck at the. entrance of the brij.o o , n ] 

people no S( oner hr,.ko throu.d. f). i , ?' ?. "''"'«■' "^ 

f II • . ., miougli tlie cloud but" nianv of fi. . 

idl into thoni Thov rrm,,. 41 * "lany ot theni 

-'".>'i«i a„u ,? :,r M;;:;;:: ::::" "r '"^"f" •-" 

arches were Lur,. t ° ' "'" ™'' »' "'" 

Wins ".arc. „„the ^.Z,^:l^t:ZT ^ T" "' '"^■ 

looking up t.„var,l, tlu, l,4vc.n"i, w ""? "'■ ''"'"""'■" 

t.t...des we... .r:;: ;;:'■' ?" /f -" "f-sht; »„i. 

".eiv eye, ,.„„ ..a^,.:., tfrX: t., l! ^ ,""^' ,^'""«~' '» 
the„.selve. ,vithi„ the ,.o„c', o l', , , w "'■' "'"^ "'°"8>" 

The genius seein^r xao. indul-re niv^^IF ,•„ fi • , , 
«peet, told „e I ,,..5 .,w„,t lo.^i^Z ' , ;"'t';'r''';,".™- 
e,ves off the hri,!.-,. » s-.i,! I,„ .. "='„ ' '' ^''''■<' <■•">'<> 

".ins that thou :,;t „„;,;", ■■";;•' "7' --'-y 

_1 '"^^"'''' ^''^^P'««. ravens, cormorants, ,vnd 


118-130 and 

, — Jiation I 

especially 127, 

I use of 

• Abbot's "Shftke-nearis 



It i' 

f I 

E^ I 

aii:o-ig many other feathcml crco tares several Iftfl • . 
boys," r,«..,.i • ' ^ ""iLs, several Jittle winced 

l.uma„ life." ^" ''•'" ."""'^ »"•' P''^-™" that infest 

in Hr; w if,: ;!r ^" ■• /''"'■" ^"'" '• "-" - -^» 

in life, and i:,,:. H; :t:,r'""'T;:r'' "•■■"f ^-^ "-'""^ 

™.d it with : • n : ; ;v"' "" r-' «"""'^ ^"-s"- 

"M«t, that «.„s heiro : i /' ;■ ™ ''■"''"""' P"''' "f ':« 

"-n.o ocean, that ha,I a In.- oer''.,, '?""''" "" """ 
the mi,I..t of it, an,l ,„, t . """""« "'^'"'S'' 

«till .o.tod on on "' " '"" r"',"' '""'^- ^''" "'»-'» 

with innmnerahle island, t ,T ' '" "'"""' '''"'''^''^ 

Howe,., and intenvov^t t th ^n^r ' "^^'^ '™"^ ^^ 
ran amona them I ,.„„l,l . '"•""«"' 'Mh sinning seas that 

with ga..,™.,;;„.! ^:^\ :r:ri:rr' '':;'"'""' '"""•'■ 

down h, the side of fonntaint oV t^i " oT^^', *V"''^' '•""' 
eouhl hear a confn.,, harnio^y of si ^ ,^ t^T r' 
Luman voices, and n.usical in^^nnnent: ° ' *" ™""'^ 

" Cupid, the god of love, was represented hv hI ^ ~ ~ 

■' «. .. u.„ ...,. ,.., .;.irr ir^-i^r- """ "'-^^ 

rtVj, ^n., 11. 004 
I will remove 1 1' ^ '"'""^^ *''>" '"ortal %ht, 


to tho,„, o.xc,,,t through the r : of d h Vr "" """"°"' 
every „.o.„„t „,„„. \^ „,f^^ .f ^ ^^ ^^ -- oP-."..' 

"-.gination, can ext:,„l Hf ZJ !{'''• "'"'"" "''"" 

resputive inhabitants. Are not these, O Mirza h-il.,-. •• 
worth contending fo. ? i),,, life appJur nnst' bio U^T' ' '" 
thoe opportunities of earnin. such a revvan ^ V l . ^'T 
fearer], tlivt will convev th. , , ' ^^''^^^ ^'^ ^« 

vvm convey thee to so haiiny an exi^tenrp? t; • i 
not man was made in vain who hJ '^^'^^^ »«« ? Think 

for him." ' '''"' ^'""^ '''"^^^ an eternity reserved 





«.u,,try. Me „^ t„„, „° c^; °°";^.' "">J political lifo of his ,lav It, i 
York i„ 1878. Like I'ope he -S ' "^f • '" '"'« »■"' >Iio'l »t ^W 

»^«S^;£i J-lS^Sf, fT^M^T?^ 

literary rcj-^Latio-, both ^. ho-no- ^ U. ^, ^*'*^?^ ^^»«'' ad, .3,1 to his 

)r?fk of great m*.^ftu: c;2^.^"T ^'V;:; ^^^ ^'•yant has p.-oc^c^/'^ 

read before one of the "{l:,,j; i,.;.^^."V.- ^'^ ^Ses," was Written (o bo 
""nor ixx3.ns o.rofuil of bc^i fe'. •' . T fl< ,?*>«'«tiesat Harvard Colle^r h2 
ever th. Ea:,II.h \^v:^\:St^ ^ T" '"? JI''*''^ P^P^^^r ..iS^ 

»l«tth the positioz. was aimosVa LiluiiLfoae '"^"" ^'^^^"^ ^«^^ ''^ hi? 

1. To ]„-n. ,vho in Um lore of JS^aturo holds 

A v.mou.r language,: for In, .,y,rhoun. 

A«(l ^>IcKiucnco of Ixntuty ; unci sho gliUoa 
into In. darker mu.ings with a mild 
And hcuhng nynipathj, that steals away 
^ .leiv s'urpac'ss crcj ]„. i,, awaiv 

title i. derived fmm wo VvV-ok ^'u'*' ""'^* "' »''"''• arrr.Un ■m,'"'^' '""**'''''« "'"^^ 





When thoughts 
Of the last hitter hour come h'kc a hiiglit 
Over tliy spirit, and sad images 
Of the stern ag(.ny/' and shroiid, and p; M, 
And breathless dark nciss, and tlie narruw house,^ 
Make thee to slmdder and grow sick at heart, 
Go fortli under tlie open sky and list 
To Nature's teachings, while from all around— 
Earth and hep waters, and the dejjths of air—* 
Comes a still voice: Yet a few days, and thee 
The all-beholding^ sun shall see no more 
In all his course; nor yet in the cold ground, 
Wliere tliy pale form was" laid with many tears, 
Nor in the embrace of ocean, shall exist 
Thy image.'' 

Earth, that nourished thee, shall claim 
Thy growtli,* to be resolved to earth agnin ; 
And, lost human race," surrendering up 
Thine individual being, shalt thou go 
To mix forever with the elements — 
To be a brother to the insensible rock, 
And to the sluggish clod which the rude swain 
Turns with his share and treads upon. The oak 
Shall send his roots abroad, and pierce thy mould. 

!. Euphemisms for "death " and the "grave." See Appendix B. 
4 Note the grammatical case of " earth," " waters," and "depth's." 
6 This is a good ilhist.ation of the aijKicity of the Anglo Saxon clement of Fnirlish tn 
form expressive coml)inati<.ns. I„ verv times the tendency X.nVstK,llU? 
writers to make use of this qua'ity of the Language hi" l.e^n o '^he ?c~^^ n^^^ 
iZ :.t«Tn-" •'' "".V'"^ ''"v'"'"''' exten.ively .rith'a,lvanta^ n oSnnaTwi^ "is I 
Z'at.'rn"ri^;t*OreX"""' *»' ""'^'^ '^ ""^''" "^'^ "" *« -' -~« -t-'.t^^ it 

w^Kj^;;lK;r^|;^S^^S,;;,;:;;Sn:^r" «" th.^; which bestcompUea 

maJ^flT''"'" 'i'-*!*'^ second paragraph is incluled in one sentence, which presents 
many features of interest, not the legist imwrtantof which is the fact that an unusuanv 
largyportion of the words are of Atglo Saxcn origin. Point out a,Kri "c «u"h aa 

» Point out the figure of speech, 

* TTuat is tho construciioii of ihis ? 

.i i\ 



4. Yet not to thine eiernul restin-'-placo 

Simlt tlio.i retire alone, «or couldst thou wish 

Coucli more inagnilieent. Thou slmlt lie down 

Wita pat:-,arc!is of the infant worhl-vvith kin^^s 

The po^veraU of the e.rth-the wise, the ^.^ 

Fair forms, ai.l hoary .eers'" of a.,'es past, 

All m one miyhty sepnk-hre. The hills, 

Roek-nhhe,l and ancient a. the snn-the vales 

fetretclung m pensive tiuietness hawoe-i— 

The venerable woods-river, tiiat move 

111 majesty, and the complaining" hrooks 

That m;il;e the meadows <'i-<>(mi • .mJ , i 

nil , " ' '"^''> poui'iiil round all 

Old oe...a:i's gray andUnelancholy Avtiste- 

Are but tlio solema decurationj all 

Of the r^reat t<jmb of man. 

Thcnl-mnf' .,11 fi. • p •■ 1 The golden sun, 

-Lac planet.,, all tlie infinue host of heaven 

Ai-e shining on the sad al)odes of death ' 
Through the still lapse of ages. All that tread 
Ihe globe are but a handful to the ti-ibes 
That slumber in its bosom. Take tlio win-g 
Of morning,^^ and tlie Barcan desert"' pierce, 
Or lose thyself in the continuous woods 
^Vhere rolls the Orego,)," an.l hears no sound 
Save his own daslungs-yet the dead are tWe ' 
And mdlions in those solitudes, since first 

la Psalm txxxix., ». What is th.' figure ? 


The flight of years Logan, have Lu.l tliem down 
lu their Just slecp-the dead reign tlicre alone." 

«. So Shalt thou rest ; and what if thon withdraw 
In sdence'" from the living, and no friend 
Take note of thy departure ] All that breathe 
^^^\l share thy destiny. The gay will Jaugli 
V\ hen thou art gone, the solemn brood uf caro 
Plod on, and each one, m before, will chase 
His favorite phantom ; yet all these shall leave 
Their mirth and their emi.loyments, nn.I shall como 
And malce their be.l with thee. As the long train 
Of ages glido away, the sons of men— 
The youth in life's green spring, an,l he who goes 
In the ftdl strength of years, matron and n.aid, 
The bowed witli age, the infant in tlie smiles • 
And beauty of its innocent ago cut off," 
Shall one l)y one bo gatliered to thy side 
By those who in their turn sliall follow them. 

r. So live, that when tliy suniTnona comes to join 
The innumerable caravan which moves 
To that mysterious realm where each shall take 
His chamber in the silent halls of death. 
Thou go not like the quarry-slave at ni-dit 
Scourged to his dungeon ; but, sustain^l and-soothe.I 
■By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave 
Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch 
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams.'s 
"^TZ :; — ; - Br milt. 

lo Nanio the fl-rurcs in the pnx-odinjr three lines ~ ' 

nored^^r-r'"'^- "IfU.ou wi.hd... u^hood^ah,,. and "if thou .halt fa,, u. 
n The prcca insU..Ur, arc substituted for the earlier single ,i„e • 
isPffKo = ^"''*''^''**^^*-'^'^*'^«'»''<l thegray-headKln"' 
" Ct the Persian V^^^l^^ ^^sl^o, h. Sir W.„. j:! ": 

K.' i.u ;;,at, suikiujf i,rtTuMk^t7ionl/Jle^,r"''*^ ' 
, Cain. ,). ,a «.u>>t smile while ailSund t'hee weep," 


.1 n 





nature ; iower tl.e pitcr^Vd L? " ! t ^ T 7T ^"''""'^'^ "' "'^- '""""- "' 
sentence, "and ^ho^HdJ,' &!• t^-'^J^ruc*. Indicated b, t.cnor into the la*t 

I'ar. 2. Head from f ho oonihion.r- .f .„ i 

cxi,r«.s8 the la'ions of dwth y ■ . "*'"' ""*' ^""^ ••'"■•'l'*^'' P'^h : 

presenting eW.s. The .^;an^^:ph is'of ch 7"*" "" ^^'^ ^"""""'' " - 
an.l " these " take the cn.pha.^ ch.,mt^i. „. . ^o 4,,, j,,,^, ., ,,^.^ . 

to an'";hl","o?,o'«;''.'ILtiry'r u?, hi; . '" r* ""*r^^ "• ^■""'-^^^•- -^^ - ^^^ -'-s 

coedinp «c„tencc '. ., e iin"! th , ' "' "'?'''*'""- "^^ '^^"°"- <^' ^he sac 
close 0* the paraj,.. ; '^ ' *''" '•^'*""''' '""^^ ''^-'"^ "">«•« solen,,, tho 

.uu.t not araj. ,f the passage be read'with dec e vor !S W ''" "■"""• 

he ;,rcat art of -. ....:„^ «,ow •' without '■secnun,. .low • ^^'-l^ua i>Tu .''''''"'' 

his Actors and Actlnjr." will be accomplished. «^-"e8t<=J V G. II. Lewes in 



v'liere he 


Samuel Johnson was the son of a bof Vsellpr nt i;..uc, 1 i 1 

a short time endeavoured' t^ m« ? ^ l"' "'"' ""i^^ /="""»• »"'• 't 
literary work of «?„„„'!„ .^Vi, " ''„"« >" '"';'": 8 ""<1 d""W 

tne iouow, yea. nt commenced . e publicauon of J M 

patron, of lifcmry men" and wa" L «el an ...fh"^ ' "^ '""•• *"*' «"•"««"> h th" 
the collectiou of - u>tv , "to h?8 Son ^ Jh?h li*''"^ '^ Y *'« '-» best k. ow,. ,' a 

given of hi: ; ivate life, worid-a character full^, borne out by the accT , 

to "rfiilWe" 
f iiiflueritc of 
into the lofct 

cepcr pitch ; 

thcin. They 
. frofiuciitI> 
ihaaia an re 
ino ' .lead ' 

M it refers 
of the 8UC- 
;owar(l8 tho 

33 of the 

■tioii) must 
■le reading 
sc foelintf, 
I. Lcw'cs in 

liero he 
was un- 
and for 
tl doing 
here he 
(■ork for 
of JU 

In 172b 
1 politics 
fls \Ur 
in. Htho 
wn hv 18 
ting nd 


fct r'^i^'^Mif?^ in imitation of tl, - SpeHotor, but it waa alIowe<l to 
lllerj and „r .^! f ,^!: J'' .'.'"y "'"'«.'• ."^ 5""'r'^«t with certa.n book- 

^n n ni '"" "'^"/'\ ^'■'^r-^ '><»'^'- ■'''»K'li«l» Dictionary. I„ 
W aS V' ''^"^T^ Hl'ort-Uv.d periuditul, The Mn;\^d four years 
u a ;, r "P ''"•^"'■«^"«« <^f 'ill tl.c hunlships of povorty, he wa" pC I 
£-UMfrv " "L«:^"'l>f' •'itivo co.ufort l.y tho locdpt of a my d "1^ i of 
£m a year. His oelebrate.l tour mnongHt the western inla n,i of S n 
^nd. ,n coniimny with i]<,«well hi., future hioKnXr m a, n o ?n f--^' 
pIx t^" rr?^ 'T" '"^'^^«* "^ '''^^ worked' ^heLir;" he Englifh 
iem tv rivo • Dr V7« '"V P "^"' '11"««« l'« 'Ii-1 i" 17H4 at the age J 
the it^.^ -v „a • '',V''"ff^" » J«'.lfe"»ent was in his own day as suprcn^e in. 
leie SnriL Vr * '° ^'»3"'«tic sphere, hut in the former it has Ueu 
Dc^nl 1. iVT "'' ?"''"? "^ criticism soon lost their authority andXa 
pccuhai style* n.:vci- found an important school ,;f imitators. 

^/^'' ^7;f:r^ ^'^'"'^ ^''*''^^' " i'^^^"''"^l ^^y the proprietor of 
l/ie II arid- that two i^pers in Avliidi my "Dictionary" is rccom- 
meiKlea to tho puhlic were Avritten by your lordship. To bo so 
dist.un«Ks]u.(l is an honour wliich, being very little accustomed to 
tuvours from tho -leat, I know not well how to receive, or iu 
what terms to acknowledge.* 

Whon, ui)on some slight onoonragemont,' I first visited your 
- •dslup, 1 was ovoriKiwercd, like the rest of mankind, by the 
onel mtmout of your addi-ss,« an.l could not forbear t<. wish» 
tb .t^n'-'ht boast myself le vainqiieiir ^hi vainqneur de la tenx^ 

involvetl sonteneo ; not;co also the 

8 A Journal published in London at that time. 
* Notice the peculiar structure of this somewh 
studied courtesy Midi which ihe sareu-u, j^ tlotn. 

5 At thosugj^Stion f.f the puhlis,,,, Dodslev J<,hn«nn in ITAT »i I , 

of AujTustus, made h mself famous by hi, oatrona-'P ..f V r.rn a, i u J^"". ' '-»"* ' 
nicnt paid by J hngn,, to Clesterlel-Kv a v«v!, »^" ., ^"V'' aini Horace, uw coii.pli- 

JJi^I:!^ *" Ch.sterfl.ld-8 bearing and personal influe,,.^ o^ t others la not an 
' The fonn " wlshin-r would have hcor more in accord n-ith t\ ■ ,.«.„ ,.t ™ i 

•» " The conqueiui of th« conqueror f the world," 



CAXjnux nuAbnu—unoK yi. 

« -'■ I"--.' to have ,.i, „„ no,...,..j ' /r ',: tr 

ti.- 1 have bjo, ;:,;':' ,^:' ^■'";; "■'-]■• "-"« »i.ia 
'1.0 v.,,„ „f p:!r,:L :::;;:;,:: :: ''■""^";' "• ■" ■-'• - 

l«vo boou ,,loa..,.,l to td.-. of 1 1„ ,,yr';"i"™ "'■'"'' ^•"- 

'"" 1— . -"I Jo „„t „,,„t i, ^i' ,,. 'itT, ' ""'" "' "" ' 
l^u-ity, not to confess.. „l,li„,t „n, , ' ""■■^' '■^"''^"' "'- 

coiml, or to 1,„.-. „,„villi, r, Z "" ''""°''" ''"» '«™' ■■<> 

owingtoapat^^tt 'Itw^'r '■""'' ™''^'''''-^ 

..The reference h, .1. ^ ,'™;.."„ "' '" '^'^ "- ""'="■"-;■ " «- Publ,*e„. 

THE DIVER. ,r,y 

Ilavin^r carried on my work thus fur with so littlo obli^mtion 

o any avoim..r of h.Hn„ng, r shall not l,o .lisa,,,.oint,..l thun-^h 

I 8houM cpnchi.le it. if loss ho ,,os8ihl,. with Irss; for I have 

^ng been awakcn.-.l innn that .hvam of hop,- in which I once 

boasted myself with 8o n.uch exultati.m, my lord, • 

Your lordship's most hiunblo and ob(Mlient servant, 

Samuel Johnson. 


regimeiicat «tuttgdrt. Wm penchant for wr tiiitt i>octrv was Bti, n«fl. 
eued by fo study oi tl>o EngliHl. .hun.ati.sts. and K^ITJ^T^i.fira fai 

Orleans "aiul ''Will^wn Til -If i . , • ^ Stuart,' "The Maid of 
I8n\ vvKii I '' M*'^ ^"'«»*^ a"'' overwork carried him off in 

hold« a .leservedly high place inVubiic fav^r* " '^' *'"«'^''" "^^'"^"' 

elebrate.l mi.Ier thi name of "C^r blis"^' h^^^ J'*/".''*^ "' ♦*'« whirlMool 

•ish," to attempt it, explomtion^ ^he?,?:, '' 1^^^^^^ V!:'';'^'?^^^/' '*«■•. Nicholas " th. 



Fish," to attempt its cxplomtion." '3'he <ii"erue7fs"h ^ i.VVhTaT. '""'/' ^'"i"">'n'' " th<- 

very profile occurrence Schiller hps w.. ,. R^hf'rhU. rll f- ''"^"'P'- '-"'rf out of this 

verse. The English translation whth i, ^ a vprv^^^M "' f "^y^^-ouch-.x! in nohio 

of the ori^nal. is by the elder I^Ktton^hohiLiTl''^r V}'°. ''*"'« ""^ ••»'^*>'"> 
Enulifh writers. L,yi.M)n, u-no himself holds a hi-h position anionff.,t 


1. "Oh, whore is the kuij-ht or the squire so bold 

As to di^re to the liowh'ng Churyhdis* below?— 
I cast in the whirlj.i.ol a gobha of gold, 
And o'er it already the dark waters flow ; 
• Whoever to me niiiy the goblet brintr. 

Kiiall have for his guerdon" that gift of his king."< 

2. He spoke, and the eup from the terrible steep, 

That, rugged iind hoary', hung over th(> verge. 
Of the endless and nu^asuivless world of the deep, 

Swirled into the maelstrom' that maddened the surge. 
"And where is the diver so stout to go" — 
I ask ye again—to the d^ep below?" 

3. And the knights and the srpiires that gathered around, 

Stood silent — and fixed on the ocean their eyes; 
They looked on the dismal and savage Profound,^ 

And the peril cliilled back every tliought of the prize. 
And thrice spoke the monarclj— "Tiie cup to win, 
Is there never a wight" who will venture in?" 

4. And all as before heard in silence tht; kinf». 

Till a youth with an aspect unf(jai'ing but gentle, 
'Mid the tremulous scpi ires— stepped out from the ring, 

s Tlio "CharvMls" \n a dangerous whirlpool on tho coast of Sicily, Ivirnr onoogite fn 

Ssrz .is-'-' ■■■■""' ■■ *""'•■ «ur.'iX.";r?.?:i;aKJ: 

# J. '.'m "*!,*"'•". '''''." ^""^ " ff"*'"^ '" " has a ctirious h-storv. It canio into old Fn-rlish 

u,)of tho Latin do,mw, ''a «•»/• and Urn ol.i hi^h Oinnan i.renK triV/,-//,™^^^^^^^^ 
niun w,ed^r) 'hack." or "in return." rt. tho u«e of tho I Jin roflTre in «^^^^^ 
08 " reward," ' ro(;on.|K!n8t'," and '• roniunertttion." ' ""-" ***"" 

•» ThcHo words aro put in tho mouth !>f kiufc' Fredc rick. 

» "Sank with a whirling nioti.u) into the whirljKwl." The pro|K>r name "Mafilrtmni" 

.^zs:t'i^^;!;:,^tr^^' '^"^^'^^-'« '-- uLd'j:ruuotru:r'j:v 

6 Supply tho cliipBin. i Kqui vnlent to " ahyos." 
r 'Jioi\'n'L',fv h'f'"''"' "^'^'^•".V"'' *»■""' «'»^ very comu..n In /n^flo-Saxon and was 



Unhnrkliiiff his rrir.He, an<l iXoWuv^ his niaiitlp ; 
Ami tlic iiiunnuring crowd, as tlioy purU„l asunder, 
On thu stately hoy cast tlioir looks of woiuk-r. 

6. As ho strode to tho mavgo'" of tlio summit, ami gavo 
Owe glance on tho gulf of tliat merciless n)aiiC 
Lo ! tho wave that for over devours the wave, 

Casts roaringly up tlie Charyl»dis again ; 
And,a.^ with the swell of the far thundcr-l)oom, 
Rushes foamiugly fortli from tho heart of (ho gloom." 

«. And it l)ul»l)]cs ami seethes, and it hissi>s and roars, 

As when Hre is with water commixi-d and contending, 
; And tho spray of its wrath to the welkin" ui)-soars, 
And flood upon flood hurries on, nover cmliu" ; 
And it never will rest, nor from travail bo five, 
Like a sea that is lahom-ing tho birth of a soju 

7. Yet, at length, comes a lull o'er tho mi^'hty c .mn>oti<m, 

Tho whirlpool cleaves d(.wnward and downward in o can 

■A yawning abyss, like the lathway to hell; 
Tho stiihu- and dark(!r tlu; farther it goes, 
Sucked into that huioothness the breakers repose." 


9"r>off" isccmi]K)uii(lc(l of "do'arid "ofi" as "«Inn " in n» <<,i .•• » i .. •. ,. 

Mndd. an.| aim, of tho •' Ilou . ,o uulio of u }n I st, ^n.S - '"" "'''"''" """■""■' "' " 
12 An older siHilllfi-' of the word Im "ui-r tin " .ir.,i ,. .«••( ii .. .. „ 

n.o.„h...'o,ou,i.- 1^0 origin o,t^^lnn:::.j;:i;efr\'vth^;iii::;;:T;;:s^ 

" tJrid cs wallet, nml siedot, ntul l,ra.iH..t. n>id zl-cht '• 

<los,rription of "OI,aryUll«" t<)nfc IikhI .rT/oincr^* " k l^^^^ *" '"'' 

w..ioh' I'oiH, i„ l.b tmnsltttlon rfHuX: <Wi=iM.y, lUjol, xil.. 2a4 .t m,, 






«. rho yontli gave his trust to his Makor ! Loforo 
1 .atpath tluoMgh tho riven ahps closed again. 

Hmlc a s^u. c Iro.u Ih. gazers that cir,:lo tho shore- 
An. be .ol. he . whirh.U in 

An. uer ]uni the breaker. n.ysteri..uslv rolled. 

Au.l the giant niou^i chased on tJie swinuner so bold. 

0. All was still on the height, save the n.unnur that wont 
Ironi the grave of the .le.,,, .oun.ling hollow ard fell " 
Or save wh.n the tr..n>, sighing LMuent 

Mo,e h..llow an.Muore wails the dee,, on the ear'»- 
More dread an.l n.ore .head grows suspense in its fear. 

"If thou shonldst in those M-aters thy diadeni Hin.^'o 

Andery 'AnH> may find it shall it and we^;.;' 
M wot," thongli the prize were the erown of a kin^.-- 

A erown at sndi hazar.1 werei« valued too dear. ° 
J' or never shall lips of the livin- reveal 
AHuvt the dcrps that howl yonder in terror conceal 
11. Oh many a bark, to that breast^grap,.Ied fast 

Has gone d.nvn to the fearful and fathondess grave • 
Agani, crashed together the keel and the mast, ' 

""■ ""— 1 ■ — , 

>■■> Mora and mojo nollort'.- ir> Tlie thun-ht nf ti, 
'" Give iiiood and teniw. 

THE DlVLli. 

To I)(3 f>eon tossed aloft in the glne of Iho wave !" 
Like the ;,'rowth of a storm cv(!r XuxvAo.v and clearer, 
(iruw.^ the roar of the gulf rising nearer and nearer. 

13 .And it hiil)i)h',( a!i»l seethes, and it hisses and roars, 

As when fire is with water connnixed and contending; 
And the .s])ray of its Aviath to the wtdkin nji-soars, 
And flood uiion flood hurries on, never ending, 
And as witli the swell of the far ihiinderd.f.onj, 
Knslies roaringly forth from the heart of iIk; gloom. 

13. And lo ! from the lienrt of that f.n-Hoating gloom, 

lake the wing of the cygnet— wliat gleams on the sea? 

Lo ! an arm and a neck glan.dng up from tlie tomb ! 
Steering stalw.u-t"* and shore w;ir 1. joy it is he ! 

The left h;in.l is lifte.l in triumph ; ))ehold, 

It M-aves as u trophy th'e goblet of g<;ld I 

li. And he broatlie'd deep, and Ik breathed long, 

^ And he greeted the heavenly deligijt of the day, 
They gazt^ on each other they shout as Ihcy tiaong— 

" He lives — lo, the (wvam has rendered iis i)r(;v ! 
And safe from the whirlpool and free frrmi the gravo, 
Comes back to Hk; dayli^jht the soul of the bravo !" 

15. And he comes, with the crowd in their eiimour and glee; 
And tlie gohlet his daring has won from Lin? water. 
He lifts to tli<" king as he sinks on liis knee-- 

And the king from her maidens has !)eelcM.i'.>.l his daughter. 
She pours to the bjy the bright wino wJiich they brin.i,% 
And thus sjmko the Diver'"—" Long life to the KingT" 


_,< . 

i9Tho orifrln of "stalwart" io a master of .liht.iito, but Skcnt nrofti-n iYc Ano-in 
Saxon "s-clan." t,.> ntuul, a,,.] " wo th," w„rf.|.v The i o. tl ma liroV '^tUuirt " 

» Notice fhe changrei of tonsc in stanzas 13-15, 




10. " Happy they whom the roao-huos of dayli-ht rejoice, 
The air and the sky tlmt to mortals are given ! 
May tlie liorror helow nevermore iind a voice— 
^ Nor man stretch too far the wi.le niercv of heaven !'• 
Nevermore, nevermore may he lift from'tlie si-ht 
The v(;il which is woven with terror and nighf! 

>r. "Quick hrightening like lightning the o-ean rushed o'er m. 
VV dd floating, home down iathom-deei) from the day • 
Tdl a torrent rushed out cm the torrents tl at bore me, ' 
^ And douhled the ttunpest that whirled me away. 
\ am, vain was my struggle— the circle had won me 
Round and roun.l in its dance the ma.l elen.ent s])un me. 

i-^. " From the deep, then I called upon «o,l, an.l ITe -heard me • 
In thr3 dr.'ad of my nee,l, Jle vouelisnfed" to mine eye 
A rock jutting out from the grave that interred'^ me ;• 

I sprung there, I dung there, and death jjasscl me'hy 
And lo : whei-e the gohlet gleam.ul through the abyss, ^ 
I)y a cond reef saved from the far Fathomless."-* 

10. " Below, at the font of tliat precipice drear. 

Sl)mul the gI(,omy, an.l purine, and' putldess Obscure i« 
A sd(;nce of honor that slept on the ear, 

That th(i eye more appalh'd miglit the'hoiror emlure; 
Salamander,"" snake, dragon— vast reptiles that dwell 
In the deep-coile.l about the grim jaw. of their helL 

a» A moro literal rendering of tho imijerative of 

"Let not man stretch too far tho wui 

Ae erinore, no* tnnore, let him lift 

8e,«.at., and «o,ueti.„e. tho "««f^- ci.o flr t 

ta.l, the French aoueher, to fito. 
a3To"i!,t.r",s, pro;Hirly qwaking, tho act of 
»« Cf. tlio ' ■ Profound " In stanza :i. Wh it^jfovc- 

,,^'jyj'' Note 24. This use of ihe adjective for a 

80 Parse these nouas. 

the orij^inal wouIJ be : 

') v'l r '■' i<t hoavon; 
frmii thesijfht." 

i/ r';'!.*"*^ •■• safe," and menna to 

•v'f..' ...•'" 7"'"'^« were usually kept 

Vouuh IS from tho Utin vocare, to 

those who pla 'e a body In the tfrave. 

"•:s t:;o dontonce: "Whore, .abvsa." 

•loun is i.i imitation of the (Jeniian 


20. "■ Dark crawlod, glided dark/' the imspoakable swarms, 
Clumped together in masses, misshaixui and vast ; 
Here clung and here bristled tlie fashionless forma ; 

Here the dark moving bulk of the hamnier-fish passed ; 
And with tc»eth grinnin ,' white, and a menacing motion, 
Went the terrible shark— the hyena of ocean. 

" There I hung, and the awe gathered icily o'er me. 
So far from tl»e earth, wliere man's help there was none! 

The one human thing, with the golilins"' before me— 
Alone — in a loncness™* so ghastly — Alone ! 

Deep under the reach of the sweet living breath, 

And begirt with Hk; broods of the desert of Death. 


3 3. " ^rethought, a^ I gaze;.! through the darkness, that now 
Ir' saw — a dread linndi-ed-Iimbcid creature — its j)rey ! 
And darted, devouring ; I sprang from the ])ough 

Of the coral, and swejit on tlie horri])le wif\' ; 
And the whirl of the mighty wave seiztid me once more, 
It seized )ne to save me, and dnsh to the shore." 

so. On the youth gazed the monarch, and marvelled : quoth he, 
" Bold diver, the goblet 1 prcjmised is thine ; 
And this ring I will give, a fresh guerdon to thee— 

Xev.M- jewels more precious shone up from the mine — 
If thou"lt ])ring mo fresh tidings, and venture again, 
To say what lies hid in the innermost" main 1 " 

a: What fljnirc of si>occh is hero iiscil ? 2s Explain the coiistrucHoii. 
MThis wor! c-^-i.-. i-om tho Orook Pohalm, an iinpu'?ent fellow, a sprite It Im^, 
passed thrmuihtiir |,.- Lntin ,./o,»r/u/«y, the French nohHin, and the old' F.n-'lish 
-oholino int<. Its picsuDt form Sponsor, with his usual disregard of orthourapliv 

s« Tho ordinary form is " loneliness". N )tice tho alii oration ; see Api»cndlx A. 

=1 The polj of the nncicnts ; the modern dcvil-fldh. 

ri The hue rompoyition of this word is con.-iealcd hy dialcrtic corniption. The 

pyllal.lo mosi is -lOt the onli ary s-.iporlative "most", b.iC a double sujierlative snfflx 

im:^i'i5;i?.»'r"'' *""/'.'; Z'*^'"'' A'-^ ^" '-■*l!'"W-"«. t>'«>e were two modes of incrkmff ihe 

"^^^'^^'^Xl^^r'T-^l^l^'.lTY V " *^''l * .t ^-^t*" "/'^'""'^.and (2> hy the ordinary 

i;M. . 1 he oid »<:rni of the . >.;t*!^!n'-vo of "in'' w,v« "iiimmicst" (now eorruptwl into 

inmost sun. fo, fh!i wns^v,,,,, (,„.,. , the .•.*,panitivo " h.ner' with U>thoJ theabovt 
8Ui«rlativ« cjiJlngs a.taclMd. T( A.jrd is thoreloru doubly corninL 

■r?' - 




Then out spake the .laughter in tender emotion- 

Ah ! fatlier, my fatlier, what more cm tJa-re rest f ■ 
I'^nougli of tliis sport with the pitiless ocean- 

He has served thee as none would, tliyself hast confest." 
if u..thiu- can slake'^ thy wiW thirst of desire, 
L^'t tliy knights put to shame the exploit of the s.iuire!" 

The king seized the ^o])let, he swung it on hi-^h 
And whirliug, it Ml in the roar of the ti.lo • ' 
" Buf« l.ring back that goblet agai.i to my eye 

Ana I'll hold tliee the ,l<,arest that rides by my side • 
And arms shall <.,nl>race as thy bride,"^ I deeree, ' 
lUo maiden whose pity now pleadeth for thee." 

.... Ami heaven, as he listi-ned. spoke out from the space,- 
^ And iho hope that makes hen,es shot ilame from hjs eyes • 

He gazed on the blush in that beautiful face- ' ' 

It i.ale -.^at the feet of her fatlier ^he lies ' 
H<.u' prieeless the guer.h,n ! a mn,„..nt-a breath^- 
And hea.(l.,ng h.; plunges to liie and to death ! 

-. TlH^y hoar the loud suiges swe.-p l,ack i,i their swell, 
J beir eommg the thunder-soun.l heralds al„n.^ ' 
lM)nd eye. yet are tracking the spot where he iAV' 

They conus the wild waters in tumult an.l thron- 
Koa-mg up to ,],<. elilf-roaring 1 aek as before "' 
J»it iu, vrave ever brings th. lost youth to the shore! 


the Facuth nxur, to mnuii.. ' " '^''' " '''' ''*"'» "'e Latin re^taie, uirouljh 

»• Supply the dl.I)8i« ili t).cso t u o lines 
^ A douWct of 'Ma,.),," .„a ti,o older /o.,„ of ,hc t«o. 

si* Tlio tmnslatoi- litt. introduced thunder ns i>ai t d tu ... , . 



Tilt: D/rj'ju. 



Three characters are Introduced Into tl is nooi-i Ti.„ 1 1 

""«: )n.s Ua„«htor. gentle, and pi, M^^^/ttdivr^ "' ^'^' "'""'• "'"' 
Maker ' The «„;,:, „ ' ' '" ""^ *''*'-'^' ''™^t>. »"<! "tnisriiiirfo h*s 

the reading "' '"" "-'""'"'' '"""^ ^^^ "''--'' - i-'l-.onut.d in 

Jl:;:^:^ IlorJtulilf ''^'^' ""^ "'^^'"-^^ '^ co„,n,„„din.. a,„.o.t rou«h. and 
aJ^Zy.' ^'""' '"^ """'""^^" '-"•' '^^''■^■- -"^ «!-'''< the kin,-« words l.old.y ... - 

>eraoi.. .niit-utod niwhihition i-liould be. a i.)i,.,i ♦,> .ki . 
"Mieth«.," "i,.*,es •• "roars '■ Tl,. 'i' "'""^ *"' «"<* Words a» 

actions d^scribcS """" '""'*' '" '"^"' "'''' '^^'"'"'"«" lnHtati^e of the 

Verso 8: liaise the eyes uijward to " MrI ».r '• i. i i- 

l:.yhcr and with iiiort' fire, '"uuiuli oi uic \crbo 

^ erse 13 : IJofer;n higher and Icudcr, and read "what s:le;in.s",.t.. n. ! bi . . 
ixidly. In line 4 read si nilarlv -O joy .to" In n w .''•• ^"'^•^'^'''''t '"oro 

••t^,,hy;.•pawsoandincrea.eth;foreei':.;l\;,.tof,o;^" '""' """^ ^•'""""'^ ^° 
e:n,.,:a.i.and .^usc on "lae^, •..^S"" '•lll-'r.J'^r^^l^^^^'"^ ^-""«- ^^'^'^ 


a tone tf proud and respect. Line. 4 and .> dc, -wul f nnn. t • 

Jrn:: " :;:::.r •■•"^"""^- ^'"^ ' ^-'"'"'^ '^ "-^^ '^'»'^"- '-^^ ^ ^ --p-i. 

Jer^e i7 nn.t he read in higher pitch and faster. -ospeeiui:y the «in,ile,-and with 

Verse 18 : De-in In dm per pitch with emphasis on "G«l ■" rca<l ' ' h,. hn . t .... 

crvor. withen,p,asison "heard;- a,.d c„:pl.a.i.c ■.roc,.-* Tine ■ ?," ?'' 

^^Un., hut red "a.d d^ath, ete.. .ow. ..d deeper. Line":,:';^" ^i;;; 

emphasise ".haM;- and '■ l.y,„a,' ,.,.,,' '"'""''"^ ''"P"'^''; 

Ve:-8e 21 : IJea-l rhis a^^in with dee;, solemnity and awe ; vu-I the krt ",.lcr« • n. 
4 With tremulous eniMhasit, aid prolyniro..iti;::c. -au. i.ic k« aicre, line 


I h 


•i. , i'-"^ 



\:ine 22 : Terror p:evails In thb vcr^e " U " i„ n.„ 
om..haii.s with iron or and nhu.^ilrT I ^ "*""'"'' """ '"""' *"''"' P'«^at 

Vor,A 9i . M 1 .K. ^' '»'^'"' •""• *'"> incicasc-U fono " iniienno-t •' 

»»r.,:„.r. "■.::,::,.";':, r' """;"."■ " ' - "-""' •<■"- » ""'"» 

•■ki,l,l,t. ".i. • «"»"»l'. "10.- •■nothi,,,' „„| o»i«.i.ll, 

.isjr;:rr::r "•""''*""" '-°"=°' ■•-■■'■•' •'.-'-^^^^^ 

a. it « more an exclamatory than an assertive sentence. a'-i«'"tf«nflec-tion. 


Edmund Burke was (luriiir a neriddnf c/i.,nf r., i; • i i- 
a.tvity-thc latter half of t.i; ffi cc^2 ;-S^\ et «?' Se*?"*''^'^^ 
stateamen and tl.e foremost literary monnftui ' u *''® ^"'"""'ost 
1730 i„ the city of Dul;lin where Satherw ^^r • "^ ^'''' ''"''' i" 

tl.e age of eighteen he took us de^^^^^^^^^^ ^t 

Trinity Coll ge, Dnblin an.l ho f lu ,! «Pe'>«li »« the .jsnal time ia 

Krating to Lo^.ion fo^^ that u k> e Ho w'T'' '^'' ,f ^1''^ "^ '^^' "•'■ 

the tSublo^tS l^:f ll llZ^ rSt ;;' rr- fie'ivere.1 by Burke duri„; 

Grenville ministry induced the Bri uTh kd ^nt tn ..^'"m ''* S" ""'«=*• '" 17«6t e 

ayainst the protests of both lto.kirKham am" Burke '^h '° r""'""'*" " Stamp Act •• 

owm.r year, after havlnjr by its tenVporarv oi.omrhfn nT ' ' "^^ '^'^ repealed in the f, l- 

in the colonies. In 170/ I'arliame t wlmt^n^J^^^^ T""^;' * •"''^» *!«»' «' irrif«t on 

customs duties without ffivinjftherram v^o^cc ^-^.f.^'^ '^ >"'"« ^^^^ colonists by 

I certain re^solutwna rela L to the "lis nr'*'""/*' "•"' ^^- '"1770 

.n that occasion to deal with t^hJ mSff. .^hA f. '!l 'V."f!'^«-".l>"t without 

customs dutie 
liurke move 


iV,,,ui T / " '"'"-lineu. ine mo 

troubles in America continued and 

ajfainst the n 

•lo made sevt 

Tlie most 

"O.. C.nciliatum "■fro:.rwhTdrtheei^Z^'-^''i:'* »PV""^s'he ever ■ 

in support of a series of rl l,,tU^*l'^S luw'.''- " .V?" "'"''^ «" *»'« SJ^ndof" March 

down theprinciple that it wir^S IS t^J"'f 1^^'" «'« "'•urse of which he laid 

presentation i.. i>nrii„.,.,.„* .. , . ™"'' ^". ^^^ the ci.lomsts without grantm,' thum re- 

1 excited 

. -if.ion of 

' conciliatioo did 


presen ation i„ Parliament, an,l pjoj.,so the reZ.! f Vh'*? ""','""" S^'""*'"- thur 

thorn to the vertfo of reb.-Ili,>n. AiCT^' ' i^*''**^'*''*^'"'' ^hich had ex, 

theaU,ve.p«^,;tisiaU.r^Uu, toi;!ii:;Xt'i^rS£jJi^ S^ 


which b..o„ght hi... into n^^Zj^^Z't^J^'^l^^f'^': 
oftho Annua/ Uv,/M(,r tho ni.l,li,.,,fw.,. V • ■ ' •'" he bocamo edito.- 
an<l with whicl.-'hc. wil cSSe r or^na^^^ ^"^ '^'T '^.'-'''^ '"^t^^^'^. 

a...lliu.ku became Hamilton - S./ ^''f '^*^';' '^'«"tei.dnt of Ireliwl 
ina.Io fcr hi.,. H hem t W v^^^^ '"^ ^ •'"ttcr ope„i„g „„« 

to the Ma.q„is of lloci iiiham of h. hH • ''""''''^•' "' ^''" '«^"'« **l'*-''ty 
In 170-,. thVough tlu ,"Ceo}j '^^^^ 

II0U8C of C«mino..8 f, r w "2^^^^^ •'*'y'«""' """'"••t.,- of the 

a fo e„io8t po8it.o.' no .1 t tho ornt f .'"''. *""" ^"'•«"'"*' »'« »'«1<1 

oolo,.ist8 into suae Jf„ 'X ibn 1:^ '"'''':'^ AmeriS.^ 

of the .ights of the disu re' til ?,',lT' ♦« T '"''*-''''' '", ^'^ vi..,lication 
the rela^on which ought to s„bsi^^^^^ h ^'*«,'*"""'' '" ''*" views of 
count.y. B.„ ke took office Ztrt' * '^^ *='''°""'''* '^'"' ^^^^ "'•'tl'er 
ha,..,y t. "nL X^^ ' «f «« '^ mcmbe.- of the «econ.l Kecking. 

For tiino af I SlH S^ e of r -^T" P''''^' '" '"«4- 

•neann of alicatiX' Hu 1 e f o, . FcV n 'in" 'T.''' ^^'ry'^'^'tion m-,« the 

Tl.eyaislikc(lthenop,L exSesSi I other I ,|,e,-al associates, 

favour on the molemont Te sTw Tn .>^ 'T^^^^ 't but looke.l with 

tongue and pen rar^se nonurr f J . • "i.^ '',"* ?'^ "'"^ "««'! »>"th 

;ISl,f t?s?l^K=^;;y S'» '?""f Stir 'IK 

These, sir, arc ray v^^mm' f„r not ontertaim,,., that hi..l. 
o,.,mon of untnVa force l,y wl.ieh raa„j. ,,„„„,.„,„,1, f„, ,,,;, 
^^l^^^me^U^m^^l^ti^^^ great re,,«t, soo,,. to l,e 

th(,Hoi..oo((',„i„,„„„j„,„M m> iVl* VommrS ..? I'" ""l'P;.n»l > iiiotfonth.t 


of Indo,^„,le,u-e I, J been s/nX, war wnr.^^^ '".""^- •^^•'".""hil" 'he l,e..lar 
ar.v.1-78 Burke .na-ie o.'o ofhTni^^l H,?eerhe/a^" n^ T"i ""• '"".'I '''''*-"'• I" '•'^•-- 
a«;a.nsUho coloi.iHtN, but or^v a nua'^ r.f,«^ IndiatiH to flirht 

Like the oneo,, ''cnuci\UHn"'' ii Hfd^iv.^ef wVth, On- fi'' '*'''''' *"^, ^''^" P«"''-'r4l. 
colonies. ' noco.^fcitj , the reconnU.on of the indofwi.idenc-e of the 

a See the text of the above exh-act 
w^SJJjT'arS.^r SKlI:i;urU«-:*:!^™')-;-0' coercion ., tbeco,o„i,„ 

t I 

' i'V' I 



J 70 


80 greatly captivatecl. P.ut there is .till behind u , hu.l connidera- 
tion con..enu:,„. tl.i. object, which serven to daermi,.-. u,v .min- 
ion on tbo 8..,t .,f iK.hcy whi.h oujrht to he pumed ^a the 
munagenient of Aniorieu, ove,. more than its population and its 
euniruur.H-, I meaa it» f .vprr and vharw-tn; 

In this cluuMfter of the A.nerieans, a luv(. of fn.. ,.m is 
tho featnre uhi.h n.arkH and distingui.siu,. the 
whole; and as an anient i. always u jealous alfoelion, your 
colonies lK.,u.tne suspicious, restive, and untractable xvhencver 
th«^' see the least attempt to from th.'m by f„ree or 
Hhullle from them by chlear.e,* what they think the .mly advan- 
ta{,'e worth I, vin^. fcr. This fi.-ree spirit of liberty is sti-ou-er in 
the hn^ eo:u„ies probably than in any oth.T people of the 
«'arth ; and this fjrun a -re^t yari.-ty of powerful ruuses ; which 
to und,.rstan.inhe true temper of th.-ir minds, and the direction 
which this spirit takes, it will not be afniss to lay oj.en some- 
what more largely. 

First, the people of the colonies are d.v^cendants of Kn-dish- 
men. England, sir, is a nation which still, I hop., respects'! an.l 
formerly a.Ioivd, he. frech.m." The .oloniMs emigrated from 
you when this part of your character was most pre.huuinant • 
ami they, took this 1,-. and direction the moment they parte.l your hands.' i;, .y are tiierefore not only .leyoted to 
'' ''^'•^y'^'"^^^'^^^' ' ' 'onling to English idea, un.l on English 

an entire!, u.. .Ie,a.-.u,e i,. the u.X^li ^^^^^uu^^t^^ frS!"" '' ^'^ " ^•""'" ^' 

derived fr„n, tl.o Utin wor.1 .-^m „ a re . i o i ?. a 1 n! ' '"•'""■• . ' '** «'>«»eti,ue8 
and more ren, .tel.v fron, tl.o \^r^^]tm^naT^^u^Zt uT^- «""«• .'^'^-««'-'"». 

6 Infinitive nf nii.i»r.»o- •' Ir, ^«,l„. »„ .._i_ . ... " *^ •' 

6 Infinitive of purpose : " In onlcr to ..ndc.'s'ana.' 


1 I 

JCidlU IH 


principl,..,. AI«tr,.ot lil«rty, !,!:„ ,„h„ ,„„,„ „„.tmctio,„. in not 
'■ I". l<.....a. inher., i„ sum., „.„,i „|,i„„, „,„, 
..•very .u.lluu has f„r„„ 1 to itsdf »n,„„ f„vou,il. ,nt wl,i,l, by 

wuy of omino,,.*, l«on,e, tl..., f ,]„. I „,,,,i,„,„ ' n 

hui.|.en«l, yo,. know, «ir, thut t|,„ gr„,t e„„tc.,t.s lur f,w,lom in 
tlm «,u.,.,y «.,,. f„„,. i„. ,,arli,.,t ti„u« ohiofly „, l|,„ ,.,„.,. 

wealt.,, tunn,l pr,„„„.i|y „„ ,„„ ri,.|.t of .fction of ,„„«i,trut.,. 

or o^. t ,0 b,il;uic. um.iy the », vcral onl..,„ of the State. Th,- 

.l>ie,l on of n„m,.y >,„, „„t with th,.,,, »n .nnnocliato. I!„t i,. 

•.nj!l.u.,l It »•„« othorwis,,,. „„ nt ..f tax, s tho „Wo,t ,,..« 

r.U have acto,l a„,l .snire,„,I. In o„h ,iv,. the fullest sat- 

wfaetion the in,|„„.lanee of ,\. , „, it „,„ „„t „„,,».sary or those who in ur.nn.ent ,lefen,l,,l ll,„ exeellence of 
the I.,n«I„h Con»t,t.,l,o„ to insist „„ this privilege of .-rantin- 
■"""C7 .« a . ry ,,oint of fact, „„,! to ,,rove that the ri^ht had 

.een aeknowle,lged, in aneient ,,„,d,n,e„t, and hlind usages, to 
.■ „, a c..,-,an, ho,ly ,„lh.d a House of Con.mons. Tl oy 
went mueh forth,.,. : they atten,,.t.d to prove, and they su,^ 

eeded, hat „, iheo.y it o„,ht to he so, from the partl.u Ir 

o ^t '%'• I ■ ' . f ''T "'" "" '™™'^ '""' ''^'"•'■"■■■' "'» <""^'" 
not Ihey took ,nhn,.e ,,ai„s ,„ j„,„kat.., as a fundan.enlal 

mncple. that „. all „n,nar,mie, the ,». n.ust in elTeet the ' 

elye», nnnhately or in.n.ediately, possess the power of granting 

U.e,t own money, or no sh«low of liberty eo.dd subsist ■» The 

rr muple. The. r love of liWrty, „s with you, fixed an,l 

"Iifch U w«. Ih, „,«i„ cu „. I^"'»''»> •»« «»> "rally cli.i«»,J of by ihc civil ««r o( 

the Tower for his boKi sf^nd in « J. . / / u?'."A,^'r John Rliot, diet while lmi.rfi«nnd i„ 

•• --t t::c pni.jcjc^ uf ii,c House oi Coiijinoiw. 

t Ml 








■ 5.0 










165J East Main Street 

Rochester, New York 14609 USA 

(716) 482 - 0300 -Phone 

(716) 288 - 5989 - Fax 




atkchoil on this Rpecific point of taxin- I,i},nriv mi-ht h- safn, 
or might be endan-ered, in tW(Mit.y oLlicr i).irti(:uJars, withe. i:t 
their k^-p- much pleased or ularnicd. IL-n* th(;y folt its pulse ; 
and as^tlijy found th.t l,eat, they thought tli.nuselves sick or 
sound." I do not say wjiether they were right or wrong in 
••iPl'bing your general arguments to their own caseJ- It is'^not 
easy, indeed, to make a monopoly of tlieorems and corollaries. 
The fact is that they did thus apply those genend argunuMits ; 
and your mode of governing them, wliether through h-nity or 
indolence, through wisdom or mistake, confirmed them in tho 
imagination that they, as well as you, an interest in these 
eommon prhiciples. 

They were further confirmed in thi.5 pleasing orror'^ by the form 
of their provinoial l.'gislative nPsemblies. Their government,^ 
arc popular in a high degiee ; some are merely po])ular; in all, 
the poj)ular representative is the most weighty;'* and this share 
of the people in their ordinary government never fails to inspire 
them with lofty sentiments, and witli a strong aversion from'^ 
wluttever tends to deprive them of their, cldef importance. 

, *. *. * * * * ^^.G 

Permit me, sir, to add another circumstance in our colonies 

which contributes no mean part towards- the growth and eflect 

t)f this untractable spirit. I mean their education. In no 

country perhaps in the world is the law so general a stud.)%" 

H Point out the fijjure of speech. 

12 To have coiitetide.l that the colonists were riL^ht woul I huvp nrniii.l!,.«,i ♦»,-> ;..,. ,• 

.^\^y * ^"?^^^ oratorical artifice the spealver throws on the British Pa-liammt itopi* 

15 Trie more recent and less correct usaje is "aversion to " 
th'K o7S;.'""^' """^ ":''''''' *° '"^^ ^^^'^'^^ °f -"^-n -d slavery in fo^erin. 
n Thi3 statement is probably just as true now as it was when Curke made it. It is 




Tii profession itself is miiiici'ou.s and powovful ; and in nioet 
provinces it takes the lend. The greater nnndier of tlio 'pn- 
ties sent to the Congress**' wcro lawyers. ]>ut all vho read (and 
most do read) eniieavour to ohtain sonic smattering in tluvt 
science. I have heen told hy an eminent bookseller tliat in no 
branch of his business, after tracts of popular devotion, were so 
many liooka us tliose on the law oxpoi-ted to the plantations,"* 
The colonists have row fallen into the way of priuthig them for 
their own nso. I Itoar that they hav(i sold nearly as many of 
IHackfetone's f nmivo7if a ricn^" in America aa in England, General 
Gage marks out tliis disposition very particularly in a letter on 
your table, lie states that all the people m his goverjimont 
arg lawyers, or smatterers in law • and tliat hi Doston they have 
been enabled, by successful chicane, Avholly t(j evade many parts 
of one of your capital {)ena'. constitutions.^* Tlu; .<?m.irtness of 

worthy of note tliat Uriti.sli ami (,'ann.Jian jni-is',;i and courts of law have loarneil to 
rec')i;nize the importance of decisioiis in United States cases, ^hichare now cited much 
n» jro frequently ai precedents tlian they formerly were. 

18 Prior to September, 1774, thouffh there h.od been concerted action nmonirst the 
people of the different colonies in their resistance to tyrannical nieasiires, tlier^hail been 
no jrenera! meotiiig of delegates from the Provinces, On the fifth of that montij 
the firiit "Con^rress" met at Philadelphia and it continued in session with closed door* 

'ij> :ar>jely .. 

lawyers. Tlie number of members was 5J, all the colonies but Cieoryia having sent 

19 " Plantations" is here used for " colonics." The word is tised in tho same sense by 
other writers, but it is not very clear how it came to have that meanirij,'. It may bo 
merely the analoifue of "colony," formed from the ^erb to "plant," as the latter is from 
the Latin colen; to till. On tho other hand, as tho southern colonies wore, lil<o the 
British West Indies, largely made up of extensive estates planted with sugar ctvne, 
tobacco, etc., the word may have been used at first by synecdoche for "settlement." 
This view derives some color from the fact that tho term " pliuitation" was not applied 
to any British colonies except those in America and tho West Indies. 

20 Sir William Blac\stone, one of the most eminent of English jurists, was, when this 
speech was deli .ered, a judge of the Knglish Court of Conuuon i'.eas. After6er\ingfor 
some time in Parliament he had been raisetl to the Bench in 1770. lie died in 1780 at 
the age of fifty-seven, leaving behind him a work which has made his name familiar to 
all students of law, his "Conmientaries on the Laws of Kngland." Though he had to 
deal with a state of society <|uite different from that found in Americn with the freedom 
of tho latter from feudal customs, bis observations on the principles of law are stid 
valued by the legal prcfeasic.i in both Canada and the Ui.ited States. 

21 " Constitution" is here Ufed in the sense of " decree" or "enactment." T'^o "penal 
constitutions' referred to were a series of parliamentary enactments directed against 
the Hborty of the people of Massachusett, in general and of Boston, tho capital, in par- 
tie.dar. T'aoy were d t'.e most arbitrary nnd unjustifiable kind, and were the 
inuucdi.ita occasion of the revolutionary war. By one Act the larbor of Boston 
was shut up, and by another a pait of the representative constitiit.on was annu.led 


il ' 


clea, y „,„ ,,Kl,te of iogislaturo," tl,oi,. „l,li,,ati,„„ ,„ „l„,ii„„,<, 
and the pcnalt,,,,, of r.,b,,lIio„. All this i. n.ighty ,,,.,.11 " "m 
...V honourable an,„,l fn«„l on the floor, who o,.n,l..„., 
.mark what I say for a„i„,a,lv„r.,ion,=. .111 u.,lain that ,r™ 
.le ha, hoar, , aa well a, X, that wl.on g,..,at hononrs and gr.., t 

tuc .State, .t ,, a form„lal.lo a,Iversary to sovernn.ent If ,|,e 
»r.r.t b.3 not tan,..,l and broken by these happy metho,l»,» it L 
stubborn an,l litigiou,. M,..,„t ,tu.lia U ^L." Thi, ,t , ! 
ren. lor, „ „eute i„„uisitivo, ,le..ter„u.,, pron,pt i„ attack' 
r.a,ly m ,t„fenco, full of resources. In other conntrios tho 
people, n,orc s.mploan.l of a l.« n„.rc„rial=' ea.t, ju.lgo of a'n i ^ 
,.n.>c,pIo ,n go-.rnn,e.,t only by an actual ^riev Lei hi t, i 
a.,t,c,p,>te the ovU, an,! ,j,.,lge of the prossurt of theg iev noeby 

tatf:: ;' "■: T^- "'-^ -«" -i...ove'rn™ent it : 
b t' "' "" "" "PP"^* "' *^'-^""y "' -ery tainte.l 

the rleht to l,o|,, „„!,lle ,„,e i ,^" cJnm? Cv-a ■:>';S;S"'°.''>' '.» »"« "■"«ilm". if 
«rn,e,l o.i tli,i i;n, or M.v, !-74 at Slm??S',h ''?."""'• ""«'»'I"S «oWler, 
His proclamatiiin KivinffoffeettoViTB J;„,?^ I ^"^^ ,a|>acity of Commaii.ler in-n. pf 

"" "Manners a' e influenced bvRfiiiii,-,. ; ' 

trcatin- of "studies." ^ *"'^"- "^ '« '^ quotation /rom Bacon's " Es.say " 

27 An adjective formed from "Mpn.n'v - t « ^ 
was the ff.-d of trade and {fain annh^c^nainp . n^^"^ "'^"y^' ''' *»» «0'»an ..oities Fo 
root of the Latin "/«x, intTchkmV e Thl Lt 'l-7l ^'■"'" "'"•'•• "hich i.s also tl o 
some of the characteristi.s of Tori^ek :.o(f '' TfcnnoJ.-'" *"""^ ^^tribnted to JlerC \ 
movements, Hermes beinc- the messenLr,.? n ,J*«^"' «-^«' an'onjfst them swiftness in lii- 
driven to the very volatile metal SsHe? and &. ^^'!^T ^^e name "nicrTun" ^ 
m the sense of "volatile/ "015^11^" or "eLSle '- "^""''^ ''""W"*^^! '« ^ emperam JnU. 

n^nJ ;^r''LlS*ir S^-i^i:^-^ '■""J-*r- ^« -=■>> - from the 

"to discern. " 
Point out the flgrurea ..f speech in this sentence. 



Tho last c.iu^o of this (lisolu'dioit spirit in tlio culonie.s is 
lifinliy less powerful H'an tho rest, as it is not inorclyiiioiiil."' but 
laid deep in the natural couT^titution of thin-x. Tlucc thousiii.d 
miles f.i' ocean lie between you and them.''" Xo conlrivaiKM! can 
preveiit the eircct of this distance i:i weahenir.j,' govcnimcnt. 
Seas ro!!, and moiitli.s jnis, hctween tht; oidir and tho 
execution ; and tho Avant of a rpeedy cxi»lanatio!i of a single 
point is enough to defeat a v.ljolo sys{(«ni. You have, imleed, 
winged ministors of ven;;ear.c'.i, who carry your liolts in their 
I)ounces to the remotest verge of the .se:i."' But tlicre a power 
st;^ps in that limits the arrogrjice of raging i^iasions and furious 
elements, and ?ay.-, "80 far shidt th.ou go, am! 1:0 failher."^J 
lAHio are you, thatyou should fr(;t and rage, and hite tin; chains 
of Nature? Nothing worse happens to ycni than does to all 
nations wlio liave extensive empire ; and it happens in all the 
forms into which empire can bo thrown. '^ In large bodies 
the circulation of power must be less vigorous at tho extremities! 
Nature has saij it. The Turk cannot govern Egypt, and Arabia, 
and Curdistan as ho governs Thrace; nor has he the same 

29 As distinguished Ironi '• physical." " ~~ 

_ 30 In their appeal to the iicoplo of Britain, tho Concrre-a of 1775 sr.'.' • 'Tin V o 
iri-crvc,)t in of the soa that .l.vidts us,au.e Oi>;ty of ri^^-hts; or tati' am" rea,rn i a 
given whi M.hject^ wl.o live thr.M3 th. u^und .nilcs di^t^mt from the S mVicc 
ehould e«j<,v less hherty han those who are three hundred nwles disrant from ' ^I ev 
son looks with indi-natioii on such distinctions, a..d free.ncn can never rcicc ivc thc^ 
propriety." Burke inalvcs a different use in his ar;jun.ent of the fa<-t that In^vJx inter- 
venes hctwcen Enjr.and an.l her colonies. The colonists point to it as in ,ki,v' n mo" 

2S'S.Sl^ cUSi; 'r""" '''■' '''' ^' ''"^''''^ ^' ''"'- ■' ''^ '--« ^« ^^-^S 

31 This sentence is hijjhly flprurative. The "wins-cd messcnirrrs" referred to arc sh'-^^ 
of war which were then. an<I f r a lonjr time afteru^lirds. prop<'lle<i em r^Iv hv nicanVJ^ 
^^^f: Tl^°""f ■ 'J ".¥'■*' I?'*^ '" ^^^ '^'^"^^ °f "talons," the ship, bcin^r eo' n,.arcd ?o the 
cnjr e. The;' bud of Jove" was represented by the Greek ^eu pto.s a. hoi. iiij; a thun- 
derbolt P. his claws The pre. ise et>n.oIo.:y of "p. iince" in this sense is no q,dtc t" r- 
tft.n. Some derive ,t from .a L<.w Latin ve. h akin to puncUnn, to priel; ; oth rs Jrom 1 ho 
Norman-lTcnch i>mjce. the han.l, corrnpted from the Latin i»'pu,,,ihc I .t. '']'o nse" 
in the sense of c oth into which cvelet holes have been pierced r,cei,-8 in carlv ErM 
tpcnser in the "Faerie Q.u cue," I!onk L, Canto xi. Stanza 30, conipares Ihg di^ an 
carrying the kin-ht and his horse in fli-ht to an ov. rvei-htcd bird of prev • " 

" As hai,'ard haiiko, presnniinir to tonte:id i- J • 

With hanly fowle above hi h \l)lc (able) mi}?ht. 
His wcaiie pounces all in vine doth sped 
To trijsse the pray too heavv for his (ii"ht ■ 
Which, commiii- dowu to g ound, does free it scire ty f;"Tit » 
S3Cf. Jobxxxviii, IL ° 

"^ That is, whatcvc;- the form of srovcrnm i-'t mav h" rom-nro mWh tv,» i-.c+-.„««» 
citca b, th» sp.ak«, .1,0 hit»,y ol"Uio colonM oSrcJ-.l g"™",,^ 1!^™° '""""' 





i A NA UlAN UK A JJEIl. — noo /{ / y 

^ia)iu.i. i^c-spotism itseh H oUi-,,1 to tnnl- ..-.-l 1.,. l . .. 

io^v : ";,^r;,:r" "'"■'"■'■"- - '"■ -■• "■' «-■.,. „.;; ; 

Mn«o 1(111 mat lie luav ""ovc^ni Mf -ill. ..,>,i n i i « , 

'. I- ha,,., „„t so well ob„yo,I a, y„„ ,,„ ;„ j,„„^. „„ ' "^ ' 

eniiiirc..'^ '' ''^ c-xteusivo aiul dotached 


T .nice IS ..■onin.t.Iy slighter tha,uh&d o/, S .- ^''''^*'^ *"° Turks 

ponneotioi. with the 8>-,tcvn o/S/Vo^^^^^^ V**^ »" this country in 

IS undoubtedly derived fron. «irLow Germa^ or^^ V"*^'"* *'' '■«^''- " " """^^te " 

i^f4"'!^"*"'ebei,.snodo«bt«u-.ested by tLfi^A^ '" '^ •"^''^'^-^ «" his 

The word seems to have been iiuiwrtetl abnnhVh,. h^ • '^ hondin- under his burden 

theNotI,erlands,ri.rbein-aKh a'Sa^ L^l?;"T'f f *^"'' ^^'^ eentury Tmm 
api>ear in An-lo Saxon. 'Uluokstei^',«l^^ii^ . •"'''*h ternmiation. It docs not 

really a fen.i.!.„e fonn.'the "Ste ^i^ 'Sker ^TTSV ''"''^''" ^^^'and is 

"e^'anV ; "?"-'■:•"■ I'he distinction between the a"-' lo' Cnn^' "'^""".'•'P""" "' »* ""^v 
er- and tiio funi.uine "sler" was inaintiin . l^th ^, . ''P" ''"Wi--t«line termination 

the 11th century 'VoeH'^avev^v to 80 ne^^^^^ ^^' 1^*1. century. Du, ,^. 

me termination, and wo.ds end?4 in -reW^ 'A^t*''," Norman-Fren. h ..v.s- as a fe, in"! 
8CX. "Spinster" is now the oidy one U-feveU f^,''?'-''^ "«'iff"'cntly to either 
M>rrHt;:oinasculinesi!,Miif5cationof "hm.w^"- ^ fcn)ninie, but accoiylin.r to Dr 
and"sean,stress"^lyj*;'}^°;,aie%m^^^^^^^^ "SoUr^j:-. 

tir «:;f •SSrt!:::';;;^!- ^^^ bythisiterativefom,. theater. 

^^i^4^a^^!^!XS:j^tZ^l^ ^^ «"•'-. readers o, his 

of hnu by Goldsnmh in his pliyful pclm, "'^etoliation ''•' '""" '" '^^ ^''^"iption given 

Here lies our good whose -enins was such 
\V e sea. ceiy can praise it, or blan.e"., too mSI-h ' 





Wll ham liaox waa born ill 178!) in Roxburghshire, Scotland, where 
Ins father was ^ respectal.lo farmer. The latter, on retiring t.onT that 
oceiipation took up the calling ..f a shopkeeper in K-linhurgh,' an.l at his 

aadiLted to habits of dissipation, an.l therefore di.l comparatively little 
uork o a ugh onler, b,u he has left enough to aHord some idea of what 
ho might have accmpl.shod under more favorable con.litions. His 

enTXr''^/ ^'T^' ',"»^"''"' ""•' ^''^'•^^hed in a small volume 
entitled Noiigs ot Isntel," most of them being paraphrases more or less 
liberal of passages of Scripture. 

1. Oh, wliy sliould " spirit of nioilal lie proud? 
Like a fast-flitting inctcjor, a .swift-flying cloud, 
A flush of tlio liglitning, a break of the wave, 

Man passes from life to his rest in tl 

le grave." 

2. Tlie leaves of thj oak and the willow shall fade, 
Be scattered around and together bo laid f 

1 fhis boaut.nil poein was a yrcat favourite with the late I'resideiit Lincoln who wa^ 
n the of fre.|uently lepealit,- it. lie is naiil to ha^ e done so w ile i'r, a inn?P usually .nclan.holy mood, a few hours before he was ataL naf • Th^ m b ? 

referred to caused the authorship of the pdeiu to be attributed to hii.i bv so.n.f A li 
uan journals, and led to his publishinjf a disclaimer of the honor. ^ "'''' 

2 See Appendix A. 

a Name the fl-urcs used here and discuss the aiipropriateness of the comparisons 
Tl . -rave is spola-n of as a place of rest in Job iii, la-io- xiv i->_ is" "xvii 
.5-l(,; and John XI, 11-13. Contrast the soliloquy on suicide "'Hamlet' • let' 
111., se. 1, Man's life is compared to a cloud in Job vii, 9. ''""=""'' "amiet, Act 

1 Cf, Isaiah i. 30 ; xxxi^•, 4 ; Ixiv, 0. See also Ecclesiasticu 4 xiv, 18 : " As of the irreen 

"Like lea\cs on trees the race of man is found, 
Isow tfreen in youtli, now withering- on the , round • 
Another race the followinj,' spriiiff supplies ; ' 

They fall successive and successi\e lise: 
So generations in their course decay ; 
So flourish these when those are paWd away." 
Horace in his " Ars Poetica," (58—63) has the follownn : 

Licuit .semiKjniue licebit 
Sijjrnatuni prajsente not i producere nomen. 
Ut sylvaj foliis pronos mutantur in annos. 
Prima cadunt; ita \erbaruiu vctus interit aetas, 
ht ju\ cimm ritu florent modo nata vij^entque 
Debemur morte n(>s nostrat^ue. 
Which is rendered bv Sir Theodore Martin :— 

A word that bears the impress of its day 
As current coin will always find its way. 






. I \ 


An.l tho you.,, ,u.<l the <,1 1, an.l the low and i],o In^h. 
•Siull luouiaor to (ht.t au,l t;><r„thor sl.all Jio..^ 
3. Tho chiM thut u iMotluu' att(>n,lc,.l an.l l„vo<l 

The niotluu- that infant's afr.M.ti.m that provod ^ ' 
Tho huHlund that luoth.u- an.l infant" timt Mossed 
hacJi— all are av/ay to their .Iweliin- <.f rest. 
The maid, on whos. cheek, on whose hvow, in whose eye, 
Shone b.3anty an.l ],leasnre-hev trinmphs are by f 
And tl,e nu^nories of those that have loved her and pnxis.d 
Aj-c alike from the nn' of the livin- erased." 
«. The hand of the king that tho .ceptre hath borne, 
The brow of the priest that the mitre hath worn 
The eye of the sage, and the heart of the brave' 
^Are^lden and lost in the depth of the grave." ' 

LeavcUhat can.u first, Hr«t fall a,.a dii'V^M.'-ir • 

SSsih j T^,"i^ ?' \'""^°"« « '"-t'l an.l b oon,. 
A ml w hv Lh V . r *''■''■ '' ''""■^' *« fl'^^t'i are duo : 
Cf. Anstophanes- " BiAi;' "^.''^"t, S'" '"'' "" '' '""'■"'' '^''^ 
sCf. Ccn. iii. 19; ,),,|, vii 2J • v o- x-.;"- i 
Efclcsiastes iii, li)-"o- xii 7- 'd ', • 'i •"' 1 = '^-'.20; xxxiv. 15 • v 
second stanza. ' "'^' ^^'•"^' ^"> 2; Cf. al.o Lonjjfellow's 

" I'arso " mai.l.' The uso of 'hv" ;.. ji 
r> rare in i:„^.,a.,d. but is very eo„, on in S S!? "^'J'''^''*" '^f^'^' ^^e verb "to bo" 
alter the verb *• to go." ^ °" '" b.ot.and. In same sense it is often u"o,l 

» Cf. Eoclesiastes ix, 5— (j 

Cf. tlio gmvc-diij„^n.g scene in " Hamlet." (Aet V s'' i \ """""•'««*/ of a name i" 
Impurial, doad'a.ul turned to elaV^ 

Srhat'Jh r ''t'' * '.'^"^'P t'"' wind a '*aV • 

Shm,n *f* *'"' '^■'"'-•'» '^ept tlio world i', awo 
, Seo also tha poss^^^ ro fj' ' n.^T 'Y^^A'^- wintci^s fl.':.^-' 
,^,,^ ,. P „- froM Joreniy Taylor .n this Reader, entitled "Tho Vanity of 

Piii.lJ; civ, 21- 
I'saliu of L.fe," 




morics, and 

0. Tlio peasant/" wliosn lot was to sow ami to reap, 

Tlic h(-nlsiiiaii," that diml.c.l with his <,'oat.s up tli.; steep, 
Tho bdgt^'ar, that waiKh-n-.l iu search of his Im-ad, 
llavo fa(h"(l away Jikcs tlio grass'^ that wo troad. 

r. The saint, that enjoyed the eonmiunion of Heaven, 
The sinncu-, tliat (hired to remain unforgiven, 
The wise and tlie foolish, tlu^ gnilty and just, 
Have quietly mingled their hones in the dust. 

«. So tho multitu<le go, like the flower and the weed, 
That wither away to h t others sucoiiod -'^ 
80 tlie multitude come — even those wo bohoM, 
To repeat every tah; that hatli often been told. 

0. For we an^ the same things that our fathers have boon ; 
Wo SCO tho same siglits that our fathers liavo seen ; 
We drink the same stream, and we fe(d the same sun, 
And run t]ie same course that our fathers have run.'* 

10. The thoughts w(^, are thinking, our fathers would think ; 

From thodeathweareshrinkingfrom, they too wouldshrink;'» 
To tho lif(! we are clinging to, they too would cling; 
r>ut it speeds for us all, like a bird on the wing. 

i» " Peasant "is derived from the old French paimnU and this from the Latin 

'' Sn" i°s"fZn "^hrr '" * ""l"^/ ^'^*'\'?*- '^"^ "'" 'f "'« f^<^"«h form heh^g euphonic" 
from the fao Zf-^hrf. •'' T*' ''^l"^""""- "'^anin!,^ havin^^ becon.e associated with it 
rrom the fact ttiat ( hristianity made more rai)id pro.'r.'ss amonirst the iiihal)itantM of 
tnvns and ca.t-R tlmn of niral districts and VillaU! Th^LdLh word "When " 
(^HJople of the heath) acquired its meaning in a similar way. ^"'" ''°'^" Heathen 

11 The older and more correct fori s"herdman." 

Jal^S^i, W.^fte?Jr i^r' '' '^ ' " ''"' ''■'' ' ''''' "•"' ' ' '«^''^'^ '"' ''^ ' "' ^^ ; 
13 Cf. Montgromery's "Common Lot," stanzas 8-9. 
" Cf. Hebrews ii, 9-15. Comiiaro also Bacon's remarks on Death : 

i, olmtn /w ff Mf'^ft*''."''^''''" ^!f "'? "^""'^ ' ''"•J- ''^ ""^* natural fear in children is 
1 ;S„ i^ fn^htfjd tales so ,s the other. Groans, convulsions, weepinjr friends, and 
t.i9 hive show death terrible, yet there is no p.-ssion so weak but cor quers the fJai of hr-f°K "^^"^^ »s."ot such a terrible enemy. Revenge t.iumpl.s over death 

"R^nr"'!!"/!'"? ^iV'^U'l'^Il^'.''',^"!'^''"'^" ^y« °' t^'O of tJie Rye-house conspirators- 
Russell died with the fortitude of a Christian, Sidney with the fortitude of a Sto;a''' 



( 'AX A />/. I A' /{h'A DEH. lUKtK 17. 



u- n.(.y lov.,,1, l.ut tl.n story we cnnnot iinfol.l • 

riK.y 8conu..l, hut tl.,- luurt of thn Imuyhty is cold • 

T ley gnov..!, I,„t „o wail from their .slu.ul.ors will n.n>e • 

^^^^y joyed, but til., voice of their j,dmhie.s8 is dumb." ' ' 

Tlioy <li,.l-ah 1 they died ! and w. thin,, that are now, 
W ho walk on the turf that lies ov.-r th.-ir brow 
Who n.ak.. in their dwollin-s a transient abo<lo' 
Meet the things that they met on their pilgrimage-road. '« 
I... Yea ! hop<, and de.spon.UMiey, j^lcasure and pain 
Are mingled together like sunshine and rain • 
And the smile and the tear, and the song, anil the dirge,'^ 
.Stdl follow each other like surge upon surge. 

14. Tis the wink of an eye, 'tis the .Iraught of a breath 
iM-om the blossom of health to the paleness of death' 
J mm the gilded saloon'" to the bior and the shroud •' 
Oh, why should the spirit of mortal be prou.l ? 

. WilUatii Knox. ^ 

voice-' '"''" ^°"'"^^^r^^^^^^ 

a." i;-iSi{iijs/!£;:.r;:K,^i=ci!^5-'^ ^^2^:^^ ":,Tho wo,. ..pi,,,.,.. 

form peU-nnnauv, sottene.i i.i n.wlorn Kren. i. \n\n t]-^ '"'"'.'''• ''"'" ""-'°''> ^>t■nc•h 
t n.e wrote -{Mi^rUn" and '^S n,'' or !?i" ^^^^ /V't^'rH before (;hauce.'« 

"n," and " 1 " for the "r" of thi original Latin v m L . '""*'' «»''8t'tuf«-'<l for the 

-fron, per throuK'h. and a.jer a lar d or ,-om r ' i ? d- * ''-'^ •*^''"" '"" ^°'''''""'-''- 

. ?.J°"""'y '»"'!« throu^^h a country that iS one's ho ^tn .1 ^" f"''^ ''' t''''* "^ 

They whilome used duly everic day 
Their ser« i.o and their holy thinifs to sav. 

The!l.T,:,!^!!'lr''"' '^•'^^ their Anthenfe's sweete, 
Their per le Masses, and their coniphnes nieetr 
The r DiriKes. their Trentals, and their «hrirt''' 
Pr«n p„ n ^ ">eniones. their sinjfings. and their gifu 

thfCf r?,?ai"; h^r^teVu^^tl,^^^^^^^^ ''''' ^'^"r,' °P""- -'^^^ t" be that 
the Latin fun^r^al hymn betl^^nin^^^'ji S'^^.^^^^/^^^^^^ >« the Hrst word of 

the Hrst word of the Latin \x'rsion of n\ a i,lLl • ' ^'•'^'^t' howexer, savs it is 




Thiipocni Is m3<llatlvo iml »f>luiiiri. ami tho rtwlitiir iiumt ho i,. i 

Mntimout. Th. reader ..,u,t av..l,| .Ic-claniufor t , '" i ^""*' *'"' "' 

Tho poo... ab,...n..s ,„ si,.,,., and ,n ^ C .^^ J ""•'^• 

In the Hnttvertfo, the flifuroMHU-xMtswftnoss of action l.i.f m, .i,. . .• 
moral, ami ,.„Ht bo real .lower ami I „ deo ,e IM , ^ r ^ '' '""'" 

haHa.i.nilareIo.,..,, ami ^U.u.n^..l';Z'2^^ J^i;;^^, ^ ''''':r^'^ 
Ha.o. .le..riptivo of maternal a.Teetion. t .e .enZ:.^ „ M "' 'h-'- /*'" »"''• 

..f ehil.,,....,, an., the ., a,L. ...u^t n n^. ■ Z ^l t:;^; j m """ 

»ioM. In the fifth xer«e. tlie voire must i]|„s.r>.f.. Mr ^'" "^'"-" due e.v,.reH. 

into ,ran.^urfor the -..n...p.i::;::'!;;::^: •:::;:- 

calmne.« for the "Ha^o.-an,! fervor for the '• l.rave • ( t hlJ ' '. 
characte.s in the .succeclin,. Htan.a. n.u t hJt perno It" 7"l 'tr'" ""'' 
...ust niHO be marke.1 by ,lue emphasiH. ""ptrHonatul. huh of the names 

In the I)th, 10th, lUh an.l liv, Htanzas tli.) ..nnfrnw*. ,# 
by the pronour. an.l verbs n,ust ha c «,,''« h ^'^""'' "'"' """""*' "'"'*^'" 
••We- an.l ..fey- mar. the eonZt '^Z:;:;^;''-!^::;'.:;'^-''^- '■'"-""- 
"if.icve.1," "Kvcl- in ve.-se 11. an.l '.,li,.d' in v -l l , " ' ^'""'''^^'" 

phasis. but al.o the feelin, .,u..e,te.l bv , o at on i- • ' '"'. ""' "" ""• 

an,, tenderness; ....rned.- with dett nceV^^ "v^od ' C h .X" -T ' r"'' ' 

warmth, and "died,' with solenmity ' ^'''''"^^•>< I "J"yo<l." with 

«:r;tn;:^,- :;:;;rs:r::r l: -;;; »r ,r'tr "- -■- '■■-■ 

to nature. et'intiast- dir(,'e. Kead t.iesimiloacior.lin^ 

Tlio last stanza presents Heveral fl^rures. In tUo first li,„. ti. .v 
quicknes.s; in .he second, the flr-t fi'ure su.^.^.st w .tth th T T" '"' 

«ilenee ; an.l the third line is ve v sin, lar Ke'ad th^ 1 lu' '^^""'^ '" ''•"-"•" <"'<« 
and .ive e.upha.s to •• ...orta, " an 1 .;:!;: J ul';^:, l!"*^ '''''^ ^^^^ ~'--. 

for'LXn ': '" '''"'' "'^ ''''' "'''"'■ '''^ "^^' "^ ^« "'- ™-'-^ for seannin, an.T 

Th« fl f , . • ^ ''^'■'' ' '*''^"'' '^' ''•' ' "^^ ''^"^°'' i t^ '^ proud ■> 
The first foot is an iambus, and the other feet aie u. a„est« Thiw • 4u . 
n.ost of tho linos. Now in the above line let "Ob wbv' . ? , ""^ '*'"" "' 

time, with a pause after "why;- the,, linkto Jh r h «'"«b'and in equal 

.ive emphasis and lo„«er time' ^o ' "ro ta '^a fp^I af:;:;'^::J^^^^ '" "'"''^'•'" '^"" 
longer time. '^ *^ ""^"^ "^ • ""*">■ tf'^e " be proud " 


'■I I 



Sir Thomas More, wm the son of sir .r.,i„. ^r„ro. n ju.Iko of th*- 

yw 1480. Kvf.„,„i,„.y youth ho was iinh..! for extni.w.Ii my ahilitv 
an.l n,M,al,,hty ot . .Hpos.tio... Ho spont ti.n.. in tho h.xusohol uff 
(.anl.nal Mor on, tho„ Archl.i«hop ot who hu.l him clucatei 
at OvM.r.l Ho Htu.lio.l law an.l ontorol i,po„ tho practice o? it as anro- 
'■HH.on hut tho faino of hU tulont, soouro.l hin, a s'at in l^arli an ont an 
rom that puhl.c nfTairs a yroat .loal of hi to , ion 

Ca. hnal WolHoy who sooiiro.l tor inn. tho hn,..,,,- of knit;hthoo,l, several 
<l.plon,at>o app(m,tn.onts, an.l finally a ...t ... tho Kin.'^s I'rivv Cm.. ,S 
He was plaoo. at tho hea.l of tho excl.o.,Mor in l.V.'O. ,„tl {,. loi heoarne 
Lora Cnancelor The latter post ho fille.l with «i..^'nlar ahilitv am! 
micrgy oloa,.ngoffall u,..lotor.,.i..o,l ea.sos with u,..,sual pro., tftu 
Ho oo.,tn.Mo.l, ,n of his in.lopo..,lo..oo. to ho a avo.- to with 
Hon.-y VIII,l ho oppo.-o.l tho Kind's .livo.-oo fro.n ('a lo ine o 
A.yo.. a..-l an oath of allcKianoo whi.!, on.h.Mlio.l an a 1, ission 
tljat tho ,l.v.>,-c.e was vali.1 Fo,. this ho was o..n,le,..,.o.l to .hSS 
Mas l,ol,oa.le.l o,i lo\yor H.ll ,., lo.T.. Mo.-e .•o.nui..o,l all his life a co 
s.stont i{o, Cat!... .o', h..t ho was at tho sa,..o tin.o tho inti ,. o f.lcn 
of Kra.nms an.l olier devotees of tho "now loa.-nin<r '^' ha 
recently Inen ...tro.lnoecl into Oxfo.-.i. He w.oto the fhst h tore 
work ot a..y 1. o.a.-y vah.o in Knglish, a •' Life of lO.lwanl V. ' '' tl " ma 
tena for wh.,:h he .s snpposo.l to have .lorive.l lar-ely from hi, t atmn" M.,rton. His n.ost fa.nons work, howevc- I'^Z ''\Ji^^\ 
wh.oh was written in Lat.n. Ha 1 it been written in Kn-Mish his\ or 
yy reputat.o:, woul.l have stoo.l higher than it <Ii.l in his^own ,y a t was probably a n.atter of comparative inclifFcrencc to Sir Thomas 

Tho book was IM.blisl.ell alf, a , no c'lftion 'a^^ i,^^^^ ^sr^rh^'T"! ''"?'. '"•''''*'"■ 

author's lifeth.'e, ever, in Latin. The title ..fc. to thn fi.f.^n , \.'"'"^''''*'"' '''"'"ff "" 
fro,n theOreok o„ not a.ul /or.iv n pLo am to I in \'cS,"s LS'^h".^ '"''"•'; 
hav.n^^ acMca a hij^hly exprc.ssi^o nm.n an 1 a.lJoeti c t^t h^r;..] \i S^"^^^^ ^"i""" °' 
poo<l ..lea of More s pnr. o.c in wrilin- tho " Utopia" is "fTo.v "a by tho mW'i t """^ 
mary of ,t oMven in the text, whi.h 1s taken from ''Green's Hi«torv of ^^ 

hy I..ho, nnr^t in lOS, orfbetKnai^ --IJi^^JiS'^lnSc^ SfE,^ 

2 For a lucid and intei-estina' nccdnnt of the int-o/ ^« ♦.,« « i . .. 
En.,dand, and its share in brin^nn™ about the ''."em^^^^^^^^ '"*« 

O-een's "Short lIisto.y , f tho EniJhsh People," c'h^p vl 'ectio,, I '' '"" ^'^^^^^^ro, see 

V:^!^tS^^':S^i^£^:^^^ .-d En.,i.h. -pure. 



Igo of thf 
lioit in tliii 
iiy altility 
isolujid of 
I educated 
t iiH a pro* 

IIIK'Ilt luul 

oritc with 
d, several 
f Council. 
'!( Iiecaine 
tility and 
)nto with 
lieiinc of 
icuth and 
ife a con- 
ito fiicnjl 
Mint had 
historic 1 
^ tlio ma- 
s patron, 
Utopia, "i 
hin liter- 
doy, but 
• Tliomas 

K'laiKl a)id 
V. of Ger- 
l)tivo part 
tiy w ay of 
! in Latin, 
I'liing' its 
' rt()|.ia," 

honor of 
. A very 
ab'c num- 
J Kntflish 
'<t resort 
hat made 

ri Ox fold 

in>;" into 
ituro, see 

I, " pure, 

rt ^T^^, on onn of hi. .lipInnmhV. „n.«ion.. tl.ut Mo,-,- do. ril.M 
hiiUHolf as hoarin^r now« of tho kinn.lnn, of •' X.^vl,,.,... " . ( )» 
a -rtam .hy whon I had l-ca.-.l nmsn i„ (M.M.d; •.: ( hun-h 

• •'^ n..Mn all tV n-ty of and al. , n.,Mt f...v,u.nt...l of 
"-I'l'San.l sorv.^o h,-!,.. „v.,r, J was .-.dy t. .., h.!,.... to my 
io.lj,Mngs I .'hanccl to ,uy fri.-n.!, P.d.r (lil.s, talking with 
a ccPtam stranger/ a w.dl stri.k,.,. in ag.- with a hla..k, s„n- 
'•urnod face a largo hoanl. and a ,,loko .aHt al.out hi. 
saouldor., whom l.y hi, favoui^' and appan-ll forthwith \ jud-^od 
to be a nmrinor." Tho nailor turned out to havo h.-.n a Jm- 
panum^Vnu^rig.) Vo.spu(.)i^ in those voyages to tiu> .Now \\\nM 

may bo rcuanlu.l a,s fi,..titio„H. Tlio ■ u, eV v i, 7 i ,' '"'V'.'i' I'l'T'^^os this " sM-ai.^'n' 

in the I a.i„ t<.n,.H.,' and -iJ"^Zt:n^::^^:,^t'l^^^^^^^ ".""" ''-•'•"-' 
f1<!tion ho sii o( vdfli Vi'simci rnmimn.,, ,. i i- . ''Ti'ki'. According to tho 

W.-.3 one of twenty f. „r nu' , wh ? vZ » V"" '""i'"'"''''. "",''""'"■" "' »''« ^-''.vaKes, and 
arnisfUKl provisions f ,r x ,„t « Wi Hv . i f"}^' ''' '"*''"^' •"''^^" '^" ""» f-rt wi h 
«ro,n plaocl to pla.-o until they rr o.l it o VAnd If'r' ^'/.r'"';"' >'ythloday t:avelled 
Ho wai NO pleased with the niant or of li o 1 .) V ; " V"''''" '."-" "'"«'' "'•-• >'«^'-''- 

left it ''»ruonlvotonml<etlut n^veU^ "••''' "^7^''*' ""* ^•"^«' 

poet la.iro. to o/ the ,-.,untrv. an.l aft.'r 'sin, .,, o hi" ''' '"".•■'■'^■<' »''« •*""' "' the 

cf! o^;rxi:i^! V: :a;'^^ir/v^T^i;:s r :. t' r-f ■'?" ^" !•- -- o, '^vaneeo;. 

theterni is now ordinarilv used I i nl r ! f.VM "^ conception of "sfril^inp," an 

sense of 'Mnovin„^/- was ^OMron/:,dt;^^^^^ 

.. ,. m the eas. of a procession in" nK.tion/or'LfTpieeto/Z;!;:',^.^:.;;,^""'^' '"•" "^'^ 


I liat vho Iviiew not his favoiirs'likolynes'o 
. ^"'••"anysearresandniani iioaryheares" 

iB fair, of female favour ; " " A VVin cr -* ' ile " '/• .. a-J"" '^''i'' ^*' '^- » = "The hoy 
tion. that they wore to be knout hv Urn" en't m.f h 7^ '"' '^^"."."'t'^d^''^"™ "f «•" I, distrae. 
iv.r>: '•! know your favoiir? Zj U^s^f w^M " f?'^^^^^^ ' Troilusnnd Cressida," 
> cen hin, : hi, fav-mr ,s fand ar to ,ue " "'' SiVes- "i • ' '"{C '• ' = ."/ ^"'^ ""'•'-•'>' 
are, you are-0 roval Perielcs-" " Ffa mlW " I- i - v * ^'"'^ ""'' favour! -vou 

and te,i her. let her paint anVnch tiSt tilis^avo^^r^^if ,Ul^",'.?n^."^>"« ^"-"^-' 

i4o^^hnx^six.^:r^'ui-^:^a,z*''^riTf "' «'«>- -"^'^ - 

mainland and it has lone been a inatter of dLnnfo ^. h-^*i, I "^ ''"*'^i: 'T'"'' '""'»' t'"-' 
1497. The evidence secins to coi.flr.u his own Xtln.l^ '"''■7*'''"'?' '''■""^vored it in 
1504. that he did. That hrviB " I he "onUm-ntTrr ' "'i''" '." " '''""' V^WMw] in 
South America in subscqnerMo vaieg is not d.^^^^^^ explored par's of the of 


I J 



('AN AD/ AN ItliJADEn.-lioOK If. 

that bo no^v ,n print and abroa.l in every's ha,..l,"« and on 
Aloro.s invitation Jie aocon.panie.l l.ini to liis house, an<l " there 
'■' niy ^':mlon upon a hench covered with green turves^ vve sate 
a.nvn talking tog-thor" of the man's marvellous adventures, hii 
ao.ert,on in America by Vespueci, his wanderings over the coun- 
ry under the, equinoctial line, and at last of his stav in the 
kingdom of "X()where."^o 

It was the story of '' Nowhere," or T^topia, whicli More em- 
bodi.l ,n the M-ond,.rful bo.,k which reveals to us th'e heart of 
tl.'^ New r earning. As yet fhc movement had been one of 
.s.hoIai. and divines. Its plan, of reform had l,een almost ex. 
<= us.vely intellectual and religious." J]ut in More the same free 
I'Lty of thougl.t whicli had shaken off tlie <,ld forms of education 
and faith turned to question the old forms of .society ami politics - 
^rom a world where fifteen hundred years of Christian teaching 
had produ<:ed" social injustice, religious intolerance, and politic.d 
tymnny, the humorist philosopher turned to a - Xcuhere " in 

wmie BOjcmrninfe. on the Continent, had Pi • e.U.i.Tkn vl • ^ , fV'""". ^ ■'■"*"" "»'« 
the work of book-i.rintinir in London i. i-i li n ''"""''-''i^c of the art, coninieneea 
century later, pri.'ited book werS real tVsVillvo.^s.!^^ *" ^'>' "''"•«■ ^^^^^ 

to he lonjr after his time. Tlic wor re?e -red to I , / i' ' V"," ''V\^'"' '''' *'"-^^ continued 
Latin of his voyayes, a narrativ o NW.i 'l/warpf/l^li ?i;od in'" W '"'"'"'' '^''''''''' '» ' 

The old fonn of the plural of "turf,' still oecasionally Used. 

^ip^y'^^i^iiS"^^:^^:^,^^ .-at.skiU ,n,t« in 

.'f hi.s own time in Europe. The traveller nat,r.lTvnnl'/^r^^ *'""' I">''"t'a> s^.vsteins 
ems which he found i-. Utopia, a.dYli/nmm? is S inH?' ''"'"'",'* ''K^''^^''' «y«- 
iur; to More'8 fiction "Nowl ere " was "' be v n fh..*' ni In, ' '^ ^^JF^'^^ Par*- Ace .rd- 
and Ind a. It wasacrescent-.haped isllnd 600 ilc5 n Lt?. I'^'l^V'''' ^*"*=^" ^'^^ 
in breo^lth. The horns of the cUent Vm^* "lo en , l>^^^'^^^^^^^^ ''"'" ?"*^ ^'ownwarda 

f.>rme.l resembled a frreat haven which was use Vw 

Tnero were in the island fifty-four citie. ^t ind n" twonf f ' *'°"l"'"<'« "^n'' ^^arfarc. 
other, built alike, and each peopled byThe same number^ f"-"'" «^a' •» 

lation was over six millions number of families. The total popu- 

thi; S^;;5,;?£l£ \^:\^^^'^'y «» *"« ^"-crsity of oxford, Which was at 

f^^.^^:''S^.:^S^ .^i^^r ^,S 7^^-~ active 
^n^for its subject matter "the fonu of so^ilot^lTpS? ^;'hXn:i^^i2S 

" "Had failed to eradicate" would have been historically a more correct phruse here. 


13. J 

ml, of secnt.v, o,,ual,ty, brotlierhoo.!, and fa,,,Io„, fo,- ,vl,ich 
t..o very „„t,t„t,.m .,f .«iet.v >„..,n,„l t„ l„.vo bo,,,, f,,.„,oa It 

Moro to„cl,ostl,o groat i,r„I,lo,„. wi,!..), w„,,, fast «|,o„i„„ before 
the ,noder„ world, prohio,,.. of ,abo,„, of eri,„e, of l„^ZZ 
govc„,™e„t Merely to have see,, and to have exa„,i„ed St 
.ons .„eh a., these wo.dd ,,r„ve the keenness of his intelleet 
Its far-reaoh,ng is shown in the solution, whieh he 
rropose:,. Ami. n,„ch that is the ,„,re play of an exnberant 
laney, „„,eh that ,s n.ere reo.dleotion of the ,l,-ea,ns of bv-^ce 
d,.eumers," we li„d again and again the n.ost in.portant soeiaUnd 

poh ,cal d,scove„es of lat,.- ti,ne, anticipated by the genius of 
IJiorrias More. ^ o ^.x 

In some points s„e,h as his treatment of the question of labour 
ho st,ll- re,na,„s far in a.lvanee of e„r,.e„t opinion. The wl,oi: 
system of soe.ety an.und hi,n seemed f, hiiu " nothin- but a 
consp,racy of the ,-iel, against the poor." Us eeo„on,ie"le,dsla' 
.on 'vom the "Statute of Labon,-e,. " ,o the slatntes by ^hieh 
the .ar.,ament of 1.,!,, strove to A.k a standa.d of wa,.„ .. 
was sunply the carrying out of nud, a eonsph^aey by pr^cels 

IS In the last juarterof tho nin-foonth ccnftirv T^. i„k • 

Canada, ami tho ll.iitod States ha JcSAS'VhcJnvJT'"'"'' ,"'"'''■' '" '^'''^''"'d. 

"n o,,s" for ihe purpos, of secuiin-r n.orcase 'Co on , L'^'-'"''''^ into 

..entof coercion has been tho J' strifco " or '^ Ll> ;' '^"i' '^''"" ""'«* Po^^"'* '"^tni- 

I'loym occasionally resort, l.v wav , ' .r.-..? ' '"^? al,am)onn,ent of wo.k. The eni- 

Dloinvo ,; • ""'" ''"0- Strike," or c'neral 

>ijirir»i»* ft'o Olefin 





CANADIAN READicr-iioo:; .r/. 

of law. . 11,, „ch ,„o ovor strivi,,^, to p,™ away «o,„etl,i„. 
further fro,,, the d,Mly wage, of the poor hy private tra,„l „,T 
even by p„h,ie law. so that the wron, air,.,!.; cxi,t 1 fo t , 
wro„« t at tho.* from who,„ the State .lerivos „o.i be; fit .ho' ,,l 

Z'^J:^' 'r:r'".' ; r'- '" °'°^'" "' "'^^^ »' ""= '->• ' ' 

„ ,.t r , , ''"''™ °™''^ ■""""' '-y "•'"■'^'' they n,a>- 

n the fir«t place secure to thomnelves what Ihev have ama..,"! 

■y wro„K ,.,„l then take to their own use „„I profit at the 
lowest poss,hl3 pr,ee the work an.I labour of the poor. A J" 
sooaas the neh .Ieci,le „„ adopti,,. those .levi,.!, i:, the 
of he puhhe, the,, tl,ey 1,,,,„„„ ,„w."" The result was -h„ 
vretehe.1 existence to whieh the lah„ur-eh,ss was ,Ioon,e,l "a 
hfe so wretehe.1 that ove:, a heast',, life ..oe.ns envial,!„." ' Ko 
.«ch ery of p.ty for t!>e poor, of p^^test against the system of 
agranau a,>.l nunufaet„ri„g tyranny whieh fou,>,I its expresn'o-, 
xu the stat,,te. hook, ha,l been heard since the days o'f Ke^ 

louglunan . h,t f,.om Christe,„lom Jlore turns with a nnile to 

• Nowhere." I,, "Xowhere" the ai,„ of legislation is to seeuL 

the welfare,, .ndustrial, intellectual, religious, of the co:^ 

« uiaaicr i.iamn t„iirw„™ „ il , - «, ,,, „, h" „ ?J '"' " ™ l>«n^or wm t;iieei«ince nnd for 

,„,,,i ,,, „ i„„, .„, "J, .°."',',;;",^4',fs„\v:s'T.'™L Jtir ^'" f° <»™"»S' 

that veiT jnii-Do.qB in i-ir, ti,,,' nyiuLv, ya^as, a g ^ ^.g havirijf ' en p ssed for 

^"..i;ui.,(jorui.v jwimiaraffit.itor.i. — j'""-8 i^i.iiu incni rojxiated by 

'8 The prec'sG date of fhe tho tiop-i ,„\t a .ir~u -,•■ . 

outhoKl.lp I, o,„„,|, „nccr!«ln ™ ? it . "" ™ \°* ,»''? ^■"■«'" '.a™ "d l::7n. ," 




nunlty at larr.. a.,! of tho Jahour-<.Ias3 a. the trno basis ol a v,.:i 
ordered coiiunonwciilfli Ti,,. „. i ^ •. , , >*> iJ- lu ^ a,( .i- 

cnmmo, b„t kl»„r ,vas ,o.,|„,l.,„ry with „l|.' ■ Tho ,,.rio,I „f t„ 
»,1 the ohjoct of thh o„rt„ih„o„t w "h 'Jt.!;,;' "'""■'• 

..ontof tho w„.<,.... ..r. tho i,.t:t,.,io„ ; :,;:■::,::; 

ona,son 3-a„achionyproto„,.o,l-„,,,„,i,,,„a,l,„twi ton " 
«.IAy 1.0 «paro,l fro,,, tho „oc,..,ar.v <,oo„,„„-„„,, „,„,;":, 
Vho c„„„„o„,„,,,, „„ t),„t'.tl:ooiti.o,. .,,o„,,| .it,.,; t'l 

consis A p,.l,I,c .y..:o,„ of , ,l„eatio„ o„„lJo,l tl,o ,-to„i„,, to 
uva.l tho,„.oIvc.. of „,o;r h.i™,.„. W,,a, ,, J,,„ „^'' ; 


1 1 ,., Lupxi in tJie bomiininrf •.vo-o 

a „11 a,h o„ti>,os of ovo:y n„!o ,,ioco of timhor that oan,o fi„t t„ 

i^^M^ntiu^i^™^ „,^„^,,„, ^,^,_^ ,,..™;;; 

country bj' tlior:c same wars, tho ofTorf- r,in~ii i H ^ — 

better their co,,dition,a,Kiti;ec;?orSm^^^^^^^ "?"'>' •^'"-''•'••ipatol vi Irins <o 

I not nominally, serfs, produc'ctl heso. ,W)\Jf- . *^ "i'!>«r classes to koepthem virf Jll 
Hon headed b^Vat Tier TnyL'^^TheS^^^^^^^ 
which has been frequentIyconn,are<J to the ' I.i?f.H^V^V''«"• '" » P'^etical all,™ 

Iho'erms ''coinmontveaUh " and ''wpTi ^nl* "^ **?^ ''*'"« ^"^ *hc Km^h'vh •' «,^ " 


T I 

M ' H 


1 li 



Mores ,l,n, tiiu homo of squalor ai.U ncstiloiico '' l„ TT, • 
oj>.vor, th., h..„ at ,ast co.l.o w .,,„„i r: ^.u , ^^ ^ 
pahlic morality and tlie he. It), ,,.)..• i • ,. "^ " '-'' i-^^ ^^eii 

f . , ilL.lltJl WJUch Spniurs from Ji<rlit nir 

con. ort, an, cloa„Ii„.«s. " The streets wore t^ent/ o U la,, or It ,s tl.ore much used, and sometimes a).o witli fine 

rs;;: :"""■" '- -" r ;""'""• --^ """ '^ »- -"- '^'-" 

kept out" ' """'" "'"" '™"'"' '" •■"'" "'« -»" - t^tt^r 

q.Ition!";f fr""" uf ' ?"™" '" «'"«'^ '^-'■"-' »' ".e 
htrl,.'";,""'' "'"'.'"''''" ''™'"' -.votmoreuppareut i„ 
nis trcument of the question of criuie. fie was the fi.-t , 

»nggest that p„„isl„„eut was lea, effective in su, n -s i it , 
Invention.'. •>„ y„„ „„„„ ^„„, people oT % u,:' 
Wur n,orals to be corrupted fron. ehilllhood, an,l 1 „ ^!; 
they^^enpu^,, ,,,.„ ,^^ „,„ ^.^_,^ ^_.^;^ ^ ^«- when 

Wo m I-.„stoad ,„ Vol. ,.. ',to„.' iii. oViils "ii'K/!" M"»l»J-» acco,,,,, „, jomS 
wlioio ihf u,»taial lor tliom aboundij °"' ™""''°" '" *• ""■•torn oouiS 


;Iish town of 
' In Utopia, 
Rtion bt'twoen 
jm^ Jiglit, air, 
y foot broad ; 
nisly builded 
ies one after 
liard flint, or 
los ])o well 
in an<l flat, 
can liurt or 
iither better 
indows witli 
so witli tine 
id is better 

iient of the 
apparent in 
the fii'st to 
?iiig it than 
tlly taugiit, 
tlien ^hen 
'hich tliey 

cture see Hal- 
it of domestic 

info E'lffland 
I' the Houia-i 
tern couuiies 

' the name of 
« of "perisJi" 
orni " perish- 
in FnsrJa'^d. 
;ii'iiij;iv p'i'T 
he people till 

''i'ied is (hat 
y coiifirnied 


have been trained in childhood_what is this but first to make 
tlneves, and then to punish thorn ?" He was the tirst to plead 
for proportion between the punislnnent and the erimc, and to 
pomt out the folly of the eruel penalties of his .lay.'^^ "Simple 
theft is not so -reat an oflense as to be punished with .h-ath " 
If a thief and a murderer are sure of the snuie peiudty, .Aforo 
shows that the law is simply templing the thief to secure his theft 
by murder. " While we g.> al>out to make thieves afiaid, we 
are really provoking them to kill good men." The end of all 
punishment he declares to be reformation, "nothing else but tho 
destruction of vice and the saving of men." Ho advises "so usin<' 
and ordering criminals that they can not choose but be good" 
and what harm soever they did before, the residue of their liveJ 
to make amends for the same." Above all, he urges that to be 
remedial, punishment must be wrought out ])y labour and hope 
so that none is hopeless or in despair to recover again his former 
state of freedom l>y giving good tokens and likelihood of himself 
that he will ever after that live a true and honest man " It is 
not too much to say that in the great principles More lays down 
he anticipated every one of the improvements in our criminal 
system ^vhicliku^tinguished the la^t hundred yeaix'^ 

poet for human life. Some of ll,o Vrr,. h f V??i ' ' *".'•', *" '"""■!■'' f,''catl.v the res- 
Forest, popular heroes and t. Z::^^^^'^:^?'^'^''^ '''^•^.f'e outlaw, of Sherwood 

Enolishmen were Zv^d for rolfc 'n v'^"*J?"' "^ •"'^"cr of exultation thai n,o>e 
ately the severe penalties of c mod i^va Vh^,; "?" ''•''■" ^'h'''.^" i" ^cve:.. Unfortnu- 
tho necessity for thorn lad I asseda^^^^^^^^ "' ^°'-^'*'' l<^"fe' ^ficr 

on the daring hijjhwav robber whrmnWlprit^''-^^^^ '.'^ '^'^^^^ "''•^ m^^^iSx alike 
s'olo a few shillinL^s' worth of I'noH , ^"^ '"-"^V" '""^ "" ^'"^ poo^ retell who 

were under E.^hriaw Sr^!;- foo capiScXT'"' "' '*'^"'^"°"- ^* °"^ ^""« ^'^^^ 

en^refi?E,Snfi'loV^'s1^dTd"w^^ "°^' of the Middle Ages should have 

condemnation of it Sir Flw^nic v. l ■.*•'*' -'"'^^^est jurists were unsparinf,- in ihoir 

lan.entable case it s to see ^ ,l1, • Oh^H Ji"*'"'^' ^ ""T*"'^' ^*'''^'" *^«'*^' ««>« • ''^Vlmt a 
ties of the frallows in so inTl as if in . 1. "'/• ?',"^ ''"""^" «fr"'.'-'lc-l on th.t cursed 
Christians that but in oi e vea? i 'f uln ^'''' '^«'''l ''"'»'' ""-:''* sec together all the 
death, if there were anv smik of ru ^ ,T '^".'"c. to that untimely and ignominious 
bleed for pity an.l eonu ass m '■ M^^'f o ' '''^"'■'*^' '" '''"^' ** ^^""'J '"^'^e his heart to 
was used bv Sir V mS Sston . <• " ««";u'-y a ter Coke the followinj-- language 

of actions that n,e are daU v li«hu fn " " V;'"el'^''^'boIy truth, that among fhe varieTy 

Act of PaHiannnt r.>Kw v^^^ '*^''*'- *'"^" 1«" '"^^'« been declared bv 

.. „ Lc fel.,r„e, .xu^.u. t,wi,;r. .l ciciKj, ur, in c-.hor words, to be 







cent.. „i«, .,:'Li,.f„ ' K :;:; : ,.^,:ri;:. "- »'"»«^''y i.. 

conHict with .Lofaiiir,,, Christ, r 'I' r' '•"'"«" 

the cong,.,.gat,„„ ; and each household confvssed its aul ts 1 • 
own nat„„d h,.d> ^ yet stranger charucteri; : /:'' \ t : 

y.m^. Mou than a century heforc Wm,,,, „f Qran-e mI 
a..oerned and proclaimed the great principle of roligllttl::! 

31 More seems, from passages in hU " rf«.,i» .. ^ . 

opinion of 

3f then which defende ,,1^^^ wherdn ^hiv^H ^''"'" '^"^ ^'"^ >'"«d ^o 

parte of man's felx'itye to resteCf(whvrbVl'''*'''''i'''f ^'*'''^' *» «r 
f this so devntvp u,,;? .i^ii„„,. • ■'^".<•.'"n.^<;he is more to be nnivv«i»,i „*.\ 

?"l?^'""^'*^«.f«»'-'it.veof man 


more to be marveled at) thi 

dpfo.wn r>f fi,- ° CO resti 

bnarpe, D.vtter, and ryy-orous rcli"ion " 'Diw^A'T"-' Ti"-' '^''^"^ «ven from theirirravp 
on he part of More, himself at once a fc'em-al man of fh" P^l^'** '^" ^^'^''^nt ^"tenTi^',; 
to discounteManee the £.scetiLism so pre a ent ^, hif , ^ '™''^'^ '^"^ » devor.t Christian 
a I.ttlc smffular that one whose views ,,n mo nl'itf '""°"*'''* churchmen. It is not 
Riven ev n n. nnnlifio,! „„ 1.. . .,"" ■"Oi't questions Were Rn o«,,in^ „u...,Vv '"' 

now HEBE. . ,j, 

tion." I„ "Xowhcre" it w„s lawful to ov,.,v ,„.„ „, l„. „f „,,.,t 

r.I.g,on ho „-„,,l.r Ev,.„ ,1,0 dfabelicv.,., i, „ i,i,i„„ j, j,,:'" 

n h„ „,.„,.a,„,„y of .u,w,, w!,„ by „ ,i,„,o .:,,„,„;„„ ,„ '?; 

f.c rd,,,„us „„|,m.„„eo , oxdnd,,. from ,,„M,. ,:„;«. ,™ 

t »'.r o,n„.o,,3 v.cro hdicvoa to l.o ,l,,,n,li„, to ,„a„l<i,„l „,] 
>l,«.o.o to ,„;t.t„ those who l.dd tho,;f.o„, ,„,; „ 
. noble t.,„,,.,. Uut they were subject to no I,„ni»l, :, 
l^--.-' .he people of Utopia we.e "pers„.,.I,,I that it is t j 
a man » pow.:- to believe -.viiat he list ""■ The r,.-,„,- i ■ 

;- "<■-.'. .,,,,t p,.op,,te by ,.,,nnn.t t,::: : " r I:' 

ence or ,„™,t to the .eligion of others. ,„. ^h;,,. eael e a 
perfo,,n,,l ,1s nte. in private, all a,sen,hle<l f.,, public „„X 
m a spacious te.nple, where tl,„ ve.t thron.- el „1 in vh , 
|,™,. ,o„„,l a pdest clothcl in fai. ..ain'^nt ., ' ^ i' 

on^ly out ot bi,,ls ph„na,e. joine., in hy„n,s ana"! ay " 

f .uned a., to be ncceptable to all. The i.nportanee of hi/p bl" 
>levo .on lay ,. the evidence it alfordcd that liberty of eons i 1 
could be eombn,e.l with reliKi„„,s unity consucnee 

Cut even more in^Km,,nt than llore's defence of reliyious free- 

uos hatean b..aia for him, thefefort L fhUvv i I' 'r'"*""""-^' *"«' f'entics •' The 

\lll^j''l ^""^'*"' ^^-h" -I" in so ue rospeSTur 0°^"';' /?'« '''=--''^"t,,rs was ft 

So!.'VT"^!^''''?'^"^'''^^'"''dS■/^ is'fo°lnd'l"Si!'«/^''' ^^ "««'*' «« i* still is in 
See the ' Faene y.ieene," ii.. 9. 1 ; "Behoki who il^--' ?"\'-'''' '''*"'" "^'^s *' bo:h ways 

'List- is fr.,.n the An^-.o Saxo.X^7n Vn '^ jy^'^u-^t'^''^'" *''« J^'overnor li.steth ") 
foi".t..'/j:^: .•'",:■, :.^'•^fp'^ the «»»« rcr^^^^^lijT'v.I.f':'*^' a desire for. 

I;, '.'fii 

tor "desire." i., othe.Io ir,. gc. 1. 

ibe foimei is uiiud as a sijfetantiv 


' I. ill 



),„-y a, it coom., t„ so.Me writers i„ ou- „«■, 1 ' v ^ , 
"■hid, lie s«Uto,,.I c.v„ „,„ who, of U " L'to V r 'T 

Wit,. . wtte. i..„„,. ,„ „,,,„„^.„ „, ■; ., ::-:»'- 

are sta,tl,l at tl>e procsion ,viti, ,vl,ic], More d,,criWs ,„ 
processes I.,y wl,icl, tl.e ia»- courts were to Jcml 1 *",' ' "'" 
advance of tyranny till tI,oir crow ^ ^ l^tT" " ' 
ship money" But behind these judFcire^puL^s "'" 
prmciplesof aKsoiutisn,, which, partly nt^;'™, 7 j'?'^* 
«gn monarchies, partly fron, the sens; of social ,^" Xtica, " 
security, and yet more f,™n the isolate.1 p„.,iti n „ t ICro " 
were gradually winning their vav i„ „„ ,l,v "'"Crown, 

notions' -M,.re..oesboldlv„ 1 "W'<= op.nion. "These 

It oOis ooldly on, m words written it nu,=f l,„ 
memberod, within the precinct • „f Tr . "" '"' 

eye of W^lsey-" t lesf no '•' ' ™"" '""' ''"''"»"' ">« 

J oisey tlieso notions arc fostered by the maxim tl,.,t 

theh^c_a^^,„,.„,«, „„.„,„ „„,^, ,_,^ ^^^_^ ^^--. that 

3-« See Appendix B. ' — — ■ ' 

W:;rrdV^etv1,?uer "' *'^ ^"^°- -^ «*"•*«. which led eve„tua„y to the Civil 
36 The fundamental idea of "preroffaHvA- io ♦!, • ux 

»' Tla» «,.!,„,, i„,„,„^^j ,„ ^ J ^^ «»• 

.I...W, IS now the tuiiiiraicnfal iirinciplo ol 

No WJlKliE. 


hat not only the property, but tbe persons of hi. subjects uro 
IHH <nvu ; a„,l that u has a ri^ht to uo u.oro than the kind's 
guodiiess th.nks fit not to take fro.a hi,u.- It is only in the 
light of tins en.phatie protest against the kin,,-worship whi.!. 
.as soon to override Jib<.rty anU knv that we ean un.lerstan.l 
Mo es W caree. Steady to tb. last in bis l.yalty to Parlia- 
ments, as steady m his resistanee to n.ere j.ersonal rule, it ^vas 
With U ,,„,,,. ,, f„,.,,j^.^^ ^^ ^,^^. ^^^.^^^ ^^.. j^ ^^j^.^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

hal^jostnig .-onls of bis 'M'lopia- tbat i.e sealed tlu-n. with his 
blood on Tower Hill''. 


•eople for the .l>,in^' „f it Thev ' tv ,1. i ^^ '. '""',","J 'l*-'- ''"^ 'L..s,,„„sii,ie ,„ tl.o 

'.V rcM^^ninj. an.! allowi,,^^ tl. ' Ki, .. ,' fi ,1 , :.rn';:';'J''''''-^"' ""^-ono way, „a,n.l " 

acfountul.le for his uctionn <,r J.isiTulicV ""•"■-ters nnIio are wilhr,;,' to he ),ci,i 

heu.ncuive.tobc,Cef;„ui;;;;;3;:;!^"^:;i,i'^^-X;;L".S , , .- 

social corruptions . f various exiM in- f .,iii.s c govcr m. n M, v .?;'■'/ ''"•^f'^ if « if h the 
po itical liction ever i-eiined. Sin.t'iis imblkf ,^V, u ^r.o "-' '^ 

mil Ir.icrt /.. « .1 l.i;. 1. 1 . " , ' *■ "Hi ltd 1 11 ^ 

•'New Atlanlis," i,. whi.l. he sKet^:: U .^.^d cZ^tZ^^ >T'f "'^'"^'' <^ " 
tatioi. of nature. It «as his inte.itio,, to emb'dv hA? • a n . n f'"" ^'"^' ^';'"'' i"f^>-|'re. 
or mould of a connnon«talth," hut the work was ,1, it J'!''"*"" *''^^ ^ 

cclohrated of .uch fi.tious is tie 'OtxV/.^.i ' ,. whi.l •? '••",'l'''^f^''- O'"-' "f the n> 
bodi^L-d his coneep io„ of a perfect for of ,' v r „ en whi >" hl't/"'' ^Yl"''':'"' ^"'■ 
established on an equal agrarian basis risiii- int. * ^'"V'.''L' th(.u«-ht, "should bo 

he senate debating an.l pro,x,si,^rtLTopir.X-o lin'^ '"l " ''' ""^^'^ 

by an e<|ual rotation f hroui.d, t h ■ s7.Ca-o ,7' h,. . -•' *" ', "','' """'^^'.^t'-'i'^y cxuut in- 
HarrinKton meant Britain! ar hi™k Itt^ZtV^ ^''?'\ ''"V ''f ""'• '^> "". eana" 
day. He is far inferior to More, h me vet h , n :tVof''T" ' l"^ atter,tion in his own 
and in versatility of treatment Of h, X:> ■ i ' "•'"• I" '^^'^^''''ess of (,l,serv ation, 

Harrington that he is pr liv dull L^i "al am says : " hi treneral it may be said o 

redeenrshin.self !fy i ist'Srli n " T ''-.f'''' "^'^'^T »":"f"'""l : f'"t lie sometimes 
beeven speeifie.i herrto 'ivnot h,", lu '"•''•' '""^''■" «^'^i""« a'-*-' "•" "nmerousto 
Fournier Ovven Ss and^o S s ^^^^^ '"^' ' '• """""i-tH asSi. Simon, 

tice by foundinjr\societkiseS;;. "£;;hT ° T'";' "^V" ""'■^■""'^■'' *" P^"'^' 

njtyin possessfon of then. Th^^. r nti''^-^- '^^^^^ ^- - " 5,''«><is and eomnm- 

Tho besrand fullest deSionoth;nn:^^:!..V''ir'P'y« f>"t not fictions. 





village grocer. un<l wan horn ii 70s'.'! kM 'y,, ^'^ ""« *'»« «»» of a 

recewecf his early eduoution a 1^ fll^ch^olTr '•'' '"l''"^'^' '^- «^ 

afterwards passed tlirouL'h Oxtn,-.' '' ^« «^''!"»1 ''^ Ins nutivc pluce, and 

1756 to 170!) wan i„ cKge of ^cou "^ w^^ ^r the clunch/an.l from 

During this interval he clhl a Loo<l S^f' f '^^ "' Northamptonshire. 

httle importance, hut in 7ufv^ ^ „„, ^'''7yy 

English I'oetry/'whid is hem 'If'"i'"'-'^'* '"« " l^eliqncs of Ancient 

fame. He had a keen aipreda o'* ^^it"'';^' ,"'?,""/"«"* to his litera y 

and was fortunate in rS'in^ vain .1 ^■'•''''^'' '^^ 

«arriek. and other lite ary ' ?e 1 ^^%"''^ ;■?'l-^''-^:'tone, ^ 

with a very cordial reception at (i rsV" i.,./ li J^«l"l»eH " ,|id not meet 

to popularfty and exercLed a gri t ^ ^'^ 1 ''.H^iT''/ '' n"' ^'''^ ''>' •'^«'--"-'' 
literature. Percy in 17<!(J k , '"^."^"^"il nifluenoe on Kntdish 

several intermeZW^ront'liorras^ n'l^s" '^^^ ''1' ^'"« "'"'' ^ 
Dromore. over which Jeremy TaWm l. ^^I'-^vated to the see of 

close of his long an.l activ^life he he • no ",'r T^'^'Y'- '^'^^^'"-''^ the 
peacefully to hit rest at tlie age of eigS^ Uvo. '"'' ""^ ^* ^*^»fe'th passed 

. 1. My iniiide to me a kingdomo is f 

Such perfect joy therein I fin.le, 
As farre exceeds aJl earthly hlisse, 

That God or nature hath assignde • 
Though niucli I want that most m'ouKI have 
1 et still my niinde forbids to crave '' 

" I wei-h not fortunes froun or smile 
I joy not mudi in eaithlv <ov8 
I seeke not state. I reck not «tVle 

I am not fond of fanrv'.s toys • 
I rest Eo pleased with what I ha've 
I wish no more, no more I crave "' 


«. ContontlJive: this is my stay, 

I seek no more than niuy suffice • 
I prosso to hear., n.. hau-litie sway • 

W. what I hu.k ,n y minde supplies. 
Loo ! thus I tnuniph Jik(, u king 
Content with that^ my niin.lo doUi hring. 

3. I see how plcntie surfets oft, 

And hu-sti.. clynihers soonest fall • 

I see that hu.-Ii a.s sit aloft ' 

.Alishaj) dotli tlireaten most of all •» 

These yet with toih, and keep with feure ; 

t>uc]i eares my niinde eoul.l never heare 


My conscience i.s my crown ; « , u 

Contented thou-hts m\ rist • **^. ■T'"'"''' ^^^ '>"' few 

My heart is happv in itself All easy to fulfil ; ' 

My bliss u i„ ,i,y breast.' ^ 'i'!'**?; "i« ''"''t« of mv power 

The bounds unto my will 

Erioufc'h I reckon wealth ■ 
riiat mean the surest lot 

I fear no care for Kold, 
w. r •-'!'■' "'"K- it my wealth; 
My mm.i to ,„e an en.pire is, 
While «-race affordeth health. 

Spenser, in the •' FaeriP o,.. .- « "''"'■'' """'•'^''■th health. 

Sliake«p«,r«m.k«»/»s,o»,y in "Othello "111 3. 

I chp h>f(h-chnibinfr thouj.^bts, 

The r fail „ ^-orst that from the heiL'ht 
Of greatest honour slide *" 

Since sails of larjrest size 

rhe storm doth soonest tear • 

I bear so low and small a saT' 
Asfreeth me from fear." 

Cf. Shakespeare's " Timon," iv., 2 : 

Sinn«.r».h<.!. "".L'l';'-^ *". b° ^'•om wealth exemnt. 
-• t"-.>!t tu ii.iocrj and eontemptv"' 


1^ : f 

I ^' 

A 1 J-'l 


CAN A D/A iV RKA DK/t. /inoK 17. 

4. No priiutj'ly \u,mini mn- wfltlii.- aIotp, 
Xo forci! to winiH! tin- vi(;tork« ; 
No wylie wit to siilvo n Horo, 

No Hhap«' to winnp a Iovi'i-h" »•>•». ; 
To none of these I yeeld us thrall ; 
For why my niiude .lispiHeth all. 

fi. SoiiK! iijive too iiaK'h. yet still tlu'y crave, 
1 little have, yet seek no more ; 

They an! hut poore, tho' much they Jmve, 
Ami I am rich with little store -J 

They ]» V, I rich ; they Im-;,', I jrivi. ; 

They hicke, I leml ; they pine, I live.« 

0. ] lau^'h nut at anothers losse, 

1 jp'iud','!! not at aiiothci-s <^raine," 
No worhlly wave my minai ,im tosso, 
I hrooke tliat is anothers hane :'" 

« In old FD^'lish tliu apostrophe was not iisud ai a ni'irk of thi. t,r>u^.>^ui., 

:;:r^!i^r::! "' ''^ ^""-"^''^ '^'-^"■^-^ ^'>^^ >^^^^r:tizz:j^^ 

7 See Spenser's description of Avarix', "Faerie yueene," I,, iv., 29 : 
"Most wret(hfd wight, whom norhinw- niiirht'snfflse : 
Wliose jrreedy lust did laol<e in >; store • 
\\ hose nped had end hut no end covetiso ■ 
Whose w-elth wns want, who-c plenty n.alle him pore- 
« ho had enouj,'h, jett wished ever more." 

John Heywood (150>.15«5\ says in one of his poems : 

"The loss of wealtti is loss of dirt, 
Ab sages in all tiu)e8 assort ; 
The happy man's without u shirt." 

8 Notice tlie antitheses in this stanza and in other parts of tho poem. 

9 Compare Southwell : 

"I envy not their hap 

Whom naruie doth advance ; 

I take no pleasure in their pain 

That have less happy chance. 

To rise by others' fall 

I deem a losing gain ; 
All states «• ith others' ruin built 

T' rui'i fun amain." 



I foaro no fo.., nor fuwno on friend— 
I loth not lif(., nor ,lrni.l niino .muI. 

T. r jo n-)* 'n no earthly blJHs:" 

i WfiKh not Cresus weulth a straw: 
For cure, I can' n«jt what it is ;" 

I foiiro not furtiii..'.s fatull law :" 
Vy min.le is sueh as may not niov.* 
For beautic hvi^rht or f(,i, c of l,.v,.. 

8. I wish but wljut I have nt will: 

T wander not to seeke for nioro ; 
I like the plairus I clime no liili ; 

In greatest storms \ sitte en shorf 
And laugh at them that toile in vaino 
To get what must ])e lost againe. 

B. I kisse not where \ wish to kill: 

I feigne n.'t love wher.- most \ hate; 
I breake no sleep to winne my will; 

I wayte not it the mighties gat;o. 
I scorne no poore, I f.^an^ no rich ; 
I feele no want, n.. have to(. much." 



u In old En.'lish double nejratives are very common. 

u Cf. Phil., iv., 10-12 ; ]. Timothy, vi., o-i ; Hebrews xiii s • ««*♦ . „. 

la Southwell says : • "*""^<^«8, xui., 6; Matt., vl., 26^ 

" No ehan-rc of Forturn < calm 
Can cast iny conifoi - down : 
\V hen V smiles, smile to think 
How guiekly she wil frown. 

And when in frowartl i (xl 
She proved an aiij^ry .> ' 

. 'TeW:stistvt ■''^'•'''""^- 

^^gXV^ '^^^^'^:^\ ?:^^l' " we pass by those thin.s 

" I feiarne nst friendship wher : hate. 

I fawn not on the wreat in - :ow 
I prize, I praise a mean estate ' 

iN either too lofty nor too lou ■ 
This, this is all my choice, my 'heer 
A mind content, a consdence c.ear," 

* J 




i f 


10. The court, ne cart, I like, no loath ^'^ 

Extremes are counted worst of all j^" 
The golden meane betwixt them both 

Doth surest sit, and fears no fall : v 

This is my choyce, for why I finde, 
No welth is like a quiet minde. 

11. My welth is health and perfect ease;" 

My conscience clere, my chiefe defence :'« 
I never seeke l)y bryi)es to please, 

Nor by desert to give offence. 
Thus do I live, thus will I die- 
Would all did so as well as I ! 


Some weigh their pleasures by their lust ; 
Their wisdom by their range of will ; 
Their treasure is their only trust, 

Their cloked-craft their store of skill : 
But all the pleasure that I finde, 
Is to maintain a quiet minde. 

— Anonymous. 

Chaucer and even in Spenser '' Ne'' is from hi An.i i' "°'" '« ^"'-y ™'""ion in 
compounded of na and W/,,r whe her h Jh of two ""n'. "^•- "° = '["'"'^'''^^ '« 
" ..other," a doublet of " neither," and\'he n^'r^'Jorl-S ?orm of the'twa"'"^**^' ''"'' 
18 Cf. Prorerbs, xxx., 8. Sylvester says : 

"I see ambition never pleas'd, 

I see some Tantals (plural of Tantalus) starv'd in store ■ 
I see Kolds dropsy seldom eas'd, ' 

I see e'en Midas (rape for more. 
I neither want, nor yet abound : 
Enough's a feast ; content is crovvn'd." 

th"S^JS^-r;SSS"rheS;;:::l;HZ=,3^^^ an those effects which 
riches, it does the sanu. 'lin-bV anis in^ K and , fit does not bring 

tho^isauietudes arising fronA. i^T£^ ft' r;;^^??^!.^^^^^^^ 

18 Shakespeare makes WoLwj say (" Henry VIII.," iif., 2) : 

" I feel within nie 

A peace above all earthly dignities, 
A still and quiet conscience." 




would «u,..e«t that othel-chr,rr '"'''''■''■ ^o e„.pha«ise n.ind 

Verso2. Line 1 : Kn.phasise " th - ^.t" .^^''^^ ^'-"fe' '""'-'etion to ■•flnde.•• 
5 : Emphasise " Ivint.." ^'"^•*- Emphasise "minde supplies." Line 

Gi^rS: t "::; ;.2-^;- ;; -f ^'^ " -'^ P- .ter it a„d .. threaten... Line 6 : 

Ji::;irler;t:Ttp::r .:;;r:''"r'°" --•^^ ■'^^^" -^'^h ta.e. . 

warmth and swell of voice ^ "'"' ""^ " *^'-'^">" ''"'^ «"^J the stanza with 

c::r;in^;:^\?::^;---^^|-|;- -on.e.. ..... ,„,, 3 and .: 

Pause at .■ that " a.^^^jJa^i^^l^nj -';;^:'::^ -'^'l ^^nin. inflections. Line 4 : 
fiance to <' feare no foe,'" and of scorn to '■ f - ■" " '' ^''"^ *" ^''P'-ession of de- 

antithetical terms, and end the line sole.nnly. "' ' '^"' '°"*'''"'^ "'flection, to the 

phaZ''m.'wll^'aim!!;'il;£^„;;'''r";:'';;^ ^-y^^^^^on of contempt. Line 3: Em- 
to«'law." ° "*'°"-- ^"'"*- ''^"'P'"^>*'«°"f«^ar"andgiverisinginflection 

Verses. Line 2: Give ri.sing inflection to "more » Line4Ti 
"I. Li..e 5 : Give scornful emphasis to '■ lau" h "' r .^'"' ^„^"^*-' «°™e ^n^Phasis to 
solemnly. ' ° '^"t*'- ^uie : Pause at " get '. and end 

Verse 9. Lines 1 and 2 : Emphasise " ki.sse " "kill " .. i - . 
two lines with sternness. Read line 4 wi h .' •"' ^"'' ^^^'«=" '^^^ the 

first half tcderlv, and the sectd l^htily "'''^"""- '''"^ ' = «^^ ^''^ 

Ve'L'e n' Lin! 7fl ""' '""^^'^^^ '"^•^^"''"^ t« " "Xe " and " loath " 
verse II. Line 1 : Emphas se " my " and " Hp^im, - i • ,. * 

Line 3 : Emphasise ■•hrybes,-. and inline "de rt .' wiU^^ U T^y "'""^^''^"'^'^ •='^-" 
ma: after both. Line .5 : Head the latter h.lf ! , ' ''"'"" '"^^^^^on, paua- 

6 : Rea,I this similarly and with .JaTearne , ' f-"' ""' "'"'' ^"'^"'"^y- ^ine 

Verse 12. Line 2 : Pause at "^Z^^tT 7 f '" "'" '"^ ''''""' ""'^'=«^'". 

sternly. Line 2 : Pause at " wis£ - Ld h f "^ '''"" '"'** " "'^^P^'' '^-i '""'•e 
to " I ," pause at " is .' and " maS"n " a, f '"" '""^' '^•"^^■^'- = ^'^'^ -"Pha-sis 

The reader may, according to ttte or /'" T''""' '°^^^' *° "''"''-** """^ '■ 

emphasis; but. whatever chrn-^estste o £ .' '"'' '''' "'"'^''''""■^ '^"'' --" t^e 

well marked and correctly re„ct:;i::^r:;Ls:s::;:::^"""^ 






John Bunyan, the author of the best and most popular allegorv ever 
written was f,orn in 628 in the village of lOlstow, neL^e.ifor ,T,LiuT 
His fa her 8 occupation was that of a tinker, and Bunyan was bC It 
p t(, the same humble calling. The elder Bunyan was not one of t le 
itmerant menders of tiimare, but a resident in theViUage, ami hav ii^ 
in some way acquired the art of reading and writing-rL; accomplisfc 

son '?Z^" P««P? « VVr'"""'^ "' *''"^^ clays-he taught them to hs 
son. Bunyan s youthful life seems to have been outwardly tolerably 
respectable at least not markedly disreputable, but he was the possessor 

given rise to wrong impressions about his mode of life. He served for 
a short time in the Royalist army during the Civil War, but at the a^e 
of nineteen he again settled down in his native place. hL ma rifee 

iW fn-tT ? """'^''t ^r"' r"'"""' '" ''^'^'^ temi^erament unques iot- 
^L w V- 1 ^' '"''''^"l a characteristic as doul)t inclining to despond- 
ency u as in his seems to have been instrumental in bringing his mind 
into that state of re^t which h. describes as " peace in believing /' Se 
resolved to preach to others the way of salvation as he himself had found 

BanHHt nvo? r"f '*"^«« '''''} «'"3Pl« eloquence soon made the Bedford 
Baptist preacher famous As a Nonconformist minister, in spite of his 
Royalist services, he suffered persecution at the hands o the p, elatical 
party after the Restoration. In 16G0 he was t), • .^n into itlfSrd gaoftid 
he remained a prisoner there for twelve years. Ift the spirit and alincst 
ni he language of the Apostles, when lltey were or.lereriy the J ewS 
Sanhedrin to desist from preacliing, he replied to the thi4t of caiTit 

mrrow ''"St"' "-"'"^^"^ to.da/"he wo^ild preacli by (Sds hel^ to- 
monow. His prison was, like all others in that day,4 filtliy pkce- 
iiiiht or even the worst o felons amongst whom he was forced o l?ve, 
a.i.l tlie severity of imprisonment was in his case a-gravate<l bv the 
knowle<lge of the hardship his absence inflicted on hispV family He 

th? no vT, ^\ 'T'r? ""^ ""'V^ ^''"" ^'y compromising mattefs with 

1 'I ' *'''f ''^*''?' H"* ^'^ >'^1"<^"^ principle more than either life or 

Une.l ones and remained in prison until he was released in 1672 on such 
terms as allowed him to resume the work of preaching tlie Gospel His 

proirress from this world to that which is to 

11. " io ,),i-,...;i 1 • Ti ti . i""-'"^-^" iioiii luis woria to that which is to 

1 Christian, the " Pll)?rim " whose 
come " ' ' .... 



itsdf uncvcellca as a specimen of tel^e a.l^ idiomatic English ^^''^''^'"'-•"*'^> *»^««=h la 
3 Juhn Howard, the oreat nriann r«»r.rii>oi. >.■„., k^ '--* i' - 

- i •^•■■^ "viij K vcutwr^- alter iiun.vaa (1727), 


d«r ng tlie reign of James II aLl dSl i^ "' "' ^^ ^''^^ unmolested 
Pilgrim's Progress " he wrote The h/ ^w '^ »" ^^^^- ^^^^i^'^s the 
only to Its great companion ""^>^ ^^^'^ *" ^"egory inferior 

As I walked througli tlie wilderness of this world I H.hf. 1 
I'laoo, ,vith].i,, face fro,u his own \.^:T^ "^ V "7 ^ 

was one built on tlie nii(ldle of H,p hvi,i ^ '•"■''^ *•'* '''•'* Place of conflnompnt tk*' 

was less than f,n.rteen felt, vhetp^^^^^^^^^ 

square. In this snuill place BmVvaifwaafonwl .''''' ^'^S" ""* '"«'•« than tw" We feet 
line, besides laborin- for the su S of jfi. ?anni v l'^'^''^ *«'='^« -Ve'^" <lurin. which 
works inclMdinff the " IMI^^rini'^i Lresf - n ^''^'^'''^l «f his weH-ki o v J • 

to n.ake way for a new one, Bunyan's^'^Te^n " S^Sp'^S'^lth ft'^^" '^'"°^''^'' '" "^^ 

' tJc^^ Irdel'nc';:;?^;;:' fr •'^^^r;r «— t S ''• 

in the singular rift^^,'o'al'd 'hts'-S^"^ ^^ '"«""'" "f instruction i, ..fven 
us an introduction to'the " ^^^^ .S^^^n irhe"sa?°?''" "'^'^^ °S to be^'ilad 

As if thP i« \-°' ^^"^ '•^* «"* f"-- life amain, 
AS If the lastirifr crown they would attain • 

Thev'lo o";r-" rr ''' the\oason why ' 
" The name of th. « i "'^"" '''*'''"'■' '^"^^ '"^c fools do die." 
tiful '• V<^^c^~Gracelrf:^lZl^,^^^^^^^ *«"« the porter of the "Be.u 


■■ --fi^Q™^ ,;sr^;^ 'res; -sstesail^^iSSi^ 




perceive his distress; but he could not be silent long, becauso 
that his trouble increased. Wherefore at length he brake his 
mind to his wife and children, and thus he began to talk to 
them : "0 my dear wife," said he, "and you the children of 
my bowels, I, your dear friend, am in myself undone by raason 
of a burden tliat lioth hard upon me ; moreover, I am cer- 
tainly informed that ' this our city» Avill be burnt with firei" 
from heaven; in which fearful overthrow, both myself, with 
thee my wife, and you my sweet babes," shall miserably come to 
ruin, except (the which'' I see not) some way of escape can bo 
found, whereby Ave nuiy be delivered." At this his relations 
were sore amazed ; not for that they believedi" that what he had 
said to thjm was true, but because they thought that some frenzy 
distemper had got into his head ;" therefore, it draAving toAvards 
night, and they lioping that sleep might settle his brains, Avith all 
haste they got liim to bed. But the night Avas as troublesome to 
him as the day; wherefore, instead of sleeping, lie spent it 
in sighs and tears. So Avhen the morning Avas come, they 
Avould'" know how he did. He told them, "Worse and Avorse." 
He also set'« to talking to them again; but they began to be 

extreme anxiety to hide his distress from his family This word is doubly a past form 
present ^f'niflcation l""'^^'^'"'*'' ^'"0"' *'"'«'• ^^^ich was itself a i>ast tense uied with a 

9 "This world." lo H. Peter iii., 7, 10. 

11 This reference to his wife as an UDoonvcrted woman shows that Bun van's allefforv 
must not be- interpreted too strictly in an autobiofeMaphical sense. He wns twice mar- 
ried, and while his first wife was a professing Christian before his own conversion his 
second was undoubtedly one before the "Progress" was written. The second Mrs 
Bunyaii made persistent and courageous efforts to secure his release from prison and 
devotea herself to the support of his four children, bv his first marriage ' I eKn 
intense affection for all hn children but particularly for one of, a daughter who 
was bhnd, and to whom he frequently refers. , a uaufeuier wno 

Graiimmr"m' "^^''" ^'^^"'^ "^^hich" was common in Old English. See Mason's 

13 Explain this construction. 

mvM^!c"VhofT' "],'"' 1'^;^^ ''"d Grace:" "Sometimes I have been so loadcn with 
my sins that I could not tell where to rest, nor what to do ; yea, at such times I 
thought it would have taken away my senses." 

1^ Compare note 8. " AVould " is here used in the sense of " wishin" " which is the 
ongmal force of the Anglo.Sa.xon verb tvUlan. The old orin u the is tense is 

wolde," which occurs constantly in Chaucer and even Spenser. 

16 This use of " set " wa^ forme; ly quite common. AVe still use it in the sense of be- 
Sroufora"Jou7n^^^^ ''"* '"" ^"* '''' Preposition "out " along with it ; as, ^i,.. " to 

ver, I am cer- 




cl.a,n,„.,, to p.,,y f , ,.' r"" "' ;■'■'■•■" ''""-'f" to ],i, 

own ...i..rv: ho wo ,1 , ■ '',■", "'"' '" '"'"'"'"'" '''« 

'i-0-a.L^ ,o,;:;;;:;,u : ";* ; ■!:;^ ;-'■; «>'i'K ^ 

ho 8],ont timo ^ ° ^ ^^'"' ^'''' '^''''' '^''^ys 

' / '■^' ^* ^^'^t -'^'I'lJi I tlo to 1)0 saved ?"'^'' 
I saw also that ]u3 looked this wav n„.l n f 

Ho answered, 'SSir, I porceive by the hook in my h.„. th.t 
I am condcmnod to di,> and -.ffo,. +k , , ^ ''"*^ 

-,n,l T fi 7 .1 . T *^^ *^^'^^ ^'' come to iiid-Miioiit ••■"'' 

."Kl I fin.l tliat 1 am not willing to do the first - r... n . ,' 
the second."" ^^' ^'"^^ ^^^« <^o do 



flish. See Mason's 

."syn.patlusinjr." j, f„ii,nve,i bv ' ,viti, •- af„M "f'l almost exclusively in the «« „ ■ T,? 
20 Acts xvi., 30. 

"'!.van introduee.s AV^^wW/v/ ™ fl ^'•-'''' ^^"'^'' "■• 810. atul iv 6-1 n a 

S.nvan'''in7r™)';?''' "''•'il'«'- "'" "!^^"od news"" (see LukVir' s'ln'? f^'P^'. '^'^^ name in.- 

W Heb. ix., 27 ; Eccles. xi , 9 ; Rom viv in • ii /. 

«3 Job xvi.. 21. 29 a. P.:." " ^ •: ^° "• ^°'-' ^- W ; Ps. cxix. 120. 

'■ '11 




. Then saul Evangelist, - Why not Avilling to die, since this life 
IS attomlc.1 with so many evils ?'-=> The man answered, - Be- 
cause I fear that this burden that is upon my hack will sink )ne 
lower than the grave, and I shall fall into Tophet.^- And sir if 
I bo not Tit to go to prison, I am not fit to go to ju.lgmen't, and 
from thence to execution ; an.l the thoughts of these thin-s 
make me cry." *' 

Tlion said Evangelist, «' If this be thy con.lition, whv standest 
thou shir He answered, -IJccause I know not whither to 
go. Hum he gave him a parchment roll, and there was written 
witlnn, "Elee from tlie wraih to come."-^ 

The man, tlierefore, rea.l it, and looking upon Evangelist very 
carefully,- said, '^ Whither must 1 fly ? '^ Then sai<l Evan..di.ib 
(pointn.g with his finger over a very wi.le fieM), -J)oy,.u see 
yondor wicket-gate ?- The man said, '.Xo." Then said the otl^er 
J)o you see yonder sinning light V' He sai.l, " I flunk 1 do '' 
Then said Evangelist, -Keep that light in your eye, an.l go up 
airecly thereto, so shalt thou see the gate : at which, when thoi 
knockest, It shall be told thee what thou shalt do." 8o I saw 
m my dream that the man began to run. Xow he had not nm 
far from lus own door, when his wife and children, perceivin-^ 
It, began to cry aft.u- him to return ; but the man put his iin<rers 

s asks tlie 

much bitterness." l'mu.,.//^r/quel o is amoLt:^'''?- 'KY '"'"'^'"'"l ^*i"' «<> 
the pilgrim's mind ; Despair's is Ln ary-un ent for s..iH,?.' ,T "'' V""' '"'^'^^ «'"'lition of 
ness of evil in life. -^rouuicnt toi .suiuiile drawn from the inevitable- 


entertainments. WhJn idolat.ybe.'ime^KSnt'i^'^i^n^^'J* T"' '^?™^'^'' ^° '""^'!^' 
the worship of Jloleoh, in honor of wlmni A uiz a ,1 Mina'^h n.l . ?!? ''^^'V^^* ''V^^^ for 
through the fire." Part of Josial.s X^atorv wo^^^^^^ 

pollute Tophot by spreading over t hmna Cics \n % "• V"P..^'^"'- 1°) "''^^ to 
ivceptacle of the filth and refuse of Jer salon Thooc'".-*''*"^ *""'' '^ ^'^''^'no the 
spot, together with the koepin.^^.mi it ota";«tinmwfl?n'f '*'''' .?'""«^ted with the 
to have le.l to its being reg.arded in ater Jewk hkin " 1°'' ^''"jtary purposes, seem 

the term is used in the teSt. '"' '"''°'^ "^ ''' ^-VI"^ ^^ ''^11. In this sense 

27 Matthew iii,, r ; Luke iii., 1 
^.-<' Anxiously." The word is used in this sense by the older writers, and in the 

» Matt, vii., 13-14 ; Luke xiii., 24. 3« Vs. cxix.. 105 ; IF. Peter 1.. 19. 

since this life 
iswoied, "Bc- 
: will sink mo 
•" And, sir, if 
udgnient, and 

these things 

why standest 
)t whither to 
was written 

.'angelist very 
i<l Evangelist 
" Do you see 
aiil the other, 
think 1 do." 
<', and go u]) 
li, when thou 
So I saw 
had not run 
11, perceiving 
it his fingers 

•wards asks the 
•tteiKiwl witli so 
real condition of 
» the incvitable- 

hc ravines lying 
iiifyiiif,'' that"thi8 
oted to musical 
2en set apart for 
■children to pass 
■^iii., 10) was to 
e it l)3canio the 
iiccted with the 
• purposes, seem 
1. In this sense 

ters, and in the 


in his ears and ran on, crying, - Life ! Life ! eternal life - ""i «, 
Je _looked not hehind hin.^« l.t lied towards the ndddle of t': 

>om(. n.ockod, others threatened, and some erie<l after him in 

ed to fetelt lam hack l,y force. The name of the one was () 
nate, an.l the nan.e of the other Plial,le.^. Xow hy his hn it e 
-- -s got a good distance fron. then, but, 1 C h " 
-re resolved to pursue hin, which they .lid, and in t h- ' 
hey overtook hin. Then said the man, '' Xei.dtl..>ur wW 
fore are ye come?" IVv sii.l "T 'o'i"«>ui.., AvJu'ie- 

J ni lu, ,s,u.|, ijuit can hy no means ho; you dwell " 

;.. i.^, ".u u,„ at, „f .„..,tn,eti„„, ti,o ,,,,.„ „,.„;.^,„,,, ;, 

^'. 1 .. k low,. luiu tiK. gn,vo, into „ place that burns ,vU /,!,.„ 

"' Luko xiv., 20. 
S2 Genesis .\ix., 17, 

stodftotlil-'wo^^ld.''""''^" ^''^•^■^= "They that fly from the wmth to ^omo are a gazing. 

of nS|^;atS;:^!r;j;tLSS Si:;^ ^^"-^ <" «- -l character, 
artistio- skill as well as kiiowlecl-e of hmno ,' , ''^''^Po'^'-i'ts are drawn with Kreat 
merits of Bunyan as an alle^-n ."hs tl c ■ '|H v'v^ h?/, 'Yv' ^^'^ ^'"''^ 'en,arkaI.lco*'f the 
hem to he difrercrit characters. has con alv^v'"' 'l'"i"*? '"""^-^ '^'"^ '^^'"p"^ 
Progress" IS a subjective or autoliWn,.il„^ al'-ady remarked that the " Pilurin.'H 
matic._ The various persons hSS^^^^^ 

1 y their own utterances, and their numl.P, ,. '"''^Py* "'^'Jo tolK)rtl•a^■ themselves 
A mere list of the characters wo il,? in i ^^'"^^ ^''''''^ ^'"' '''o extent of the allcMrv 

\n>tl>ful Iiinorance, Facinr,.botl,.iva,ii 1 /^ . ft/;^^^^ Livcloose, lin-etuh, llopetvl. 

cursory comparison of these r-in o« uith , ' . ^':^<'«table MountahiK. The most 
Quecno'-wiil^liowhowiSo thcTat ol ^^ «P«"^er in his '• Faerie 

Bnt houph Dunyan's^ is cro Scd wi h fl ,'nrf' v' "'^^'"^ " Pilpim's Progress^ 


3j See Note 26. 


( 'f 

* "»l 


!r =f| 




Oust. Wimt! 8ai<l Obstinate, and leave our friends and com- 
forts beliind us? 

Cnu. Yes, said Christian (for that was liis nanio),»« hecauso 
that all which you forsake is not worthy to bo c.,mi)arod with a 
little of that I am seeking to enjoy;" and if you will go alon-^ 
witli me, an.l hold it, you chall fare as I myself : for th.^re, where 
I go, IS enough an<l to sparp.»« Conie away, and prove my words. 

OnsT. A\ hat ar^ the things you seek, since vou leave all the 
world to find thorn ? 

Cim. I seek an inheritance incorrui.tibh., undofde.l, ami that 
a(l(,th not away,"" and it is laid up in heaven, and safe there,^" to 
be bostowo.1, at the time appointed, on them that diligently seek 
it. Read it so, if you will, in my hook. 

Ob8T. Tush ! Saul Obstinate ; away with your hook ! WiU 
you go back with us t - no ? 

CiiR. No, not I, said the other, because I have put my hand 
to the plough.*! 

Oust. Come, then, neighbour Pliable, let us turn again and 
go liome without him ; th"-e is a company of those crazy-headed 
eoxcombs,- that when thoy take a fancy by the end, are wiser in 
llieir own eyes than seven men that can render a reason.*^ 

Pli. Then sai<l Pliable, Don't revile ; if what the good Christ- 
ian says IS true, the things he looks after are better than ours : 
my heart inclines to go with my neighbour. 

sTlSe^' iV • t'h"- """''> ''■ "'''^*" " '""" ^''"'"'°" '^"^ "'^■''"-n "which"' 

L ' Hebrews xi., ic ; Matt, xxv., 34. 4i Liiko iv m 

•<2 This word is ...sod a.s a synonym for " fool. •' T>. i .• ^"^'^"'•'02. 

cston. of il.o {freat to keep a profe«4onal - ool " nV /. "'''" *'""'' ''''"^" '* ^™« t^e 

his outfit was a cap adoriiedN^tiraSec^of red doth nnf^^^ Vi" *'»"«°"'?"t. pa.-t of 

F^....,^thehud,eof the fool ile^^^^^^i^tti^^^^^t^^S, 

L.Aa. Now^ny fnendj,. knave. 1 thank thee : there's earnest of thy service feivin.. 

Fool Let .nelrirehiin tooj-Here's my coxeoirib (giving jre«< his ca,>> * * if 
T .. „ , '"" '°""''' ^"" *'^"" "'"«* "««l-s wear n.y coxcomb ^ ^^ " 

goS fo?hi7-.VloddV a>xSmb'\tu.,S^^^^ "?/^« h^^'' ^-"« """ - 'oak is 

In other pass^a^^es Shal^eSre t ,g unr T l^ '1 ^T' '"'Z "P'""''''" coxco.nb." 
hln hciul but, l)v a nat ui-al transHU^n Iht fZJ ''*;T'^^ I'^* "^'^'■'^'>' «^e fool's cap and 
ceited fool tile wonl trai$Sa"^;S.SSS '"' "' *"° '''"''' °' '^ ^«P ^ -"■ 
48 See Proverbs xxvi., 16. 


Obst. What ! more fools Btillf^ Be ri.lod l.v mo and go ba.-k 
who knows wliitlier such a Inain-sick fellow will lead you ? ( \l 
hack, go back, and be wise. 

CiiH. Xay, but do thou come with tliv ncigldjour, ]Mial)le •« 
there aro such things to l)o had which^" I sj.uke of, an.l nmnV 
more glories besides. If you believe not me, read h.-n. in this 
book ; and for the truth of M-liat is expressed therein, behold 
all 18 confirmed l)y the blood of Him that made it." 

Pu. Well, neighbour Obstinate, sai<l Pliabl,,, I begin to eon.e 
to a point ; I intend to go along with this good man, and to oast 
m my lot with him. But, my good companion, do you know 
the way to this desired jdace? 

CiiH. I am directed- by a man, whose name is Evangelist to 
speed^« mo to a little gate that is b.^fore us, where we sliall 
receive instruction about tiie way. 

Pli. Come tlien, good neighbour, let us be going. Then they 
went both together. 

Ons. And I will go back to my i)lace, said Obstinate ; I will 
be 210 companion of such misled, fantastical"-' fellows. 

« See Note 42. ' i ' " 

*r- The coiiima is Honietimes omitted after " neighbour " with n. niiv.Wnri «ff„^f *i. 
mcaninc' of the iiassaL'e With th^ fmnma fv.n c-T. * ' ■ • '."^'l^ed effect on the 

frequently applied to the Christian martyr". ^ -a form of expression 

48 On refJective verbs see Mason's Oramnmr ISo " tjufr.,) " ;„ .^ i 

''An Vn..icff. ''."?• ^''akesiieare uses it intrantitively in " Uichard III 'h i- 

iv ] fn . f *" '''^*"'? '"-^"^ ''V'"- l''^"'^>' to''l ;" 'i'"! '" " The Merry Wiv^s of Windsor "" 
• v., 1 : "And liow sped you, sir;" and "you shall know how I si)l.^I •• ''\w,i . Tk 

as a noun and as a verb, has the double meaning, of '"sucvc^s '' a d ''vcloeitl » 'wM. h 


■ 4 

I r|| 

f — 



Now I sau' in ,„y ,,n, that wlion Ohstinato wa« gonn huk 

tnoy bo,i,'an their discourse : 

Cm. (.:,„„,, rni«l,l„„„- I'lUM,, how .1., ,•„„ ,i.,, j „„, „,„,, 
t « yet „„.„..„, iK, ,v„ul,l .„.t 11,,,,, li,,,,t,j. ,,„,„ i,„„ ,„ ^,,„ 


I'u. C'™i;,»..igl,l„„„.Cl„.istm„,8incothoronrononeb„P ,„ 
lie cijojcd," wli,tl„.r we ,iro goiiij;. 

of ''«'«,, 'wrtl,'""T"""™,''' ""'" "■"•"">■'"">-'. ".an ., peak 

kn„ l\ "7 "'f "^ ' ''»' yt -nee y„„ „,, Je,,!,.,!, to 

Know, 1 w,|l re,ni „f i||„,|, ji^ jjiy .^^^^_ 

t.S-t™:;' "" '""'""" """ "'" ^^'■"■'■' "'^"^ '»* - -- 

pI't^AvT; ™''"^'/"'' '' "•"- ""'l" l-y iri.n that cannot lie." 
1 U. H oil sa,cl ; what thin^ i ,.,« they ? 

for e" 1,!- ""'" ""' ■"'"' ^'" "'■■'^' '"'"'"' """ ''"'S'l™ 

Pli. Well said ; and Avhat nlso ? 

thlt'will'"!"! "^ ""■"" "' °'°''^ '" '" eivon us, ™,1 garments 
Wei" "" ^"'"" '"" "'° ^"" '" "- "■■-"-H of 

I'll This i., very pleasant: an.l what elso! 

Cub. There shall be no n.oro crying nor sorrow : for He that 
- owner of the plaee will wipe all tears fronr our eyoV 

f'O Parse "but." ' ' ^ — ~ . 

•2 Supply the ellipsis. 53 1 Cor ii o ir r ' "'"alism. 

«. Titu. i.. 2 : Hob. vi., ir-U « :^ al "^ '"^" V !' ' '^ ''"' ''' '• 

•'"^ It. Tim. iv., 8; Rev iii 4 r, . ,,, ' '^^ ' -^'l'.- ^' ^ J"'^" '^■•. 27-29; Matt, xxv., 40. • 
shortened from the earh- IWiicl'w-'"' ' ''-''''•'3-5; Matt, xiii 4-1 "p„...;,„\., 
old French, .ne^^fiil y f £ ^^Z^::.^'"] ^'^^^ ^aU .^ u;^il^e<fir 'S; 
^arn,r. from which con.e,' both ''Irn it,;;; '• af,a •-^'''''■'^ " '« f'«''> f'e Frer 'h 

the now obsolete meaning of ''garment "^ ^ "ffarn.shn.ent," both retaining still 

«t Isaiah XXV., 8 ; Rev. vii.. 16-17 ; xxi., 4. 

THE I n innrs p, >anEss. 


Pf.r. AmUvhat (oi.i K, -slmll wi^ avother*^? 
Chk. Then, wo Hhall . itL sorupinniH an .henil., . crea- 
tnms that will <la/zlo your oyo,>« to look; < Thor. o you 
shall nu-ot witli thousand, and t.-n thousa.,.i. that h.,,- .ono 
iH'fnro us to that idaco; none of th.-m aiv huHf-d, hr,t, j^vin.. 
..nd holy ;«:. ,,vory one walking iu ih. si^ht of (Jo,!, and standing 
■n 1 ... ,.n.s,Mic. with am.ptan<.. for .v...-. In a M-ord, there, 
wo HJ.all s..(. tho ohlers witli thoir -old.'u .rowns - th.-rr wo 
. «hall s,... th.. holy virgins with their gold.-n harps ;•'■ tiu-rn wo 
Haall so., n.on that l,y (ho worl.l woro cut in i.ioo.-s, humt iu 
n:nu<.s, oalon of hoasts, .Irowno.l in th., soas,"^ for tl... lovo thoy 
l-aro to tho Lord of tho placo,«' all woll, an.l olothod with iui'- 
niortality as with a gariuont.'-' 

Pi. Tho lioaring <.f this is ouough to ravish onc'n heart. lUit 
aro those thing, to l)o c^njoyod ? How shall we get to ho sharers 

6rR. Tho Lord, tho Govornor of tho oouutrv, hath reoorded 
tliat in this hook; tho suhstanco of whioh is, If wo ho truly 
Avdlmg to have it, he will hostow it ujxmi us freely.«5 

Pli. Woll, my good oompanion, glad am 1 to" hear of these 
.tlnu'^s : come on, lot us mond our pace,"" 

iKU ,8 U coini.H.-) ill old writers aV. ''chLri inw' ,> I '"'"' " *'''■ ''''"■^'' "»' tl'eso 

vor. ion of the nil.lo. The lo.'ivati n nf ^. " ,.'"""^, fre<iuf,itl.v in tho ai.!h.>ii«-d 

at a.h any definite i.lea to tl.e .nororonuuitlv recur ^n^^^^ ' .V' ^T"" '"''">' ♦» 

''.l> of the JJlhle " it is notim as ' 'mnVrVTi F \ I '• <:l'ynih." In Smith's 
direction, as to thoir ,K,sition! att ul,"^,,j'^;^'^?^^i';'lV *^ there are ,,re,,se 

tabernaele. "nothins? was said al...ut tl dr sham ev lo, t o,U h'' '" ^>''i'>'^^^ "> 'he 
"Some of tlic rabbis," Mvs Addison " tlV us th^t tM ] ""'^' '''^'■^ "in!,'e.l.' 
who know and the .erapnin.s a ^et oVUSeKho'ovf.n:;:?"."^ '''' "^ ''' '' '^''fe-^^ 

we^';SuentS-fnIi^©?;r}J^ofr;riS? ^"'^"^' "'-"'--"1; i„ good En„ish now. 
«<• Rev. Iv.. 4. ci Rev. xiv.. 1-5. e. Cf. Hob. xi.. a!-40. en John xii "0 

tan. of K^A ^i ^'.^i^oiioliti v.sw!;:.rin'^£:''^?i"'v:';;r'^'"" " "'^ "^^^'''• 

.. ^saj^h h-.. 1.2 : John vi., 37 ; vii.. 37 , Rev. xxi.. C ; x^iC^.' Parse "tha. - and 
yZS'^^il^:^>^^:.,T^}l^'lyj}^!''^J'y 9^-!'-^!> ^'-r-TMon, and is after. 

i i 

\ i 



«0 CANADIAK READlM. .,n,>i. yr_ 

13 on my back.' 


HUKKt.Hti,„.,s as <„ c.Hh.r place, or "huS ^Th^ n '^^^ r 

however, faiUsI to .h-.Nv that he was i,U .t.'l' , ''« """^f' ^'''^''-'Hto li.xestiKation I ,s 
per once, his Hihie, aii.l the rharawer oh.,. "'•'*■''•": '''•'»" '"» KoriVus, hi , x 
awinst all eharires of pliL-i Hm ^hv h U i i '' '" ^^■'"'•'' '" livt"l. He is i.m ,'| 
tpdeseriho the •' IMJu.i,, -ri-r 'T^^^^^ '« f'* Mi"'" ►afe, iht, ,„. 

menjo- pr^uetion. a., ai. ^xp^xr:;;^hir;!;iSvs„-s^^-5.r .^^ 


Arthur Hugh Clough was l.on, at Liverpool in 1 S I r, tt 
oi an old Welsh family witli a will n..„ L- i ^ V "*" ^'as ascion 

years ol.l his father e< to Cm i .f ^'"T^'H-. ^^ '•^" '"^ ''^^ f<>»r 
obtained his early ed u'^tio. A ! • , ' " "* ' ^ "?''"'^' '^"<' J'^'''^ ^'^ 
Ijo was Inonght ifack to K ^anf nd i^ t'.'"' f "^ ,"^^-•veral years 
c .stinguished Imnself by hif ab iiUeJ n nd o'"V'"*'r'^^^"«^>'' where he win.iing .li^nus on iw of .''''" v'' "'"«t^lf to nil l,y a 

and at on.o beean.o deeply intere«te,N lu. T, V " "^"^"'''"'•^ ^^^"'''l' 
in Its full ti,le. Hia un versitv ^.n f; aetanau movement, t^ien 

of Im fnends, but ^In-o;;;^^^^^ h So^S 1.' Z/"n " "P-^^tions 
obtained a fellowship after whirl, ol^n V ""''' "'"^ others he 

tuition. His eonnee\io, wit^^ X o ? hmv vS'T.^""' ' 'I ''" ^'^'•^^ ^^' 
on aeeount of his grow-inc' doihK m. ■ ' ''"""? I'lcsome to him 

ill able to give mXS^toXnmo^l^. I'^^l-g-ous qncstiono, and though 
jus tutorship, fro, Tsel "sicr fi i t sens^'^'f" Y^' '{J^ iollo^.,^nJ. L\ 
<c .levoted himself to 1 emture n^,iri ?. '\ '^"r^^ }''' "" ^^''o^t time 

Bothie of Tober-naA^uo cV' a^S'''"Alti\' '''S^""^ P^^^ " ^lio 
. ^ ^" '*'*^- ^^^ter spending two years in 

state of-inusnal pert.n-bation ahrmt sochT a,,7r I io c ^^^ ?-^"° '"^ mi>'d was i„ a 
beeame acquainted with Emergen durinj^a vfs t imS^w fhT',':t'°"f- ^'' '^'t year he 
whole tone and c .loring of the poeui are fi,.r.h „^I A ^- ^^^ ''*'^*"" ^" Eng-laiid and the 
expected to produce. ^ ''"' ^'''''' '''* "^« mfluetice of Emerson iiiight be 

"f til id burden 


an.lth.s post l.u rotm„e.l till his unl.uu. v.ititu liru- *"''-''' 

The Imniau spiiiU saw I on a day, 

Sittiii- and icokinj,' ouch a diir.-ivn't M-ay;' 

And ]iar Uy^' taskin-,', .sul)tly questionin. 

AnotiuT spirit^ wont around tho ring 

To cacli and oacli : and as lio ceased his say, 

Kach after cad,, 1 l„.ar.l th-ni sin-Iy sing, 

Some (iuoruluu.sjy lugli, some softly, sadly low :» 

Wc know not—what avails to know ? 
Wo know not— wherefore need we know ? 
This answer gave they still unto his suing, 
We know not, lot us do as we are doing."" 

l^ost thou not know that these things only necm ?— 
I know not, let n:G dream my dream.' 



a Point out the fi^M.rc of speech and uipplv tl,o dlipsis 

.•c'tivo <li(ik.ulty'; that is, the qucs lon^are ml, 1' "^•"""'^' «' ol-J-^^aiv. ....t sub- 
qusstioiicd. ' 'l"<''*"""s aie put in a muiuiur hard for tho.^u •.vh-.uio 

'^^'^:Si^''''l^^t^^^^ »-". -' r-nt of hin.o.f 

to raise 8cc,.tioal d(,;mc^n ore i tens' at^ w'":;'r!*''.''M "' ''V.' "'^ "i|'-i.ion 
tal<en by the questions raised (leUm on^^^^^^^^^^ The fours 

thouirht in any];iven ,.eriod. A t .To los" of Hu-K Via; a^' "-"'i^"*^^''' ' "' «P^'"i»'i<o 
tion with scholastic ).hilosophv -r xi ced Descar es a k^ • '''' ^I'k ^"•'" '"'•' 'f*'*^^'"!'*'"' • 
the insufficiencv of the phi os ml v balj o^I f.k^^^^^^ '" the eiuiitmith .cfurv 

d..rinff the present centu y tl facr Wtv o \cU^^ d^^^^^^ '*"'"" ^^'"' J^'^"' ^ 

men as Darwin, Tvndall, and H x lev ^vhih- tl , f^ "'^'^^tiHution Ims raided up such 
stems to bo devotinjr itsattcnt o n„o.t ^^'u^Awt^X^'"'''"'^. ''""^ ^' ''''•' I"'' < ''^ ''"y 
vritiuss and thesutHciency of " rth . iTv ,^nl:;:'''V'''^ *'j'^' "' *'«^ '^'"^'<^'' "*^l^r<^^v 
of note that historically Jesus ("hrKt . h " ? "'"^ '"'"?' f'-^'^-t'^'is- I- is worthy 
and countrv. and that hc7rcn en 1 nin^ prcat questioning' spirit of his own day 

Notice the instances of alliteration (.ee Appondix A) in lines 4-7 

prob?u;^,t;;rti1l/;rio'the'rpe?:bwE 'trf'^'V! <he nuesMon nskcd. It is 

and most general answer is tha tTs a"SteVo^ ue J^^^^ °' ''f*^ = "^"'l '^'' "'"^t 

present occupations. matter of peifect indiflference as compared with 


7 The spirit proceeds to ply different dispositions with different nn.stiona. 





Are dust and ashes fit to make a treasure?— 

r know not, let jne take my pleasure. 

What sliall avail the knowled^^e thou hast sought ?- 

1 know not, let me tliink my tliought. 

W^iat is the end of strife ? 

I know not, let me live my life, 

Hon- many days or e'er thou mean'st to move 1— 

I know not, let me love my love. 

TIT" • 

>> ere not things old once new 1 

I know not, let me do as others do. 

And when the rest were over past, 

I know not, I will d,, my duty, said the last. 

Thy duty do ? rejoined the voice. 
Ah, do it, do it, and rejoice ; 
But Shalt thou then, when all is done, 
Enjoy a lov(>, emhraoo a heauty 
Like th(ise, that may he seen and won 
In life, whose course will then he run ; 
Or wilt thou he where there is uone ? ' 
I know not, I will do my duty.'* 



answer co.ues from tho.^ of whom Clough speal. in another poem when ho says : 
Heaven -rant the manlier heart, that tinielv or.. 

ine iiiut of (Jroaniy liopintr 
Is wakiny, blank despair. 

the motives frc.,,„entiy substituted for Tt as a ndc of romiuct •'' ' ^^^-^^^^Wy with 

rMity-thafstosny, complviiijr >Ti« tu. ' . 

\\ itn what ecr's exi)eeted here ; V.. : , iY'"!^ acquiescence 

Duty 'tiH to take on trust 

>Ti^ H.V'ir-' '"■'' P"'^' ''"'' ''"fe'^t' and Just ; 
Ti8 the stern and prompt suppressinL' 

As an obMousdmdlvsin, 
All thu questing and tlie n'lessiiifr 

Of the soul's own soul within ■ 

In a destiny's befie t, 
To a shade by terror made 

/»'''n'"^' ^^'^ ^^'^ essence 

Of ail that's truest, noblest, best: 
lis t„o blind non-recognition 

Or of goodness, truth, or beauty. 
Fave bv precept and submission ; 
Woral blank, and moral void 
Life at very birth destroyed.' 

_ . ^"^ '"' very uirin Uestroycd. 

of nlfnTSrKs'USrto ih-!'."eStirn1?' •* '""^'r^' *™'^ '^'^ -thor's state 
scenes at Oxford hud become vev fi"/^^^^^^^^ The life and 

cmolumeuts. But the struggle e„d^ i"^8^« b^^^is dllln'^Ker^^^^ 


And taking up tlie word around, above, below, 
Some querulously high, some softly, sadly low : 
We know not, sang they all, nor ever need wo know, 
We know not, sang they, what avails to know T 

Whereat the (luestioning spirit some short si)uce, 

ThougJi unabashed, stood (]uiet hi his place. 

But as the echoing chorus died away 

And to their dreams the rest returned apace,'" 

By the one spirit I saw him kneeling low. 

And in a silvery whisper heard him say : 

Truly, thou knowest not, and thou need'st not know ; 

Hope only, hope thou and Ixdieve alway ;" 

I also know not, and I need not know, 

Only with questionings pass I to and fro, 

Perplexing these that sleep, and in their folly 

Irabreeding doul^t and sceptic melancholy ;'^ 



See "Romeo and Juliet," Act iii., Su. 2 ' expression " tfullop upaie.* 

11 Cf. Tapper's " Life Work : " ^ 

So, faint not thou; fro ylacIJv'on thy way 

And prosH straitrht on, thoui,'ti there tie' little liirht • 
Help al thinj,'8 j,^oo(l, wh.lst it is eallwl to-day, ' 

And do thy duteous best with all tliy niiifht • 
Then, bethy nearillK'fr^ure what it may, ' 

Thou blialt be hiesit therein bv day and'ni"-ht 
Blest m tixe faith for all thy wofk weH done" ' 
Whereyer in thy course the goal be won ! 
Carlyle in his own powerfid manner emohasises th(> san... i,i...> • <• t „<. 1 ■ , 
painfully in darknass or uncertain h,h.^S prays Xnilv ,V^Vh" 'V'" *-"'"'''^'' 
ripen into day, lay this priruiplo well to heart • ' I)o the ) rV win, h 1 ' '" ''""." J"''> thou knowest to be a d!,ty ! Thy serUdu?; wl^l a/rLVhij'^J^r. dUS'-^ 
Young, in his " Ni-ht Thoughts," says : 

Who docs the !)e,st his circumstance allows, 
Cf. John vii. 17. ' "''*^ "ol>ly-ange!s could do no more. 

about^^fhe t;;n'n"ann.i« i^/^^M *:'"!*?*'- t»>onghtfu], and that fron. skn>t<mn,\ I look 
poZVof AltxSer tK^^^^ the Greek philosopher l>yr?ho, a ,ontZ, 

Ject was unattaiSe amV tTh ,h ""i";ta"'«« "that certain knowledge on any sub- 
life." cSi hero rC^! « ■ v ^''''''^ ''^'^^''^ '"^""*'= •^"«»" *» ''« ^ 'e'^'' "^ virtuous 
preliminary to so.'u/hhr^ltfl ir*''''T' '""."'?, ''" ?««'*••*«« ^M doubt, as a r.eoessarv 



Till that, their clres 

Come all to tliis tr 

ims deserting," they M-ith 


ue Ignorance and thee". 




Tl.. lu.UKUi «i,int« a„«wcr in loiulcr nZav . '^'''^^'' '" ^'''' '^"^ «":*^'«n tones. 

the ..^ ..I uno. not " defiant,, w!u ^ 'i:;?: j?' l^-''^ "''^^"""- ^^^^ 
succeedinjf li„e and rc:«l it .oleu.iily ^- ^'"^" •'^^^'^•»- the pitch on the 

Line 15: Give (iin.ha^i, to "hnow.*" 

III line 2:. -ivc f()i<.n fn " i„* .. !, 'i"'-'i<JJ"g tlio repeated word.. 

ll--li«„ ,„ .. „o,„... ^'-"'"•'' "'»'"' >»'«»'»')■. ""•! Sivc c„,,.l,a.,» „,a a torn,," ,„. 

Lines 35 and oii : Road in ii;,.i,^ i 

Line 44 : EmphasL^'neeiS - ""'" "^■'''"^' '°"^^' ^'-°^* ^^^^^^ '^ chant. 

l'h^ !r^r ''''!!"'"' ''''"^'^^"'^■"'^"^'''^^li^ve." 
Lneil) : Linpha, i:;c "I." 

Read the remainder solemnly but jrently. 

13 Purse "dreams" and "desertin- " ' ^— 

>o o herwise than othera iiere t.Khtv 
1-oredonc and sick and sadly mutterinir lav 

U'hiM ^'l''* "'°'''' ''■'^"''' '■"'•■c ^-"'fi' ^ 1 alone for all 
\\ Til """' ^ ^'^''^''' '" ^■•'^!". ""tl never can rSl •" ' 
And then, as weary of in vain renewing ' 

prospect did to th. end of his lifeV^ cloUded by gloom as Cowper's future 



CathC-e Church. The ^t^T^ "^■^''^ «"- 
the two g,eat „jos of hu„,a.. civil, .otr,/""" '°°'"'" 
K left stan.ling which ciitIp, t , , ° ""'"'' ""^'""tion 

t»es„.„kc„f slcn eC o„ 17''^'' '° "'" "™- ^^hcn 
Pards and tigers bound 1 , , \m ^^^''""■" ""'' "''^» <=''»'»'o- 

with the li„e of the Su,re,ac P^tk' iS'^'"" ^°'"""'-"'' 
m an unhi-oken series f,.„u, ,,,„ p , '"" '"'" ^'"' "-a™ ■'ack 

the nineteenth ce,, tu y to , ' p„ ''' t° """"'^' -^"l'°'«°" m 
ituooo^ope who crowned Pepin ,n the 

This, with his fomlnei fo.^'"*;''!'^'" i"^«lve,l. and uTe' '!,''' "."«'' ."'-'ters «ouia use 
monotonous but o ' the ausT;!?,'^''"''-,;^""'^ ''^vo rendered" h •':'„"'•"*' '" «t'-'Rtu"e 
nunation shed on his pa 4 Kv h , ^'■'" ^ncy of his rhctori, tho .'""P '"^"l^'nihly 
incidents which he brint;, ,7, *''■'''''*'■'''''!,'. and the .r,"°t ' ?• « ^P'twidor of the il,u- 
initators, but his stv'k 1,M "'" 'i"" '''^'^^'^''^ ohs " oi, m'""'-'', "^ '^ham.ters and 
instruu.ent. but tamb le of V ••'* '^°''' "^ ^lys ^S,;,,^ f' '''i^'*>- ha. ),ad ...a y 

, « The andent nd e Lo;'2 "'"""" °"'^ "^^ hinL^eir*'"-""^ ^^^"-^ - ^ ''terarj 

It vvas sacred to "all the l', ,1. " ,f'^-\''"d ^«"i's alone thouLrnVh "'° ?''" "i-law of 
/Tile term "an,phitheatn^ , ^^'■°'^"*''^"°f 'he E^nperor ,?, ''''r '^- ^""^e. 

re.L'n, and the " Flavian am h if L..'? ''^"'^'" ^^'^^^ (iestroved l.v fhl *° ""'^ °f stone, 
and in the \ erv centi-^ ^f k*^ '. *^'^'''" ^^as erected in k »f„ "T 1"^ -'■'^''' ^'c if Nco-a 

fc,-r. i.;:.^';. S.JS"^:;f,. >;L's,Ss'^His«" -•- -ss" 

» The Supreme Pontiff i« fu „ °'"*' "'"^'='" 'he 

' I 

li I 



eighth ; and far beyond the time of Pepin the august dynasty 
extends, t,ll ,t ,s lost in the twilight of fable.' Tl,: repullic of 
Vemee came next in antiquity But the republie of Venice' was 
mode™ when, compaveJ with the Papacy f and the rcpuUi.:: 
Vu, e s gone, and the Papacy„s. The Papacy remains, 
m decay, not a mere antique, but full of life and youthful 
-gour The Catholic Church, is still sending forth to tile 
a.thcst ends of the world, missionaries as zealous as those who 
»..ded in Kent with Augusti„,» and still confronting hostile 
kmgs with the same spirit with which she confronted Attila." 
The number of her children is greater than in any former age 
He,. acqu,s,t,ons in the Now World have more than compensated 
herforwhat she has lost in the Old. Her spiritual ascendancy 

assumed by the Christian Bishop of Home who Th.M ,f"*"'^""?/l l>y him they wero 
.Supreme he was rocf^gniS^s'tSCl of Shur'S''^'^ M»xi„.us- 

and prestvie JN'apoleon aflected. 
7 Cf. Hrillam's " Middle Ages," Chap, vii • 

to;'eZ^SS?a£srSrr\\?et,?^^^^^^^ ^-*ory, and, indee'd, 

re n^;.i?dSes S'ot.hfand^'e'n ?ts uSv^'r^n''"'"^' K^'^ -'"^h^* ^--ub 
.nentof the n.iddle agel The Ve letians bS^/^^ ""f *'*'^°"'^ the conm,en.-e. 

yoke of barbarians." VeftrrtDi^ervS^wL'SK Tmr'^^'r ""•^^' '''' 
date IS assumed to be the commencement of the vTnpHan r ^-^I;. {'J^"^ ^''^'^ '^ this 
claim an antiquity so ^-reat as that o the kinLdoTrofZr^P"''K-''u**''' '*"«■• «'""ot 
Clovis towards the close of the n" th centur^ ^ '""'^' *^"-''' ^*« ^"""ded by 

^claX^^^S^'Stlu!^ 'j^^e%SZty':::^^'r^^^^^^^ *^at from 

of "Roman CathoHo," a very common u,age ^''^^""^^ Catholic here in the sense 


the wfiX^lt^EmS' ^^^^^^^ 

the Roman prefect, and TheSor^c £ o^tho rih' ''^ ^>^^^^ 

threatened the destruction ofC ^he w^ ^rsS^lSl bv Pol i"'^'r".'" «"b««<l»entlj? 

and retire from Italy. persuaaecJ by Pope Leo I. to spare that city 

I', and, indeed, 

m»y not improbably tntrrr r "'"°''' " "-"""^ hence, 
"ow inhabits Eu Jo ™;: "T 7! "' '"^^ ■•'« *>»» -^oh 
'aialy not fewer thZ a ^Xd t^ fi ^ T ""™°" "' ^^^ 
^ difficult to ,,how that all the ler 'rr r"' ""' " "'" 
amount to a hundred and tJ . „ °'""''^""' sects united 

=i«.. which indicate tha tl" "^^ """i;'" "^ '-' -^ 

proaching. She siw th. '' '°"8 dominion is ap- 

andofaiUheLcie'raat :::rr'""' "' "" «°^-™-''-' 
world ;" and wefeeT^n «tobl,shments that now exist in the 

">e end of thJ: a, She™""" """' '''° '' ""' "^^"^^ '» - 
Saxonhadsetf^o nltit,ir.bT' :r' r^-" "efore the 
R"i..e," When Grecian tLf:",/'" *™-;"»'' P^-" "- 
wben idols were still w„«^- """nshed in Antioch,'. 

*o ".ar.,ti,l e. St : :S ■" *^ '™^'^ °' ^''"-" ^■'<' 
from New Zealand sinl 1 , h ^ "^°'" ''''''" some traveler 
*nd on a brok „ ath o 7"f °' ' ™-^' solitude, take his 
St Paul's." ^""''°" ^"'^«!« to sketch the ruina of 

before Chr/A « «» «» "»' "Uthoritto, to.-.rt/'i"™,,' ^'''f ,^'"1?'' .i.m.,, 
u A.D U9 ^ ™*b century 

citL^f^l' °' «^^^- °n the ba"lf ofThf r'f '' °' *'^ «'^'' "^''t^T. 
cities of the same namo fvTo *"^ Orontes. It waa tfc„ / 

o the.e were touZTbysllZZ'^' '? ""P°^''^"«"bei^Jr AnS*i "°^?^^^' ««^««" 
of his father, Antiochu^ »f 'eucus Nicator, kins,^ of SvrK nnH . ", I" P'sidia. Both 

domof Syria, and wag ,or s^nwf °"k*^ "^^''t^^'va^ Kni^li'nf .^^ ^'"' '" ^ouour 

tian era the centre of Greek nfln ^l^""'^ '^"J after the conm,^.„^ ^^"^ Hellenic kin^r- 

p. 97. ""«k influence, both literary and Dohti?iT-i''-' "*' "'e (^h. it 

H Th f ■ K jjoiiticai, in Asia. Cf Note 7 

forms so correct a iii(jL'.n,^n?!ff .u'^*"^P°'''«d > whicii shX J^ k -n^^'^her t'^o Empire 

1 ^Lm ... I I 



I 1 

'' !^ 


1 1 

> ^1 

rS Of 




Jt is not strange that, in the year 1799," even sagncioiis ob- 
^^ervers should liave thought that, at length, the hour of the 
Church of Rome was come. An infidel'^ power ascendant, the 
1 <>pe dying in, captivity,'^« the most illustrious prelates of France 
living in a foreign country on Protestant alms, the noblest edi- 
fices which the munificence of former ages had consecrated to 
l-ho worshi], of God turned into temples of Victory," cr into 
I'.nqueting-houses for political societies, or into Thcophilan- 
thropic chai)els-_such signs might well be supposed to indicate 
tlie approaching end of that long domination. 

But the end was not yet. Again doomed to death, the milk- 
wlute hmd^^ was stiU fated not to die. Even before the funeral 

-uble fastnesses of New Ho land n at ions w H?n '"''"'• '"' '"?"''=^ ■•"' '" ^^e impreg- 
'boughts, a-,d other .xOi.^loSalnoniMs^ Ia,..a,a,.es. Ulr 

the past as we have studied it-natio ,s -hA j? „ • •! '^''"' '^ *''" ™'''' '"^"^^ *" '^t»Jy 

.nee' that our ^....x.:c^^ j"!^:^ ^x:t.xr^^:ir' ^r' 

. aced our tnist in the stability of fame, shall d tv oiir im.,nf .nf .i V '''- themselves, 
names of Newton, of Racine, and of Tu^so as examnW r?f f h • '"'^l'''''' '1"^' '■'''='^" *he 
3 ,atch that innnortality of .lorj? ^u{^Z:^^X^^[^\:,:^:;^^rsSle.ot man to 

13 The.year in whieh Napoleon Bonaparte became First CV-iisuI 

th"5'asX TS^^^'^tlmS'^^^'SiS-'J^ atUUuie to«.rds Ch, anity. 
which had been .le.iee 1 out of exirtenl/in F,annf i-ln l^^^'f ^'"^ <'"'-i«tian reli^don 
,.opagan.lisii,ofV,.ltai.eandwfseroo'„ .^^iL'm^^^^^^^ Speaki,,,- ofShe 

bis essay: ''Irrelit,'ioM accidentally associatn wr^iviiwh-^^ -^^^ another part of 
overrelii,non associate.l with poUtia ^cf ^ a SbSes " feVhi''''"''^''' ^°''* "'"^ 
zeul and activity of the new reforniprs i., ^v„n . ^-ver.v thing gave way to the 

w.s found in tho.t Z ks * ' >^^T^^^ distinguished in letters 

The first generaUon of 1 e new sect paLd awav Tho" in '! '-''^ ^'^^^ir^K speed. 
ial.erited and exa-geiated by successors who^A i •m''''^''"''^'' "* Voltaire were 
:v.:,abaptist. bore to Luther "or the t'm. Mo?,ar hy mj 'to^'vm '" AM > ''"^^^^ ri"'^" *^« 
■u.on came Down went the old Church If l^S with all it^ pomfalid t;?altt./^"" 

staLSiL Swr^^n'e^^lj SVi^fiort^fit?! ^' ' *T.I?«-' ™'- '^ »-" ^^ 
His most noted work was thcTain g o ^^e P.,, h o T.rT*"'" i!^!^;'^^^^ 
quently attempted in vain by both k ^s and nonns On T^ '^''!v,'''''f'' ''^'^ ''een fre- 
tion a French army was wanto dy se n^to^n arH,; v i**"^ o»threak of the Uevolu- 
Pope was forced to purchase peLce^by a co.iVfti?, 'of sKnfn''^' Territory and the 

wcvs made prisoner'Lnd'ci;Si.r "e^xil?a\ vX;;^v;;;r'hTdierin IZ'^'''^ ^"""^ 

Of iriss;^;;? Z'^£r::^-rstA:^^i-^'-'^' ^y^^^ ^-otees 

various d.ssenting sects are rep.^onted by boSs, wolv^'bSS aud'-oilSr animals. *'' 


'■- forty years, ap, I Tbf ^J]^;""' »"" ">'' '"I- "f „, '„ 

new dynasties, new laws new f,>, ^^."7 "'" "' ""^ """f-'^ion, 
fte ancient re igion. The A^-IT ' ™^ •"'':'^' "'™' "»-«« 
Pyramid was built by ant.l „'', '7 " """ """ "'» «™' 
works of men, bore the w ' M '" " , f ' ™'' '•"""°' "' »" ">« 
the fate of «,; Papacy n b,:, f ' "r"' ^'"* »' '^s was 
inundation; but ite deep fonndl • ™. ,"""' ""'^'^ "'" g™"' 
«d, when the waters abated it "' ,"' ''°"'"'"^'' ""^'•"''"n I 
"' a worid which had patcd wl" " Th '"'"^T"'' "" ""■•' 
«"« Rone, and the empire of rl! f, "''"'''"^ "' """""'l" 
of Venice," and the '11^;"™!' '"'' "" «'""' C-n-ii 
^ ;!"'-''on», and the P^Hia" t^^'^s;?'"' '^ """^^ °' 

became WiClII ofTJ^r'^.J'^'-e'iitary i" ho person nfn ''*''' ■"'<' ^i^^"* as Stadt- 
Republican force in Hofa^tf ti ^'^^ """^'^ «f OraZ wa^''e\r.r'1 T*"' ^^''^'-'Ji^fs 

to the throne in on '"t? '"'^y ^« '^^^ *« date from th« „, .• 

revived in I87O 'J L i\ '*!"' *;<^ '*" ^nd after the batL?f^i°" "^ '^°"'-^'' of Kranconia 

of Oer,.,any prior to So'"'"^ ^'"'""'^ "^ Austria the Hui ""■"'" '" 1^"». and C 

Navarre, and his second' ''"'*' ^escendent Antofne \t'l' ^'^imarried to the son of 
title of Henry iv Th^'^n"'"(, succeeded Henry nf' 'f ? "^ ^y marriage Kine o 

31 The so-called " oaHin * ,. another 

! *■ i 



' ft • m 



dom of Italy, a Confederation of the Rhinc'^ Nor liud tho 
lato events attected only territorial limits and i)olitical institu- 
tions. Tho distribution of property, tho composition and 
spirit of society, had, throu<,'h grf>at p.irt of Catholic Europe, 
undergone a complete change. But the unchangeauk Church 
was still there/* 


ponded to the Enp:lish Parliament in nioney-KrantiriK: function. T.So first national 
assembly under this title was convened by l'hili]> IV in 1302. Tho Stt tea (General 
that assembled in 178!) resolved themselves into the " National Assembiv " anJ bus- 
pended the " I'arlianients." 

•ii! When the German Empire broke up in 1805-() some of its fiairmcnts becanvj with 

the sanction of Najioleon Honapartc (|uasiindependuiit states, aiid"^ foi iied themselves 

under his protection into tho '(:onfe<ieration of tho Hliino." Tliis leatrun was dissolved 

in 1813 after the battle of Loipziy; wliirli broke 15onui)artc's power, iTnd since 1870 the 

^constituent members have been absorbed into tho now (Jernian f;;mi)iro. 

33 For a different estimate of the condition and i)rosi)octH of this .threat historical 
church see the closing' para},'raph of Chaptoi VII of Hallani's " History of the Middle 
. Ages," written about a quarter of a century before Maeaulay's Kssay. 


Robert Burns, the peasant poet of Scotland, waa born near Ayr in 
1759. From both father and mother he inherited those intellectual 
charactt-istics which mark him as an autlior, "out he also resembled his 
fatiier in being the possessor of an irritable and Hnelanclioly tempera- 
ment, to which many of his misfortunes may not unfairly be traced. 
He received in early life the rudiments of an English education, but hia 
opportunities in this direction were very limited, and they were not suf- 
ficiently sii^pplemented by access to books. After tiie death of his 
father in 1784, Robert Burns and hia younger brother, Gill)ert, rented 
the farm of Mossgiel, wiiich has become famous as tlie place where a 
number of his mostremarkable poems were produced, inchiding the "Ho'y 
Fair," the "Address to the De'il," the '-Jolly Beggars," the "Cotters 
Saturday Night," the " Address to a Mouse," "Death and Di'. Ho n- 
book," and the satires on some of the local clergy. Durin<' his resMenc ■ 
at Mossgiel he became acquainted with Jean Armour who subsequently 
became his wife, and also with Mary Campbell to whom he plighted his 
troth and addressed two of his most pathetic lyrics. His first publica- 

1 111 November 178,'i Robert Burns was holdinj,' theploui,'h, and a farm-servant named 
John Blaiie was drivinjr tho team for him. The plough bavin;; turned up the nest of a 
field-mouse, Blanc ran after t!ie animal to kill it. He was checked by Burns asklnjf him 
what harm the mouse ha 1 done him, and he then desisted from his intention Tlie 
poet spoke little for tho rest of tho afternoon, and duriiii.' the ni','ht he waked" Blano 
read over to him the above poem, and asked him w luit he thought of the moiLse then' 
Several of Burns poems were composed wliile he was following the plough, the most 
remarkable, after the lines "To a Mouse," beinu' those addressed in the following Apri' 
to " A Mountain Daisy," which had been turned down by the same implement 


^Vi' i.iclicTin;,' l)nittlo !« 
I '"*! '■« i^i'l. to ,.,„' „„■ „|„.,„ „„„, 
^^'^' I'Hird'riji.^. pattle \^ 

1 ".'^'i'? expression is niisleadh^ T" '^ ~ — 

P'^i'^es ; in ).is hmher fli. ftr.? '^' .*-:.'f ""^^"t Prevails most in 1 ' '"•"' -""'f*''! the ex 
co.n,;lete voea..,riur ■ ". ' ;•, ^^ '!;/ T"« ^ '-^io"''!." wr!: ;^ / f .ur'^V-'V'/'' Pathetic 

nen" are common, hnt inM™ er, p .".^'"■'•'' ^^"*'"*«h the fS'- .?'"' '""J"'"*' "hich 



a. I'm truly sorry man's dominion 
lias broken nature's social union, 
An' justilies that ill opinion, 

Which makes theo startle" 
At mo, thy poor earth-horn comj)anion, 
An' fellow-mortal ! '" 

a. I doubt na, whyles," l)ut thou may thieve ; 
What then ? i>oor beastie, thou maun" live ! 
A daimen icKiir in a thravo'^ 
'S a sma' reipiest ; 

„, .. f ^r*,' ,'•' 1"^''' «'^o<l almost oxoluHiN cl.v as a tran-<iti^•o verb. It is a fro..UL-ntativo 
of " HUrt " whid, ,s usually re;,avnlo.] as allied to the Dutch xtnrtm, to fa I rplu.Z 
Skeat inclines, howover, to derive it from the old Kn>fiish " start," a tai NvhiH""?'ili 
ex.sts .1 the Er.jf ish provin, iulisin " plouj^h-sfurt, ' pIoUKh-tail. (h, this lew the 
ori-mal n.ean.t.K of the yerl) "start" would l.o to show the tail. This etvn.iotfv would 
•leeoid we;i with the usd of the word in the text. * '""lojfy would 

. J,.r"f '" ""'^"ected display of sympathy and admission of kinship with the mouse is in 

perfect aconi with the .j-irit of much of Burns' i.oetry, an.i to 1 in. helones the cre<lit 

of hav.n^r, as a pott first piven it tfenuine expression. In this respect ami also i„ a 

sympathy with inanm.alenature, he was the prc.le.essor of \V^,rd8woV^I^ an he was j is? 

as unhackncye.lvvhile his keen sense of humor, in which Word.sworth vvas sininilarly 

iohcent, prevented hnn from making his own utterances ridiculous. Commre with 

Th?. A"n \^ '•'«,"'"^"'° 'V« •'".\i".f ^''"-'l^of PoorMailie- and " Kiel' v-fpon her 

TI.e A lid rarmer'sNew Year Salutation to his Auld .Mare," the "Twa Do™," and 

of all : " • ^'^'^^""^■'"ding lines of the last named poem give the key-note 

But deep this truth impressed mv mind— 

Throu;,'h all his work-i abroad,' 
The heart benevolent and kind 
The most resembles (!od. 
Compare also Wordsworth's "Pet Lamb,' "The Last of the Flock." "The Red- 
whS'are • ' ''*'""^' °""' """'''' "'^'"■'' " "'^rt-Leap Well," the concluding lines ol 
One lesson, shepherd, let us two divide, 

Taufjrht both by wliat she (Nature) shows, and what conceals • 
Never to blend our jilcasure or our pride 
With sorrow of tlie meanest thinj,' that feels. 

11 Sec Note 2!), p. 80. This ^ronitivo for n occurs seldom in modern Eniflish but is 
atill a very common Sottish provincialism. '^"h^mu uuu la 

i2"" This word is supposed to be of Gothic ori-in. It U vari mslv spelt 
"mon," "mone,' "mun." It is found in old. but not often in nuKLrn EnXh 
Tennyson in his " Northern Farmer," which is in one of the Kn^flish pro i„c Ll liS: 
K u'^io^.'l.V"?" ""^''^'•^'""Ji^ "J " thoun.ust understand." Wvdif tlms translates 
^If. \l" o'ol"^" '°"^' *^''"^ "^ **'*'' ^'*" ^^"^ ^P""*"^ ^"^'i hem tt;ei maun not faste. ' See 

.. th.„-f" 'wT'"'"^' m""' 'a .f?u" '" 'V'*''^''' quantity." The word " thrave "-spelt also 
♦' thraif ' " threave, ' and " thrieve,"-means literally two " stooks " of twelve sheaves 
each. - It IS of Scandinavian onjrin. 

Pf'Vh.^n;'! f""""'/'"*" ?Pelt "echer,"is from the Anglo-Saxon «.,vr, an ear of corn. 
Cf. the German ahrc, with the same meaning. 

" Daimen," rare, not worth noticing, seems to mean literally uncounted, from the 
Anglo-Saxon deman, to reckon. ' 


I'il get a bleHsin' wi' the lave,'* 
All' nover iniss't 1 


a fn-iiiiuiitativo 
) full or pluiijfe. 
tail, winch still 
thi8 view the 
yinolojfy would 

the mouse Ih in 
oiijrs the credit 
an<l also in his 
md he was just 
was sinjfularly 
ComiKiio with 
3js'y" upon her, 
rt'a DoKH," aiifi 
the key-note 

," "The Red- 
ndinj- lines ol 

Enjflish but ia 

ariiusly spelt 
[Lrn Knglish. 
)ro\irR'>al dia- 
hus translates 
lot faste.' See 

B "—spelt also 
.velve sheaves 

I ear of corn. 

ted, from the 

<' Thy weo bit hotisie, toe, in ruin ! 

Its silly wa'stli,Mvin'.SH,'! 
An nuething, n.nv, to biy'^ u now ane 

0' fog<,'a^ri.i8 greon ! 
An bleak Deoeniber's winds ensuin' 
Baith snell'7 an' keen I 

'• f r" ''^' '^^" ^^''^'^-^ ^'"'l '^'"'e an' waste. 
An weary winter ooniin' fast, 

An' cozie hero, boneutli the blast, 
Thou thought to dwoll, 

J-iil, crash ! the cruel coulter past 
Out thro' tliy cell. 

"• ^^^"^ ^^«*^ ^i* heap o' leaves an' stibble 
Has cost thee niony a weary nibble I ' 
Now thou's'« turnVl out for a' thy ti^uble. 
But house or hal(l,"J 

or ScandinaVia,?^;ri;i;;^'^ "'^^'^'^ '" *'^- -"- i" old English, but rarely. It seems to ho 

;;;;Sharp."_ Probably of Scandinavian origin 

the verb^f^o" «,e second? ""^ "^^ throu^^hout the poem, of the third person singular of 
19 " Without houao or retrpif " mi. ■■ 

" but^'a ",'«,?I--"t'«'> '""tto f ''"^'STT^'^^ i7/^j:*; \% i- now archaic"^ °EnA"h 

I • J 





To thole'" the wiiitor'.s sleety drihlilo, • 
An' cmnrciich cuuM !" 
r. But, Moiisic, thnu art no thy laiio," 

In proving foresight imiy he viiin ; 

The best laid sohenies o' mice an' men 
Cvang aft a-glcy/' 

An' lea'o us houglit })iit grief an' i)ain, 
For promiH'il joy. 

8. 8till thou art l), conipai'd wi' nie I" 
The present only toucheth thee : 
But, ochi I backward cast my e'e, 

On prospects drear ! 
An' forward, tho' I canna see, 
I guess an' fear.''^" 

From thj Arife'lo-Saxon ^/toitaTiuth the same ineaiiinir 

the same iiiLatiinj,', o""i<iy a corruption of tho (Jaehc crauntarach with 

logically to tho origirml r,;. t irn ^ ; hh 1^^ ,?b . Th'^w^' """ '^'-''^^^^ ''t-V'"o- 

the construction of tho a.ljective witli a ,,oMip«V^^^^^^^ " '''°'" "'*'='' ^ere. that is 

o.vursalso in ol.i Kn^^lish S ,no^ L tKm "' w'^ '•'. r^^'^^'^y Saxon, an.l 
lane" would now be used, as in : '"'" ''*"" "* '""'"^ ^horo "his 

lie <|uait, aside the Are him lane, 

*♦,'>■» l^iarmless as tho soulvin wean. 



dirtfculties and"iIJ;omaii;,s V;;,d;^urn;:;:;?v ^.^{fVwi'or r' explanaUoTr^rina?;? 
pended on a bmnch of learning toriongnile.tol ''''*''"' '' "°^' *"''"*'' '^'^■ 

.<Si::tr^^'^^'^^'^a ^v^^'~:s,:'z:r'''': ''^r ^'yo."-n.eans to 

u.ed by Uitson, Imt he probably borrowed i ro n t e ScoUU h" uY /""r 'ff'^*-"'' " *** 
8uppf)8ed to be Scandinavian "" htottisli dlaloc^t. The origin is 

34 1 

ffeni , 

sj inis form of stanza was first macic ii>i.. rvf k„ t>„\ l i-. •-u.u.^. 

A MAJV'S A MAX Fo/i a' 

llowinj,' trifles 



hijtth'for rkadino. 

Boariii to read with trreat tpu,\„,„ 
'^'^•"•^•^'''""- • "'^^"'' *" *'»'" ^♦'"" with ^cntlo and soothh.K 

an. Ue,K,ortro„.o.t., ...ivo." K . .htsj'' Lvl" "'"f *" "'--»'"" «"<• ■■>lve.-' 
o r«,ue.t.- U.H .. „,,„ „„^^ ... , -^ « a„,l .«..,„■.. „,., ^.^j^^ .,,„^.^^^,; 

V. 5. line 2 : road •• ^..^y .ll:^^^;:;:^ 'iSir" *""'"""^' '^'' « "'"^'"^ »-<•'««•«. 
Kivin^ "crash • with trcnor a,. 1 ,oZl """' """ '''' ''''«* »"« ""«« """ilarlr 

Vorse fl, lino l' : Oivocxpies Ion t •' 
ncKin lino a an with a si^i, ot^yu^^Zu^^^!^^!!!;!:!!: " ""' ''''"'*^ '""""t'"" »« " "ibble." 

^«rse , : A.s.sumo a .ul:,„r tone in tliis verso 

V orne 8 : The poon. ccuscm t , h. ol.Jc v ,!; ,. 
l-ot .IvoH expression to hi, own norr nv „ 1 ' '" """" "^"'"^■'' '" ^'^'^ '**'»"'«'• The 

Hea.1 the next t«o linei with tremor un.l i,. ,. ' ""° '^ • «'"l'l«asi«o "pros.nt " 

the^lino^___ "°' '*'"' '" ''"°l«"- P't^h, and intensify the on 

'-rinspirin.nuMtiro'rn;'''''^,;:\'i:r^ '''■Ji^'' '''•' Sa -a^f^uS;LS'■al;'r;^''>■ 
a"d rural pleasures of n.V aMv-'^ -i ''"' ""-' •*'"«• 'h" loves the Iov/h '' ' "".'' """'''" 
..ote,. as slJe inspired"' '"^ "*"* " ^°"- '" '" ■• "ati ve ton^u^ : '," tlr,! 'n.^;. "^^l^, .X'^ 


)R \' THAT.' 

'• ^"^ ^}'^n\ inr honest poverty, 

J^|^|';^j^sjii.s Load, an' a'^ tliat? 




The coward slave we jmss him hy, 

We dare be poor for a' that !' 
For a' that, an' a' that, 

' Our toil's obscure and a' that. 
The rank is but the guinea's stamp, 
The man's tlie gowd' for a' that. 

2. What tho' on liamely'' fare we dine, 

Wear hodden gray," an' a' that ; 
Gi'e fools their silks, and knaves their wine, 

A man's a man for a' that ! 
For a' tiiat, an' a' that. 

Their tinsel sliow an' a' that ; 
Tho honest man, though e'er sae poor, 

Is king o' men for a' that. 7 

leads to the frequent elision of the final consonants Tlie samp h>n.i«,w.,. i . 

■n jho ,.ro„„„cl.lio„ ,>, „,„,„„.,„, ,„„„„. ,p..u',„, J^JS" SSuc^r^ | 

nothistu e; 't 9 not the kiii'>-'s sKmn ^.n i,,ni^,> Vi, , , - :. * wo:^'h the man, 

thin SSfc,H tz "'isr:;:r;si''^„j4"S.,:v2"'.ts'!.'- ™ <»™' 

more ancient mean ni,' of lustic clown On thi« vinw fh« „, i *• /'o.vHcn iti its 

7 Cf. the "Cotter's Satui-day Nij,'ht :" 

Princes and lords arc but the breath of kinM 

i„ „ 1 ** * i.r ^^ ''°"?''* '"''" '^ <''i'^ noblest work of God " 
Jn a letter to Mr. Janjcs Hamilton writtpn in i7«o iioc».rc.i>A 

ful en.,rjfencie8 that I have experien'ced in ^^1 ^"4 airthi's dowHf f'T '''f '*?^^ 
of comfort: "rAa* he who has lived theUfeof anl^l,^M malXXf ^,'1 ,^Z''^'f'''^ 

•seiy," "soa " atid "sa" of Northern English dialects 
Farmer," has both "sa" and "saw." ' """«i^t». 

„ ;■ V. Compare the 

Tennyson, m his "Northern 


is obsorvab'e 
duction, pp. 4 

irns' attitude. 
t stratum (,f 
1 felt himself 
crat amongst 
i vi II jf offence. 
Ilowing: from 
\ih the man, 
avicr. Your 
p he bears." 
more correct 

Iden " ii uri- 
.vden " in its 
n to uiidycd 
e of dress of 
it is et.viiio- 
the heath." 
ication have 
oyden " and 
>t signifying 

ue distress- 
means lived 
IS, and even 
'ompare the 
" Northern 

^^ ^^^'S A MAN IDR A> THAT. 

». Ye see yon birkie, ca\l a lord/ 

A\ ha struts au' stares, and a' that: 
Tho hundreds worship at his word, 

■Pov a' that, an' a' that, 

His riband, star, an' a' that, 
liie man o' indepemhMit mind, 
il" looks an' Jauglis at a' tlmt.^° 

'• ^ f "'"' ^'"'^ >»'^'^' H Ixdtod knight, 
• A marquis, ,hike, an' a' tliat ; 
But an honest n^an's aboon" his might, 

Gude faitJi he manna fa'" that 
l^or a' that, an' a' that, 
TlH'ir dignities an' a' tJiat, 


.1 ■ , . "' lOKi" in tl)i\ lino • — '"-a'^rus tne won a-j S,.n.,.i!. •' ' "''"'.V 'n 

is contracted homtheZ'rlT^i^^^^^^^ l' ""'^^^^ ^^ t«'^ 

others now trace it to „ ^^ ^'^'leraliy been„ea a^ f » i^k " '** '''«/> a oaf. The 
keeper," oriCZToZhV^:T''''-'''^^^^^^^ «'^^=^t ^'^1 

of 'Mady"_Scottish - iS ' I?"',' V^'' ''"'-irer to the onVin^ ' W«/"««rrf. '-loaf- 
''««//''<-, a kneader of dou-h ' tpTu '-'^-^''^'^'O'' /''rn'tdure Zltl i/ >'• ^^'^ etymology 
provider. "°""h. If th.s v.ew be correct.'' ^]kdy-"„S; ^^ "'""^''^ 

» Spelt also •■ tufc " n i« „ „ l^fead-makcr, or 

formed astlmua t-cane MfnH ""^^ f'""'"'' "•' thm a"t '^ ' '^" '"'^ ti"sel glitter 
, ""Cannot aj,, •• a. L^L , *•"'"'"' ■■"l'""i°l "Ivi"" "'""'''^ '»""■ 

J. 4 


The pith o' sense, an' pride o' worth, 
Are higher rank tlian a' that." 

s. Then let us pray tliat come it may, 

As come it will for a' that, ^ ' 

That sense an' worth, o'er a' the earth, 

May l)eur tlie gree," an' a' that 
For a' thaty an' a' that. 

It's coming yet, for a' that, 
That man to man, tlio warkl o'er, 
Shall brithers he for a' tliat.'" 

Robert Bums. 


„,^^"^.J- "^^*^^''°°"^^*^o "^shamed of his poverty hanirs his head &f" Th- v. • 
the spirit of the question, emphasise " han^s h s he J" with an evnr. . 7 "'"^ 

Excise Commissioners in 179; he Xr^v'^ff.iL. .''*■""'''*, l'^ '"^'^ ''^'-'eivod fr< m the 
Erskine, who ha<l symmthi;ed\vi-t]rhS >»"",«« of IL^fo 1 f- * ', '''"• ''«»'•' ' '^ 
was a poor man from ^irth, and an exc senaV ht- ,, .ii f' ""^V"^' '"^''fe'i'aiT" ^ 'ms 
sterling of his honest worth no - overtv c™? iba ^ ^a^^^^^^^^ "^'^f ' *ho 

oppre.^,on might bend, but could not sul ue •> Comn^^^^^^ I - '"•'nd 

his " Man was made to mourn " : '"'""""^- "-o'l^Pare with this the following from 

If I'm designed yon lordling's 8la\ e— 

By Nature's law designed- 
Why was an independent wish 
E'er planted in my mind V 

If not, why am I subject to 

His cruelty and scorn "> 
O why has man the will and power 

To make his follow mourn ' 

^^1. .-MuiiLcu HI iny minu I T.^ ,.,„i i • . ,. ' "■'"' power 

""Obtain the ascendencv," or "oarrv off fh„ ,^- '^'"'.f"''J,''""'^ "'o'"-" ? 
spelt "gre,»"grec,"and ''grie," in Sish a, f it i :'''•'• ,•?^r''"^ '« variously 
... ascent, In old English it occuVsi^n the lu affirms"' Wci''^' ''''' "^ '^«*f>•eI 

"Gree" is used in " Piers Plou-'hman " in tbo<,on^n% "■ '""* " grec-e," step-', 

uses it with the same force, in C.T, 273r In *h rsens'o "'^n"; ''''"'1^' '^'"' ^^^''^^^ 
mean to carry rff the prize. "*'"'"' ^^ "^^ar the gree" would 

Writing tr. Miss Chalmers in 17S8 Rurns sav<i • '<wv,o„ » n 
nature fear the same God. have he same iSoler^e o? w^V'J^''''''^'^'^ "' *he same 
8oul, the sa-ne detestation at evciyihin ' d shonc4 a"'' ^^ ' '"^ """° ""'''eness of 
unworthy ; if they are not in the d( emlo u^ "f ahso In J^ '''""^ ?™.? ^^ everything 
mon sense are they not cpials ? An,! i the bias the In 1^^^^^^^^^^^ ".'>''*' '"""« °' ''"'» 
run the same way, why u av they not be frufn< s^» U,^.^^ ''*"'?■ ^'T *'' ^^^'' «""»«. 
sistently laid down conscious hone"tv ami wo b L ih ' ^"^ "".^''''^^ ^'"** R'"-ns p^rl 
feeling of true independence. ''Z^!. e'tle'to ry^nn gtLThS'^S •'''^*"°" '°' *^« 
May prudence, fortitude; a>Kl truth 
Erect your brow uijdaunting ! 
15 This concluding sentiment which ia «T>vfVi<. «« »i • 
Burns, as it has be.^'n with ma"iy^oK '^oet7^ht ttg'^'s^f oT^uVfa^S^ ''" "'*' 

^ '^'M-S A MA.V ir>R A- THAT. \^ 

Verse 4: Gire fallintr inflrrfin. f . , /"*'"'<'"«'^e emphasis. 

conte,„pt for such power; lf„e 6: rend r' '<dt„it 7" vT"" '""""'^'■^ ^'""•'^««'^« «' 
that." "•fc^'-r >n lu.e 8. and gue risin. inflection to 

;-.e"and ..worth" .i^^'SZ^ZZ;^^ ^-l""- - ' ^vi.I." Line 3 : S. 
6 : here, as if inspired by prophetic Are Z "" «"'Pha.ise " jcree." Line 


di^S|%^wy?';/;: sLTr b^^y^^-7* ^^^^-nt of AngUcaa 
m 1613. Having reccive.l Id. .., ! ^']'"'^"'l|f«. ^vhere he was l)orn 
school of his, native tow ^.1" ,«= «'"«ntary trainincr as the g.Sn mat 

age of thirteen, an 1 after tekWh?^''' '"t"''^^^ *''« University a X 
of Archbishop Lau 1 elecS to « /iff ''.'^' ''■'''' ^'-'^^^h thefnfl ence 
farly period If his career f H^s^^n ^ t'^ '" '''l''''^'- *^^^" ^^ <^^' 
1637 he M^as ina.le Rector nf TTr.,.- ^ ^ preacher in London In 

one of the chaplains of'cLre?f^""!r?L'" Rutlandshire, and hecan'e 
he accompanied th^ Royalist forc;s but vJ^^fJ"^ ^'''^ "^ ^^'"^ ^'^^J ^^^'^'- 

• These DasHairna ni-o f» — ,i_- 7" : " ° 

■ ■- , inllmate fS ^ ''^^':-|^«"- ^'^ ^"Urtec, 

-r = — i-t 

a r?f 



eratiin '« T L T h. i f p ^T^^^-^^ T'"« ^"« ^'^'"^ on religious tol- 
SS Bishrfn nf n ^ Prophesying. "« After th(. Restoration he was 

ivom^T^ uL^L^f?:^]'- ^"' /r«"r'' *" ^^''^h was acMed the see of 
iJ omore He devoted himsell to the onerous duties of his bishooric with 

TZ'tX:\tmfr '""!?"•! *•^^^"«^^«« whicTcarrieS'iim off 

It is a niiglity change that is i:ia<le hy the deatli of overy 
person, and it is visible fo us wlio are alive. Kcckon Imt from 
the sprightfulness* of youth and the fair cheeks and fnll eyes of 
childhood, from the vigorousness and strong flexure of the' 
jonits of five-un<l-twenty, to the hollowness an<l dead paleness » 
to the loathsomeness and horror of a three days' burial, and w'e 
shall perceive the distance to be very great and very strange. 
But so have I seen a rose newly springing from th~ clefts of Its 
hood, and at first it wa s fair as tlie morning, and full witli the 

some of the.ncan,etobe"crive^™^^^ V^" «" '""fc' ti" 

better had peiislieti in tlie Adriatic thin l» Wh.Vf <^ ' .°' *hat the tyrant of Sicily 
schoohnaster. ■• It i. evide. tly the toS ur^^^^^^ r?h "*'\i''''^?'^'v^"f^ ^^^'^ turn 

to be credited with this sentiment. P'^'^*'''^'^' "^t^er than the barber's son, who m 

3 Toleration was not- the characteristic of any one reli<'ious spr^t in Pn„io„^ a ■ 
the period of convulsions between the accessior of H n uvnf a k"^^^^^ ^^^^ng 

the instance of Wlliani III Thn fAiiM,.-,-,,., . i! '."'^'^'^'O" "y Jwin Locke at 

Taylor's view, and sho^ hoW far L wis in th^^^.^S^^^^ f vf?*"* ^'^^^ "^ •^^''•'^'»>' 

"Any zeal is proper for reli-ion but the L'a^ of H . . '^,^'^'^'iof ^is own generation : 

6 «' Paleness of death." What is the figure of speech ? 


too youthful .„ I unXr ' . '"" °""'""^' ""'' *™""""1 "» 
"ao ; it I.0W.3J tl,o 1„.„I . , , *y°'l"»'ns „f H .sickly 

*e 11;::: :; .:i:'"':'; " --7 """■ ■-" -"■■^- --•- 
-o"f, «.u. o„. r: 1 '1 :c:,':,''r""-'^ ""' ™'" '"^- 

q-ickly knows ns not ■ „„,l thTT "'" ■■""l"""'fc"'o» 

horror, or ,1„, ,„eet ';', '■,:';"'«'■ "'^"^'^ -"' «" "'-h 
that they who sU hou-. „1 1 , /"'" "'"■ "^"^ Ji»-'.«i"««, 
table or ambitious serv o": e " ' "','"" "'' ""'" '""' "''-'- 

---™ the ho.,y !,:■:- :-ti;^.--.;n 

cloud reflected upon our f! / T"' ""'^ "'^^vhoJe.souio 

-ve.a„a„u\:r,":ir;r::rv''^ :;■■''' ^^^^ 

an ill recompense for all their .,",, ."'• '"' " " '"" 
shall be left will b„ this tin ^r • ^' *'"' *""" "" 'hat 

a rich man.'" And v 1 V,™"""^""" »''"" «''.V. He ,Iic,I 

"Bes Of ■' Shan "'rr^^v"ilT"*J^i"Iir'* ?^«""-- "^ ^ he word "that " t. 
Mason's Gra.nmar. 403."'"' '*"'* '*>« ^""ous succession of TuSt.S clausr"^"! 

I / 

! ' 




grave, but sweJl the sa.l accounts of doomsday." And 
h.. kdls tho L.rd's people with unjust or ambitious wars, 
for an unrewanli.i^. interest, shall have this character: that he 
threw away alLtlie days of his life, that one year n^glit bo 
reckonejl with liis nam,, an.l computed by his reign and con- 
sulship. An.l many men, by great labours and affronts, many 
indignities ami criuK-s, la],our only for a pompous epitaph ami 
a Joud title upon their marble; whilst those into whose posses- 
sion the heirs or kindred are entered are forgotten, and lie unre- 
gar<led as their ashes, and witliout concernment or relation, as 
the turf upon the fac(^ of their grfive.'' 

A man may read a serm.m, the best and most i,assionate that 
ever man preached, if he shall but enter into the sei.ulchres of 
kings. In the same Kscurial'^ where tlu, Spanish princes live in 
gn^itness and power, ami decree war or peace, they have wisely 
placed a cenn-tery where th<m- aslms and their glorr shall sleep 
tdl time shall b„ no more : and where our kings have Ix-en 

modern, heathen and ('hrLtian Ho mav h ivo h!.o?. „ ■ i "^^."^'"'•e. a>i«ent and 

of Chaucer, Spenser, and tho Elizab hi n dranS ts'^b^ ^^l*!"^ 

afford no ev denco of tho fiif Th„ «.,i,/ 1- i- ■ ' , 5"® ""''• '''■' writuiM 
Dyinjr" is Weaver's " -,./.- ?^"i-''«'VV:"'-k r^fer'-ed to in his "Holy 
if has been > .own ov a t . I cv ,, ^t ho ) Jn '" «*• 1 '"ore p.-pular '• Holy Living," 
Latin heathen writeis ; 5 iom Jew I'h • iVfro, C^^^^^ (^reeU- a,.d 84 from 

Fathers; one from modern Latin onc^Vom Fro l-h "91 f '^rtS •''""'" ^'•'*"" Christiau 
from KuaMnh. This is not bccan'^e th^F .J^if 1 ^i ' • ^''"'" !*'■''";"-»"«» "ot even one 
not contain am,,le , a a h t bemutV^e 's^'^^^ '"'^f"'"''' ^''" t''"° ^^ 

scholars of hi. dky a«ain«t hon/' lit' ,^n ,,ro!uct£ s "'" '°'"'"°" ^'"''i^'^^^^ ot the 

ami' Sl-if ' ""** '"''' '' P- '''' ^"*^ «*--- 1-^. P- 180. Cf. also Eeclesiastes ii., 4-11 

Ne;TS:'S;^^(r^i^r[:r5^S'^lt';^Jr;rri^i^^ '-'-•<' '" 

century before tlii.s allusion was mile to t It LL-^ ! i''?."-"' S|«l"ahouta 
St. Quentin. which was fought or^Koth of A„isri^- *^:* ^"'!'l»,t.h« ^"lo of 
and received the ai.l «f St, Lawrcle. vv h se ^Kv it w-;* a„a''?h"f .^''''^' besought 
was erected in fulfilment of thokiii.^N vow ItUinYhnV^: ' i *'^'^* "'*^ monastery 
ment of St. Lawrence's martvrd n bpi),',, t V , ^°^"' "* * ffruliron-the instru- 
ran.,esof buildings to re St t^b'-'w ^/'*u ''>' ^'«"' «'«««ed by 

by the royal residence. The cleer^'^o^ pos.t-on o the handle is occupied 

called the "Pantheon 'Mn whiVh nnW t i^ . Ju ^^"J"^^ " the royal mausoleum. 
Esourial was sacked bv tl^^^ eSch i^nN ^1 and uV v^ fTI "Vi'"^'^ ^'^ '^"'•'^^- ^he 
Madrid, On its restoration to the Es " r alft; was t^m.l hat J Y'^ J'^' '"'"^ *« 
were missing. In 1872 the place was partially destZodbv nSin'^'"n"l!;'.'"''^"P*^ 
is expended anmially by the Spanish Govon m?.n7 o?. *. "> hghtning. Public money 
from goinjf to ruin. ' ^ " opambn Go^elnmenfc on the buildings to prevent thcin 

astes ii., 4-11 



^j™:;": z:7i ,;r:r ;.nr^ '""" -»'^ - 

with ro.vaJ seed, tl» co„v „f ,1 ^^"'"' '" "" "«°'" «»«„ 

-k«l, f.'o,„ eeile.F r„„M ,c,T f"!"' °'""'«" ''"■" ■-''' '" 
<■■' 'lie like me,,, ,!,',. """'"' f'"'" "^''''S like go,!., 
■■'«"« "'0 '-.Lt, ; ,:"7 '" "'"" "'» «--s of lust to 
;l-'-. to .„„ ,.,„1 I '„ ,'^;,7';!' "'"■•"* of covetous 
'"<'f"U.tific,„U„,l i,„,„i " , "': '■'•""^"'''li-H c„l,„„^ of ^ 
tl- l-ceful, t,,: for ;t :d «:" ^: ^'"■'■"" "'^ ^'-'*'-- ">"1 
«.^ ■lo..,.isc,l pr,-„ee„, rZ^ TT'^I "'" ''^■'"^■^"l '""' 
''yn.liol of ,„o,.t,.lit., aud tell ji „ ' "'"' P"^ '•"'"' 'h«ir 
ourashe. shall be ;„a, to\ „::^ ':; ""■'■' "■^' "■'-' ™ die, 
our pai„s fo,. our c,.i,„e, shall b°e' let '• ''°°"""" '"'''"■•' ""'' 
To „iy aijproheiisi,,,,, it ;, . „„ ,' 

Atheuffius-eoneerai,,,, Xiuu,. t,;y'"Vr'''' "''"'='' '^ '^'ft ''y 
"f« a,„I death is sua^,, ' , , ttf ^^"""'"""•"■^'" -'"- 
^Kian had a„ oeeau of ,„ ^j''" ? "°'!'V " •^■■■"- «» As- 

part of the buildin-r ki,nu?,'„ *■ '^"•"onation chairs tu^n T " - 

biiried in the Chapo\ eroot.i ,^ !\ '""'"irchs froni h?,,pv vm''!''*'''' '-.ErtHanl III 

transition i,,,eS;f„1"''*he greater iTmise ,. .T^}""^'- f" 'he Bible of ?fi^,'' 
. ally heaven? ITlZ'Sif^Te^ ^^'^"an S ha "te u'S '':?-*'^-"a'LS 
correct modern speMing'"^ a canopy, and a ceilinl. Vkea^ ^f'"' '.V''*"'"^ ori, * 
" In Westminster Abbey. ^ ""'•"«-' " '-^^ * 

20 Athenaous was a Grcci.- ,„ „ . '" *-''• "ote 11. 

at Ron,e. i„ the Intter n rt o T'""^'' 7^0 lived, first at AI.v , • 

orny trajrinentaof which h.A;^ . ^^'P'losophista- " .{;'''?"' tn« third centurv 

i > 






«a«d i« tl,„ Caspian «oa ; ho never saw the rtars, and perhan, 

to the lawn: h„ never offorca sacrilice, nor worshipp,.,i th^ 
d .ty. nor a,h,n„is,.,.ro.l jnstic,, n„r «pak„ t„ the p,.„ „ . 
numbero,! ti„.,„ ; h„t ,, wa, „.„,t v„Iia„t to oat a„ 1 ,1 i„k I 

,^I, ' ■; ; '"■'',"''' '- -P"l'l- 1 "."V hoar ,vho«, 

" ' "" """■ "'" """'"'"' '■'" -'"v. I have uothh,.- but 
^vhat J ,h,I ,.,,t, ,„„1 wl„.t I .so,v„,l t„ ,„,„.,( i„ ,„ » "'" 

r-tion : the w.-ahh with whioh I .-1 o»[e jr , , ^ ^^^ 
enoHMos n.ootn,g t.,.„thor .hall hear ,„,,,, ,„ «„ ,„,„, ,, ;,™^ 
arry a ra,v ,«t. I ,.„, go„o to hell : an.l when I went i 1 , r 
I ne,ther earr,e,l gol.l, nor hor,,e. nor silver ehariot h- 1' 

wore a Tiitre, am *ow a little heap of .h,«t. "" 

— Taylor. 

ac dieted to astr lof^^Muwl rtiviMu „n^"i'ho Senl^S'r^: ' '" V"^ I'riestly caste. «L o 'i 
adopted tlio term, uio; niiK^ it to s f fi.?h. ?'''-' ^*'^" ^icce.. cd the Turanian 

Semitic te, „, the OreekJ^olln.lned "hci '" «Z"fr wh' .irr";""'''"""' -"''r'nZ 
The precise doctrini's < -i tiio tai I y Ala^ i C in w.i, ,? • "" 'V" V '''^'■" '"«i"' ai"» ma-iic 
was reformed hy Zor- aster wh. i s s/„n • ' '" «■''•'''•* "'^SMirity. Their worshin 

in a corrupt for „, a li.e ed tV tt ^ l4 , .: ''''','r''''^''' '" ^''^ ^"-'"d-A; esta, and L st^^ f 
pnnuzd and Aluimai,, ti.efo „ ; r ,„ : , •lo^ TT'i^ *"^ ^'^'^''^''^'e «f two powers 
13 represented as dwellin- in per, t?t al i f a». ■ '''^"<-''' ^hat of evil. ('),.„u,2d 

the transition from the wol-s)dp\'f 'j^o 1 t^f^l att il^i' '" r?^'"'''} darkness, and 
easy one. I enee the alh.sion in the text T e me >tio of h "' "•''? '"* "'^f'^'-''*' and 
;\ '^^^>V"»" l^i";,' is explained l.y .he fa.'t that d nrin, I ""^."?ff' '" f'nn, ction with 
theMedestothe Assyrians the ma:^i f , '^Vn! a f eth*;.!'.'''.''''', "^ ^^'^ ^"''Jeetion 
-ecameamere priestly caste, and as such up 5.o^;^ ethnical diviMon of the former 
"..'and skill by thedouunan'fc race See ] a i l T"^''.''f>1; ?/i '^^'^ ''-"t of their learn: 
in the same bouk. ^ J anici i. _o, ii. 2, 2, ; and otliur references 

ZT This name— probahl dcri\etl from thn r,. , \. ,1 
rage -was ap, lied (1) to the fon.aircmnp ni.J/s oMwl^/" 'T'-^ '^'"""- *« -^torin or 
dormsrs an.) {■!) to the women « ho V, 'Vl ts ri '' '"; ' •^"0'.^u«, in his wan 

prg-ies in h^s honor. T o e.rre, on ..r • ^'tliioron and Parnassus, celeb- aS^^ I 
became so disirraccful in charac 'er tha l^cv w?,'l'' •''^"'"'""if «• ter.ncd hacchanauT 
the Senate. The term " Tina Ics " K so H, i ^'.''^^,^^^'1, R.O. i«(i. by a decree of 
<l.t on ascril,es the ..uc.tionab fhonor o? be he ^hl^t''' ''''''' l' '^^'>-''^" '" v.'kh, tra- 
and celebrate or;;ies in his honor. -' '"- ''"'^ ''"'"*" <« sacrifice to Dio:;ysu8 

21 Of the above passage ■. in the " Unlv n,!,.,,- tt i-^j. 
manner also wore 'a m.U , ,• nd Is now a'hS'p ,! ,lS , .t'Tr •' "V'^ ''^'^ ^""*" "' tJ^is 
lon-er remembered wit , reverence -einns wl I I n „)' '"-'■' •'"•^^'".v Taylor is no 

e.npty shade." of the ''j>curjns iicat^ s^ '^f''^^ '^ T^^^'^' and virtue an 
ridfre, „ his "Aids to Pv.^flcction." descries it*^ Taylor's works, ColJ 

most eloquent of divines.^' and adds: ''Had I sakl <*;" "°1 ,^: "^''^nt work of the 
me and Demosthenes nod assent." °^ "'^"' ^-"'ero would forfedve 




t « 


John Milton was the 8oi, of i. r on,l,.« 
name „an,e, an.l ^vas horn i. (,,s T "l l'"?,^' ^'' V"*'^'-^' «f t^o 
Puritan sect, an.l l.a.l I>eon di .c-rite. ,v ') ''^•>'' ''^'lon^e.i to the 
for tunung Protestant. The v" 1 ' . - . "'"" ^''*'"^''"' ^'^t''^'- 

as London at that time cou 1 «! *! * . h-I'l' ''' ^'""'^ "" e-lucati,., 
where he ga.h.ate.I a Master oV vVt" et t v^rf \\ ""*''',^"^ ^^'^'nl.ri.ige 
Milton s poetical genius .lisnlayj.l itself mY. ''*7'-- , ^^^^^■'' '" >'^'>'t»>=' 
his hrst noted poen., the *^) X' n tlu { ' ^ "nihndge he prodnce.l 
tor s,x years after leaving c, e.^I.e 1 -! •''"^'."' ^'""''"^'^ ^^'"tivity.",l -lurig l^^'i t, a ^ '■-tn-en,ent at Horton, in 
"II Tenseroso," "Arcades ■' V/pV/. - ,''""'''I*''^''^''' '•'«'' '^'AlloLrro " 
of thcnselves have tcure 'for 1,^71;;^^ " i^," which ^^ 

Knghsh men of letters. !„ IG" s ,' •? f l"^^""""*-'"* ph.ce amongst 
froml(K^9tol(549 1,eM.isc^'!::V.%.'^ continental tour. aTul 

polemical pan.phlets in the YnCs of 'p""'! '"*''" '''"'1''"'' ''^" "^ 
services won for him the noof nf T r l-"l'<'»H'n<ary party. His 

and, in this capacity e ,h?tv 1 i "i '''' "^^'^ *" the (iovennu 

with coiLsummate ability, aided aftrr jl i ^ '"' ^^^^ he diseharge.l 
Marvell, who acte.l as eo llij^^uh n I L "'^"^'' """'" «"> ''Y ^n.hW 
Jli60 threatened the life o Mi Ion U h^^r"" u- ^'''V l^^-^^«'»tion in 
. ______^_^;^^^^^^^^^^^ allowed to go 

ThiJ H ' "^*''' '" be i<.-vere,l no more 

SrsroMhTi'?"; i""^"' ' .«i>ei° • 

lis SF^SiS'SS sr 'n " "-" °" - --%•■ 

' ""'^'•- "^ -^liitoiia (loetiiai faculty. "" 




m tho Ureek form .nwl ;. ' -f^b" 'imum. 1 Iks last named is a (nuna 

poet, Jn-Honly rivui; i.e,;. Ho „er a>. Vh'^i^TT *\"« V*'-' «Pio 
AIiltoii'8 life wa.s not <..,n<rm,inl T ">'V ^ '"' "facial pel' o(l of 

aggravated by total blindness H,.'u.V ;>« gloom of poverty 

finest sonnet, in tlu) lar "air „ wh^ol o ' ''"*'""' ""^ '"'"" ^^ *'»« 
erences to his affliction .M J i """^l ^'""'' ^^"''y P^tliotic ref- 

close of \^X. ''™''''""- "*' P^^^««'» peacefully to his rest towards the 


' This is the montli, and tlii.s tin- Imppy luorn » 
Wluu-in« the Son of Ifcaven's otta-nalKin- ' 
Of v^edded Maid, an^l V^irgiu niotli.-r b<,i-n7 
Our great^ redemption from above did hrin'.r • 
For so the lioly Sagos onco did sin<'« • " ' 

< V, " ' f •? " ■ ''r" '^''^fa"* ayt-H born, 
ThX' /•'*'?'•,;'•"'* '^"-'''"'' '>i<r adorn. 

Th^ -^^ "I '""J^'-'ty, in both the last. 

?«'■"»<! I "O. that r,.fc ,;,1,II,,,0 "■'"«' "' "^""J"" 

Clos d his eyes in endless ni-lit. 

-• of the hhth of ('hH;t\lo .. ,?/,t V ir ru"„^.._^-y h'^toncal evi- 

donee. The ^^^^;W^^::^Z^St^^T' Tf^^ WstS^^ 

dilTerent days, and even soas(,..,.s were fiv > 1 . -„\mT.!' iU »* bt'Kan to bo observed 
Church coui)le.l to-etlier tho b rth ami i.^..f ' ' " ''"f«'e"t localities. The Eastern 
the (fth of Jannarf. llti ate ^ the s ;'fof''ib?/riK'''A.*'''^ J-^'lebrated them both on 
that Christ was born on tlie o V^L .', " fr^l"-«h. based on the tradition 
general '•Christ Mass" of (^^Tristcndoi. u'hi '-l '^'■'"'''''' ''"'• *''"' day became the 
was born A. U. C. 71!) or 7.^0 there is In ^ '* '^ generally holievvd that Christ 

actual day on which his birth' took place Thcva;?', *"''""^'^^* '-hro,.olo, ists as to he 
opnuon that he was not born i.rKnb'er a 1 h '*'""'•'* "'"'""""us, however, in the 

fi Now "whereon." The spellin- is archaic , r-f m i. 

That ho our deadly forfeit sho.dd rd.ttHo • 
And wuh his I.^.thc.r work us a perpetual p:.ace. 


That glorious fonn, that ly.t unsutterahic/ 
An.l that far-heamin- 1,1^,, „f ,„,y-^„^y^ 
AV herewith he wonf^ at Ileav'ns J.igh couneel-table 
To 8,t the midst of Triiml rnity/^ 
Ho lai<lasid(s a.Ml, here with us'to he, 
Forsook tho courts of everlasting day 
And chose with us a darksoni..' house .if'n.urtal clay. 


And in 'Samson Agonistes," I 508- 

same verb, i„ the sennJ of " ,Z . • r^V:^': "^st'^ncln'r''" ''t 'I^' ^"^'^ '^^'^ '" ^he 
The Katies' fate and InTn'^arfoT'' '" ''''"''• '""'^'^ = 
P-n. .'i ' ?" ^y* '''*"^ *'"^* '"a-'e h n» die 
^\ '^ "^ ''''*'^'^ ■■ "f ''i« own, 
Overlookin-r the fact thar^M"' l\""t t" '^oar ou hi^h. 
En^flish writer,,, vvhJuL p^rfsent te,'; e f JHnr'T*-^' " ''"«* '"""• ( = ^on.e,l,) earlv 

From this past fonn " ifh a ,\V . V "*'?i"'"'. '''""*** '* beautify. 

th":''C^1^1:^.S^,;f!;- ^J^^^^tF. one O^^^^^ hiu.e.f being one o, 
orm 18 "middest,- whiob. w thout The ' . t " rnn '' '.'i^*'' =*'*•»'• «»■ An older 
or„,fro„uheadjective.«.;/„r „ J. Sddle ' The ni^'nH ^'^^ A .glo-Saxon genitive 

thefe-enitivein*?* was common in Anglo Saxon P^ictue of fo.-ming adverbs from 

i3"Qloomv" If 

Jul." In " iuradi.,, 

these words, and in "winsome," "heartsoiii,.' 'tn^thu.- • , J" — "^ '" 

ncartsoj). toothsc, aud others in the same 

« was common in Anglo-Saxon t"'"-"'^"^ '^' -'y.ming aaverbs from 

^:'''^^i:''i^''^^:^^:^^^tT:i ^«asynonymo, ".heer. 
ii" ''winsome,"^.L^£^:'^':?,J^:':''»^-« .,T{^^ 


i i 





«^jy, hoav'nly Afus.. „h,H ,,,t thy vein 

AfLmlapmsonttotlu, Infant O,,,!?'* 

Ifast thou ,u, VHr«, no hy.n,,, or soh-n.n ntroin ■» 


I[ took no pru.t of th., appro.hin« 
And ull th,. spun^dcl host kocp >v,tch in i 

M' ^^.it(h 111 squadrons bright? 


_n.. .tar-hMl Wisards- has,,, with Odours sw.ot : 

Milton 1.0.. in '• vZZ fr,;."!,- /iT '' "'" ^'"^ "^ '" ^"^ word i« Htl.l co.„„.on 

. ''-' '''"• ''■ ^-^?;„,Cf- Bancroft's See. li. of Rpi,.,„„„ op« . 
Compare also the coi.'*""'"'"' ''**''^'^ ''"^' """^ Chri,;tl,ei,oId." 

To «,',',rf i"' '"^''^''ans wandered far awide ' 
m " Paradise Lo^^^^i^^::^^^'''' ^'^^ 

Unseen before in heaven Mo!'i,!'/'''\''- *'*^'' 


Ana Jay It Jowly at his Moss..,! f,.,.t. 

ir.vvo thou ti.o honour firsfc thy Lonl to ..oot 
Ana joynlhyvoi... unto the unKoI,,„in,-' 

From out h.« secret ahur toMd.t with halWd fire " 


ms hri^rJit? 


1x mm In the 
still coinnion. 

the French 
Wo, and this 
.ve'" or "i," 
oh— and not 
is very much 

•«, and Latin 

lie sun-jfod's 

nse because 
•ly En«:lish. 

'' of " very 

qiiiied its 
root, but 

sf Anglo- 

1. Tt M'as tlio winter wilde, 

While thoheuv'n-hornJhihhi 

All m..uniyM-rn,.t,n the ru.h.nmngor lies. 
^Nature in aw to him ' 

Had dutrt h.T gawdy trim,^ 

With h.r .neat Master so to snui-athize: 
It was no season tlien for her 

^ To wanton with the sun, her h.sty ,.aran,our. 

,ij^ ' -^ nil lou UM intcnsivo 

21 Cf. Isaiali \ i, 5-7. 


stanza ne 8;)ealvs of un inipondinir snow fall ij *!.,**■ •^•"'=''an, winter. In the thiili 

' n 



2. Onoly with spoodids fair 
She woo'h tho .^cntjc Air 

To ]ii,lc lior Kuilty front with innocent snow, 
Anil on h(ir niik('(l shaiiKf, 
PoJhite' with sinfull l)Jamo, 

The saintly vdl of nmid Jn white to tlirow • . 
Confounded, tlmt Iier Makers" eyes 
Should look so near upon her fold deformities. 
3. But Tic, licr foais to cease, 

Sent down tlie ineek-eycd Peace •* 

She, erown'd with biive .M-eeu.'can.e softly sliding 
Down throut,di tlie turning sphear, 
His ready harbinger. 

With turtle wing the amorous clouds dividin.r -^ 

' A,.^riicise.l form of ^.o Utir, inrtidplo polluf,,, ■, « v . 

«.;,. •■ v„u „,., „„„„ „, „„.,,„.,.,„ ~:o;'.K: ^^S'SJ^'z:.;^ 

1010-1055 ; III. !>hl.'.,H7 ; IV. r.W)-5il7 ■ f lie whol.. J i<,.^l. •• *' . "'"' »-'«l'«J<'ia y Hook II 
It must be borne in ( bat, t be (" perS„ t),. rv '"• = "'" •""^'^ ''''"< of IJook Vi i' 
but uiHUfticioMMy den.on.strato.l. Oa 1^^ a K^Z *' '" •"•''.^""f not u.crely new 
wJ.en tbe " " was writtei., but tdr H Jr^^^^ a-lvanced in •years 

his Rroat iKiuoKt n. i(;.i5, only two years l)efoi-^ H?. »., i '^ ""i"- N''«ton began 
anil i)robal)ly Miltdii nevor k levv vov i m, i, „> V, .*"'''•■"*'"" "' "I'i'railise Lost " 
therefore, i^only lees unsei,' i,h, j i, ^' i ,^';,7'' "''' "«'^ovx;ries. His csn.ograjhy 

Dar.te, but it is ineouiparably .;r u or th ' " ' '^ "' Honier, VWl or 

noted al.M, that tbou,^l/i,e dili^.TrsSn ^0^,4"^^; pre ,V, j'/Vo'be 

the univ. ISC, und tbon-h heapueared t .."JIIVk ? *-'' ""^ *^"' ""xlfm conception of 
; oubtful vahie (l>. L. ^iii. (k/^^rl X> ev^S' oK'^;''' •' '^f '''''"^ tbeo iCaso 

life, to rcKar-l tbo l't.,leinai./sy.stcn wi/ji 'j^^* '^ «*."»''l'<I. towanls the close of h^ 
ejiicycles, and orbs in orbs (!• L \ iii M SjN ,!!. .*'"'',*V''-'" '*'"' ^''-'-f'trics, cycles aid 
F'or a detailed ex,.iunatio,\ oM.iV cosnu.^ 'S'^ '^ fl'r''l'Joot'fo;'n''iLd 
A very jfood snnunary, with dia-mins will C Jl?,. j' ^^ ^^'^x''""''' " bife of Milton " 
diso Lost, Hooks I. and I^/• in blisled^n M<L^^^^^^^^ '''Spruffue's edition of "Pari 
turniiiK spbear - is meant not t e car 1, ^^ * "."^"'' "^ ""«'<"'• Rv t™. 

forms a part ; and tbo epithet " turni l" Iml. V \^^<^>I<■ "inverse of wbieh tho ea.tb 
heavenly l,odies revolt ii',,-.o„,Klt;re earth ''^^"''""-'" *" "'^' ^''"''^■"aie idea of iho 
"^t^;;^;;'^^!;;^:''''''"^^^'' -- "-o '.c^eonr,- ..d so it appears >„ the 

JlolJ'uu u "" V'",'^'*'°"* ^^'^ *""" i« born, 
Ho« Alia kiiiHrshal come on i)i|Lrriinai/e 

, The „ri,l„», ,„„ni ; iT •■IS'JS'"";?:'''" '''V "*"'• 


And .vaving wicio hor nu-rtlo wand, 

^hostnkes a uaivcrsail peace through sea and land- 
4. J^or war, or battails sound 
Was licard tho world around • 

Unstain'd with hoHtilo blood • 

The tnuupet spake not to the arm^d throng 
And knigs sate still with awful! eye ^ 

As if they surelv k-Tin«r fi. • 

^J»^new^KMr sovran-Lord was by ^ 


. ^^ — -^ — -■•"'• .ijuiu was \)\ ' 

nj.. jb;.'^,^vP^^'^~ 

"mirtio" has no m.-m "loam, ?i„ ''''"'''' '"' "'"'■l' it was « wi/^""'H: '«'-a'"'I to have 
«'"l. otymolotric ,Ilv n nr„ „!;'"''" 'a' c'l to inspire awe • if 1 if ^•"'^"^^o- " Awful " j,m 

™ the low u.',r^.X;°'°'it; J" )■""' ■»»«■ 1."=:;,";';° '■;.''. >-«'»"»':« 




■ipai— I 

loni « 






6. But peaceful! was tlie night, 
Wheriii the Prince of Light 

His mign of peaci; upon tlio earth began ; 
The windes, with wonder wliist," 
Smoothly the Avaters kist, 

AYhispering new joyes to the milde ocean," 
Who now hath <iuite forgot to rave, 
While birds of calm sit brooduig on the charmed wave/" 

0. The stars, with deeji amaze, 
Stand fixt in steadfast gaze, 

Bemling one Avay their pretious influence," 


in- to keep Mlcce, and ha v ni "whistod - foi-^m r^ '' **" ^^ T'. '''l^ 'n'"^' ""=""- 
jmrtidple. Tlie latter is the lorn in the text mWan }\^T\ "*";' I "'hi-^t " for ,.a8t 
TuH employment of tl^word. Nlirin i^a ''nkK'- lias • '^''"""^'^"t »**»&'« *» Justify 

„ , . ^. , ,,V^^'^.V'^"tleere and soiitliori'io windes are whist 

Axarlowe, m his " Hero and Leander," makes use of it • '"'^'^ "^ '^'''*- 

a li. • f*'"^'"°'"*''etoure, when all is whiHt and still 

Spenser uses it, in the sense of "silenced," in tho 'M-acTic Oiieeno " vi! 7 ko- 
«'>vvastheTltanes8eputao^vneani^Xst ' ''^•^'^^■ 

Surrey, in his translation of Virifil. haV " «;>Lf, I'n >• « « ^u 
silence"; Qnarles has, i„ his " Divine P^ins " '• T ,o i ?„?1^ ' ^"^. ,*''*'y.- '^ ''<'P* 
spearo use^it in the absolute co.L^A:^^Ari^::^X IhT-^Sn it " ' 'o^'^' 
Come unto these yellow sands, ^unpest, i. 2 . 

And then take hands : 
Court'sied when you have, and kiss'd— 

The wdd wa\'es whist- 
Foot it H-ently here and there ; 
«< wKict .... , • ., .. And sweet sprites, tho burthen l)ear. 

9 Scan this line. 

uncertain, and the "h" wron' ' ^'''^ "'^''''^' *''"' *--ty'"«losy as 

"Influence" is used in its astrSc .1* sen;<f Th.? .t„ «'""?on Aironistcs," 1(M5. 
posed by their aspects to eve d'e a !f,^n„"' st"'^^ ^'^rc in ancient times sup- 

and thisV^ver wL called the -^'i," .cnce "Z -''hlflux •-' r*''° ''•-"*'"'? "' "'''"• 
expression, " Paradise Lost," 452-451 . ' ''"^' <^"»UMre, as to form of 

. . , , . , , . All amazed 

At thPt so sudden blaze, the Stygian thronff 
Bemi heir aspect. " 

Compare also Job, xxxviii. 31, and see " Paradise Lost," vii. 37,V375:_ 

Dawn and thft Pleiades before hh^danced 
Bnedding- sweet influence. 


And will not take their flight, 
For all the morning li<r]it, 

Or Lucifer^^ tliat^oftln warn'd them thence : 
Jint in thoir glimnioring orl)s did glow 
UntiJl their Lord hiiusolf bespake^ and Lid them go. 


""I i 

letic source. 

7. And though the shady Gloom" 
Had given day her room, 

The sun himself withhel.l his Avonted speed, 
And hid his liead for shame, 

Ibid, vlil. 6U-513 ! 

Ibid, ix. 103-107 : 

^"^. happy constellations on thit'ho'ur"' 
Shtd their selectest influence. 

'iii- 1, has: 

f>;'?* '^'^o^e lifflif. for thee aiono, as seems 

Cf. Connis," 331-842. Shalve.s;.nare, in " Mcasurn /nr Ar 
See also in .■Kinc'roi^^i'^li ^'l"^ '^'^S' -«»~^^ '"■^'"^^ 

" steadfast." see Note 23, p. 24C. ' '''''''''^' «' ^''^'"'"•. ^<imund, and Ed.jar. On 

f '^\^^f!^ ;vhen seen in then,or„- 

dise Lost." he has explained that the n'lmr „.;?,''/' ' '''^'l^*"o Pa^^-^W^of 
a^non rst the other anjfels in heave, a prc"i L.Vo S^ *? 'V.'" '"-'<^*" '« '»= '-"■U v d 
the staiu In Book vii. lai-ias, h. 4'/- """^''' *" ""^t «' Venus anion^st 

Know then, that'after Liuifcr fro.r. heaven 

So call hun hri^^hter once an,i,t 1^^108 ' 

{n/iriSVla,;"^""''^' '^•^''-- thro.,.h the deep 
And again, in Book x. 4-22-4l'4 : 

Pa-denioniuni, city and iiioud scat 

On the above use ^'^^M^^'^^^^t^^^^^-^'^'. 
.3 The prefix ■' be " .^ivestl J verb an' "Shakespearian Grammar," 154. 

favorite one with Miiton ' ' '^" ""'-"'•^■'' '•^'''-•e- This form of expression was a 

n The personification is still kcnt III) fA„„.„, -.t x, . 
fro." the IjTic in S,K,nser's " 4tK r' s 'aS;: ^^/i'' J^. «tan.a th. foHowin,^ one 
Eiisabeth, he says : 1 «■■ 1 « t aicndtr, (April), m which, eulog-izing (Juccn 

' ulL'n'i'ef ^oU'c "' "" '" ^""'^''" ''*='^'^^' 
."^ lE'-Jld^ll '"a:^.^'^^^ '^^'^'^ »«- b-mcs did spredde. 
He bhisht to sec another .s.innc below nun, if he iLire, 

Wis brifrh nesse coinparo 
.»..i . . '"^'-b bers, to have the ovi'rt-lirr.ifn 

Milton's treatment of the llj,qirc is far aun.°rW /^q^ ' . • 
M ethioaLcontenfc. ^ ^ ''"^ supenoi to Spenser's in poetical form as well 

I , 

w >■ 


As liis inferiour flame 

The new-enlighten'd world no more should need ; 
He saw a greater sun appear 
Than his bright throne, or burning uxletree, could bear. 

8. The shei)herds on the lawn, 
Or ere" the ijoint of dawn, 

Sate simply cliutting in a rustick row ; 
Full little thought they then, 
That the mighty Pan^" 

Was kindly com to live with them below ; 
Perhaps their loves, or else their sheep, 
Was all that did their silly tJioughts so' busie ke(3p, 

9. When such musick sweet 
Their hearts and ears did greet. 

As never was by mortall finger strock," 
Divinely-warbled voice 
Answering the stringed noise, "^ 

As all their souls in blissfull rapture took ; 

And : follow'd my poor father's body. 

Would I had met my dearest foe in heaven 
Or over I had seen that dav. Horatio 

See Abbott's Sha^tHjarian Gnimmar 131 ' ' ^ ""'^* '" *""» ''o*^" ' J^. »• 

tit:^';is;;^^rS: s^^^ ^^t tRs, ^^''t '? ^■^"^'--"^ *»^° 

classicahnytholoffy with scriptural all S S,k Ir i'n 1 .'l^.^""^ "P'" """"•'^•'' 
(May), represents two jH^tori as oo..verS-i„ t 'e guLe o HhenhcrS 
explains who is meant by the " Great I'ari ^' hv u-hn.., „n ,**"*^P"'-"»s, and in a note lie 
account : "Oreat Pan is Christ tho vVrv 'n,! ^f „n 'I »licpl>ei<Is are to bo oallod to 
the create, and K-c-d s feS^l. The T^^ h n oSh{lvM':,'"-'?'h-"r*^ ''^^f^ l'""''^"'' 
for Pan sif/niflctli all, or omnipotent SiTs onelvth/,^^^^^^^ *«'*>'»' ; 

(as I reniomber) ho is callwl of Eu^bius.'' •'"«'>'*^° ^^r^l Jcs'^a- And by that ..lanie 

thcform'Hook/'inStanzal^ofro '^USSrVbor'*' '^""■'^'' "^^"'"P"^ 
i» What is the figure 7. 




The air, such pleasure loth to lose, 

W.h thousand echo's still prolongs each heavenly close - 
10. :Nrature, that heard such sound, 
Beneath the hollow round 

Of Cynthia's seat the airy region thrilling ^o 
-Now was almost won 
To fhink lu'r : rt was done, 

And that her raign had here its" last fulfilling • 
Wio knew such harmony alone 

Could hold all HeaVn and Earth in happier union.^» 
At last surrounds their siglit 
A globe of circular li.r]it 

Compare .,„ », .?lSo'",SS'e,'S •']',; T£^ '»■""''" '«'■ 

»««. his^ -^ tf"/'''i«) hit (it) 

^«<- him ^^l his' 

'"'"'• hine • him 

El£bSn^:^"Sei;r'n" {^-'"ally anpropLcd "his " and , .. 

Its wavslowlvatflra* ;V . '''^ "®* '■''e<l as a siibstitiif-n -ri u x?' *"« in the 


J-.--..... ui muton 8 verso wonlfl n» ifo^i. r ^"'"' '" ^o ne nref 
■' harmony." even if he had ntl h?!'' '•*•" ™"««<1 "^ «hew h' 

"■■"""' *''*°° '^ Uuwjiojfjcal, unless 

^..!.on means by 

• "-■■' »- «" "u lias 

as a composer of some 

globe " a mere 



The helmed Cherubim, 
And sworded .Sempliiin, 

Aro seen in -littering ranks with wings displaied" 
Harping in loud and solemn tpiire, 
With unoxpressive^^' notes, to Ileav'ns new-born Heir. 

12. Such nmsick (as 'tis.-?aid) 
Pxffore was never ni.ule, 

]iut when of old the .-nis of MorM/i^g sung,' 
While tlio Ci'oator ;,';t aL 
His con'4ellations set 
And the well-bnHunc't v.'orld on ]iin<'es hun" " 

, 26 

asti,.' translators :>■ th. \ vv Ttsfu' mntTll U,^ '^^^^ 'slmn.efast" 

Shake m-arc's " Wh-hJi-a it • T i^ti,'^ \ "^ ' *" ' '*." **" "P^-"'' '" ^l^c 'l"'arto eiiiHonof 
It U wr^^nglVspeluilo in '^IIi; llomy A? IJ^rs"^'"' '"*'°"' *'''^' "shamefaced.' 

o "wES r^.JS rr'2S^''o;: ^^Sii^; ^trl^ -oherub-and ..«" 
"FaerieQueene,"i. 1C20: f'-Plaied, see note 8, p 140. Cf. Spenser, 

Tn ♦»,„ « f • r^^"*^^ W"'' •■ '''*' ''■■" «'"t', then broad displavd 
In the "Facrio Queone. i. 12 7(i hn hkm '<,ii..„io,. '■ * * 
cover": ' • ^^ m>, ne uses display as synonomoua with "dig- 

Throu),4i -I, vny covert proves and thicl^ets close 
in which I . .y crcei)inj,' did at last disi)lay 
That want., r, lad V. 

IT ssivo," in "As von Ilk-,, if" ill o .lu'':,^'':*^"]'^*: '''''■ Il^husalyo " ui ex 

pr ssho,"in "As vou like it" iii 9 tv,„ '>•"""■ inn;, nenusal.-o " ui ex 

I'laMy supposed to iave coined the w'ord Milto "1n° ' vZ^^f^' ^^'^ '^ ^•^"■ 
the usual passive form. MUton, m Paradise Lost," viii. 113, has 

-•c See Job xxxviii. 7 ; and compare "Pai-adise Lost," vii. 548-ClO 
2: Compare "Paradise He^^aincd," iv. 4l:].41G. See " Faerie Oueene " i 11 21 • 
Then ; m the blustrin«- brethren boMlv tlut^r ' ' ^^ ' 

The old English fo:S "'^' 'm","o ■'"with tlS'.-:i^-t^;i"*|l"''f'V , . • 


probablvhudin his mind the i-loa of a hookT/l , ^' m f^ '"""h- *^"*°n 

iho phrase "hinges hung." *""^^™"^« *« «'ell as the etymologncal association in 


And cast the dark foundations deep, 

And bid the weltriug waves tlieir oozy channel keep" 

1.3. Rin- out, ye crystall sphears, 
On(;(j hli-ss our liuiuiiiHi (juivs 

(If yo have poNver to touch our senses so), 
And let your silver chime 
Move in melodious time, 

An.l let the base of ireav'ns deep organ l,low; 
And with your ninefold harmony 
Mnke up full consort to th' angelike symphony.^" 

, M. For, if such holy song 
Knwrap our fancy long, 


'^^!^!'^S^ Lost." i. 078: 

Ijatiii with tho \iivhjacen:, and this wa^ i r, ,i^, i * Vi- ! ' . ^'"^ "'■''"« "^4-'o obtained in 
of " cast ■' 800 tl.e exVss on •' ca^ to , mi' 1 1 •. *'"^;" '* •'""''-■'• *'""• » differe t u e 
But first ho easts to .S:,,i° ^llil* ^''t^' '^•"1. .fm^'r " --" Panuliso Lo si •■ " i) 

iW Hi (!;J4: in bothof whidi 

43; and 

•;B).t first ho .;;:s;. to ^:^^^\^^:^%^::}^^ 

passayros it ia s.vnonyniu..., witn ■•contrive" n- <..o- ' .. ™,- '• •" ""•""r \vni< n 

m '•waiter," and this ia the frequeZti o of tL 'm ^/ ,.T he oldixforni of "weiter'' 
weaUan, to roll ab.ut. Cf. Job ^xxviii 4 1°' *''" °'^ '''"'''"■^'» " ^^'^'t'"'." Anslo-Wn 

In his Arcades," Cl-67. he savs : ^^ effccti^ u a use o( it as Miltoii does. 

Hath h,^'' I'lff '^ "' ."'.'''''*• "■'"'" 'Iro^siness 

io tnu cclefetial sirens' harmony. 

That sit upon the nine infolded sphere. 

Ad sn.j, to those that hold the vital shears 

And turn U.e adamantine spindle round 
Tho expression " nVneSll'-'seenls t"„lr''/' l' '"^'" '^ ^^"""J- 
there were nine ''spheS'^rerrs thc/S.^tV'.'V" *i"'°"'« ^•o^molo.ncal syntom 
interesting, .lescrlption of these irS.^.'lat''S H 'l^^^^hr"'?. '"""'^"""^ ""'-V ^A II 
There the revolutions „f the universe are rMmlnJ^'^K''-*'' "^'^"-^''e close of Book x 
Necessity «hirh teiininalcs in an „miL>,s«'.u . 'J'^ hem? made on the si.indloof 
whors. diminishing i„ dian etc t^^Z\ i\l''ll\,V:LT}l'''' '\^'^ «'~»'^' co'ncel trL 

Von,";' ''w"" 'l.''<'^"fc'' to the n.oon. a Ki the thers in f h^^" r'"*""' '^'''« innermost 
^enus,Mars Saturn, Jupiter and tL" s .,, h !' *"° *""'''^'' na">ed, to Mercurv 
Btars. On tho upi«..r surf^e o^o'ch circ lo^ .Ino^'l'^'™"^^ '''^'"*'' '^»">^''^''^ ^y the fl«J 
"'^S'-'^ ""to. an.l the sou „?f /,,./ ro h ™ ''LVdT'l '''"' «''»•"'« eontinuously a 
the t_hreo Fates-. iauRhtors of Necessitv „1„1^' ''''?/'"^«'™'''' ^''^rmony, while 
round theoutsi.le, sin.'in-.'of tho iwt fL ^^'^^.^^ "" thrones at equal inter'^Is 
sphere is probably' refe reii o in ^'l^rX^^T^'V' "•"■" ,!'"' f"^"^'- 'Vfilton' ninth 
8tanza Shakespeare's " Mercha-it of vS" v i-' ^^^^ ^""1*™ *'ith thU 

There's not the smai'cst orb which thou heboid's* 
But m li.M ,n„ ,„„ iii,e „„ „„j,el sin." * 

I . LT.'^'"'"'' '"• ^^" ^"""ff-^y. ci cheiubins : 
Such harmony is in immortal souls ; 
Bui whde this muddy vesture of decay 

Reference is "mdo t ^'^.t,l?e'o^';• "*' ^""""f' ^«»'^ 
"Antony and C.eopatr^^^':^; 3^ :^'.^-^^p-nn^..T«^^^ 

— ^ „.., *...*ttittix car 








aIP" "lI!,"''^" '"°'*' ""'' '"'"'^ "'" "«« »' Gold* 
And specki'd Vanity ' 

Will sicken soon and die, 
And leprous sin will ,„elt from earthly mould :«^ 

And Holl It self will pass away 

And loavoJ ^lolo,o„3 „,,„_^.;„^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^.^^^ ^^^^ 


Ay KirohTO 01 lore a.„l Jollllv >• 

I» W. " Elogy „„ elSlJK sSoV'i'K,!;''!' ""■ «■"»«■ 




< a lAdy with 
iJ* firmament 
i of the term 
t." i. 742, he 
"j in vi. 800, 
>rs "; and in 
; 'r"in Scrip- 
"Hero and 
' Republic, • 
f tly of steel 

erenco with 

' f'OqiK.iitly 

Scholar to 
', were one 
>Ple Justlfl- 

does not 
."27, and 

seems to 
Hio Latin 
wifh. In 

for "p." 


'le brass. 
I "Theo- 

^'a refer- 
fair," as 
dust, Is 

Flad the 

and he 


T/i£ JIYMN. 

i«.,Yoa, Truth andJustico then 
Will down return to mon, 

OrbM in a rainhow; and, like glories wearing, 
xMeroy will set hotvvoen, *" 

Thron'd in cc'lostiail sheen, 

AnTn '"^'""' ^''' '•" '^"""^ ^^^•"'^'^ 'I-^'" ^tearing « 
And Iloav'n, us at som festivall ^ ' 

Will open wide the gates of her' high palace hall.- 

ifl. But wisest Fate sayes no ;•"'« 
This must not yet bo so / 

The Babe lies yet in smiling infancy, 
ihat on tlio bitter cross 
Must redeem our loss, 

So bo;h himself and us to glorifie f 
Yet first to those ychain'cF in sleep ' 
The wakefull truinpof doom .nust thunder through the deep. 


^S^S^T^i:r^!i^.^^rn in o.d En.ii.h. Compare with these two iines 

'ji ihiH 1.S the readinjf of the edition of *.-.. 
author', death; in the olitiou of 'iS'tt'" ... ' U^^riX^^l X^'^' ''«'"- the 

An^lo^axon form of which i-^■'.•.>^tar ii^fc a?;l ^ l!^^'!;;^^^'' ^'-^' '^ 
w Cf the responsive sou;,', at the olos« of fh. f \"''*t .us the modern "steer." 
An-lo.Sn^■on^,,Mn/^y,/,,,, (i;^.o,.i'''_,'^,7f^^ *."onf,v.f,>nr(h Psalm v 7-10 Th. the use of the form' .'her.' '>""'' "' '"-'^^•«"." "a.s, like /,.«., aTeminine „ou J' 

»J See Mason's Grammar, foot-note /•4i t, / • . 

past participle took fliu )).eH\ ,/,. i . L!l ''"'••. .'■" ^"»f'"Saxon, as in Germm «h„ 

.Vor "i- inthesoulher, an^'n.i ,'^r^tf.?^^ ^*'^'* H-fte ",i do^,;"'i ,f « 

forma are in early Emrii.xh ve. v emu o„ WiH.f fv.*''*'^''' ""'' I^rtieiples i^theso 

"y- w.h great fre.uen^; knd '^o^-^^J^^^S^^^^^ ^^^TJ^ 

i I I 


I : 

I ii 





ir. With such a horrid clang 
As on Mount 8inni mug, 

Wl.ilo the n.,l firo and Bmouldring clouds out brako- 
The aged Karth, ngast'"' 
With terrour of that blast, 

Sliull frou. the HurfacG to the center .hake, 
V\ hen ut the worlds last session 
The dr.:ulfull Judge in middle air shall spread his throno.^« 


And then at last our bliss 
Full and jx-rfeet is, 

But how begins; for, from this happy day, 

Th' oi.' Dragon*' under ground, 

VViiether allured with my pipf.. delight 

«*r thither led by <liaiiiuo, I know not r D-hf • 

" I'oricles." iii.T: ^' '''''' "'■''''•' "'- '» old Knjflish. and once i„ Shake.pea.c 

Mil, .„. uses the prefl^' • v'^f,,!^ 7^"""^ '^"'">-- * 
force, for ho uttaeL it to tYo presrS'::;;:^- -'I i.^^h^ ^r\*'^^"o"^'"-'"* 0' it« .u, 

or that hiL hun..wl,"ren:i'lV.?«f;bThrd'* °" ^^'^^'^^P^-^e : 
, .^a. ville ha^the f^^"'^:^{:P''';^ ^'>■'•»""'^• 

'a.ned, which ooairs in ''A'AlC .\ ''"^'^fly to the t nn "ydei.t " caZl 

f''-S-»- *Allefe. . .2. Om.puro I The* W. liiV.'ld iSV;' 

58 Cf. Kx'jdiw, xix. lC-19. 

ci;a^;,'^;l K.HSS'':.^!:^r"^;>'"'' - ^ *"« word. - „ ,,, ^^^^ ^^,. 

H. as well as 'a.-ast," my conmo.r 'in u ''T/'' *'"' *'''' "'t*^''"''** -•" " '^ 
fled ar.d affriirhtefl "of the ordi, rvtivV^'"'" ' ^'''"'"" "' '■'"*« ^ 
dinary fonn ..f tlau«i.>^t ^ n«^ fn M^,^^?^;»^'^'•'* «'*' "troubled a 

He met a dwarf that seemed terrifyde 

U .H some late peril) which he ha d ly past 

sivea, vo^'^*^' -'romthoAM,.lo.Saxo„ "R««ta„.» to terrifv, with thn i„ten 

••Sdi.St."inu!''rKi';^^^^^".!'* ■-"*«-' "-- of a ..,itt.„.-i 


irni "a«^ted" 
17. thf "terri 

' r uses ! ortr 

# '^ "♦' 


brake ;«» 

is tbrono.^" 

Jmhla "Coliii 

•cpe (call) 

»nt of its let, 
|>earo : 

moflnrn En- 
." called, III 
id I Cor. .\ \ 

the "terri 
'*■ nieoi- 

ti t?ifi inten- 

sltting" ill 
vanie Latin 
sya&re uses 


In Rtraiter limits bound, 

Not half s(, far casts his nsiirped sway • 
And, wroth to so. his king.loni fail, 
Sw,ndKo« the scaly horrour of his fouldod toil « 
IB. Tho oracles are dumm ;« 
No voicn 01- hideous humm 

Runs through the arched roof i.i words deceiving.** 
ApoJIo from his shrine ** 

Can no more divine, 

With hollow shre'ik th3 steep of I .dpho. leavin. « 
No nightly trano, or breathj.l spell 

a noun i,. the " Merchant of Venice ''lia ^*""' '""^ «l"'ke«po«ro ^m» " wroth^' « 
Sweet, adieu t Vll iteep aiy oath 

The olH Pn^.iK i'*"«"t'ytobearinvvv?oth • 

B.?ol wt ^ff NS'Lte/f^dar ','V ^^->-"'>-".v "wroth," but the An.lo 
Original Sonne of " wTth " wL^' wry "^ hl?";^^^^^^ *" ."rithe, or t^Tt. to thl??h 

8win^H>,' means to lash vijroiouJv J„ V perverted, iti temper. " Swind^ " , 
sure for Measure," v. 1: '"«°"''"'^>- '" "'o sense of "punUh'fit occuw in "kJa 

i.^_ ^ . *^''"* '"' ''"en lay, mv lonl 

Z^ir'^^'TV'''^''^'^^^ i- '.luSn'"' Th5 

ton was no iloubt aware of the f ?*i, '^♦''phi, Didynia. and Dodora Vll 
after th. hirth of Christ, b,t he oSsc' , Lr,'"*^'"^ *l'. **"^ «'-*^-''-"« «^re consuSd 
';"*h"f'H' tradition thit thoT "ver v e an v »^s ''"**" Pr^"'i?«of assumi J the 
Lucian, Strabo, Juvenal, Martkl FlimlrJ «*^ •^•"l'*'''*'* after that event. Taoitus 

"ftti^ljKSained/- f', C" '■" "J^^'Phi-" Milton n . " Delpho- " aU„ I 

Monnf p''''"'"' ^^^"" "' "Pa"Ki - . i^ /-T'l; ^'a^i^J "'^P **' "^IphoH " compare 
Mount Parnassus, at the foot or which lav n„i«w.*u^"* reference in to the Hlone of 

??»'*"'""'' of '11 th. oracles of am qlVRJL^':nV•'^*t«°^''' »' Apoft'the 
Jul»n, and was suppressed by Theodollu^ '^^n^ulted by the Roman Emiiewr 

■«« The medium throuirli which r««mni..^- ,., 

ugu wnjcn responses were jovon ut DMliOii »,2- aj^g,- 

■ ^ 


f i 




30. The lonoly rnmintainfl o're, 
And tho re.s.Min(lin<( .shore 

A voi,., of we,.pin,r hoar.1 Juiul lament ; 
From haunt,.,! s,,rin;,nu„i ,!alo 
Ed^M with poplar pah-, 

The parti,,,,;,.,,,-,,,;, with .i,M„g,o„t;« 
TL. „i,,,,h, iu .w,l,.ht .,f to^,,,,, u,i„tek n,ou„,.« 

31. In consecrated earth, 
And on the hoj^- hearth, 

Tin. Lars and U-muro's uioan with midnight pJainf^" 
• lu nnis and altars round, ^ ^ ' 

A drear and 'lyin;,' sound 

AlIHghU the Fiamens at their service quaint ;« 

entitled tho " I'v thia " Sputori """ ' "^ ' 

..,..„,,u„h,.;,„;.;t.r,.x'i;.„;).'"'"' "-■° «*■"■ 'i""', '..v .E5iS"K;;li;; 

-■"pan;.!.- ,.7/.! ^Slr.'':: '' H^ -e 'r.-'l^;::'"'"?.; ^''""-'"). ^"" ' popLr mie" 
,^-«» On .' tvvili;,ht •• soe Not,. '•! n if f " '""'"f^""''^- Soo Note 5, p. 153 

'■oRnin:!! writers use tho tcnimArtn^ 7,,..,.^ / ' "'"' *''^"""*^*'- 

from tho sf...on.l hue of the -^tanza Tho tin. / ''""'''■ "'t-aniii},' hero W V, Wnr.f 

'•■h as sacred 'liy the coS'ofYhri./TnT:"!!*/''^'''''-'*''' 

Mhuost „„ivor.m ouston, under the^^en.m'^'.r.'^t'?' "'« '*?"*''*'■ "'"l be<nn,e h^ 

THIS iir.vx. 

WMI. cud. ,„„uu„ p„„„ j„,^,„^^ ^^ ^^_^^^ , ^^^^^ 

•«. Poor and Tlaalim 

iowako tlu'ir teniplos ,||m, 

With that twiso-baltiT'd' .m,! p t. i . 

Hoav'iw qu,.,.„ ,„„i ,„„;|,^^ ,,^j,^ 
No,, «t» not girt wiU, tap,,,, h„,j. ,,„•„„ .« 



I "i. 

.jses U h. the .e„.c";; "Sfni ■• Tn l'^^- "• «• '" ^^'^It'^^^'^^' ''"'' 
'»• 4 ; iti ".M,„,h Alio ftlx, f v' M ' , M'""''>' ^f." iii i an/l ■• m ' '**"»'<W|'faro 

totfofroin," huKv V^" """"''" "1" forcfsof "from " Tn, • ♦ *'"•„'''« Preix 'for" 

pare Nuin hers vw i- iJ • *" "•'^'''eiie u(mI wnr«hi.,.ri l '"'" ix there L'iven 
" Kings. ..xni • 13''V^V vuV'^i"'- >•'•'« : •f'>'hua X vn'T' ^' »»'f Moahites. ^ o„"," 

onuof thodiffiTenti.wwm ."'*''*'' " HaallH-or " (hforatit- .'/^'r''''" '•"' "'-"lo to 

that, the former \va" "^ ^'-""''•-' <l'vinitv, and tha rnn .f ■ »"''a"'ti»h nations 
Bahylonian .'^l I e 1 or b" , w'' ii' ^^ '*'",';""».-l a-ni tho iXran' hJ'?'""' ""'"'°" '^ 
s'it>ject U still obsour,. »?;.!*'*'"'''"'*''>■ f<len»i(led with m.. .? ^ .'"wn-Rod. The 
to Baalim. AUuiX-WrSenm!'"? '"", P'""^' fon^'lSr/h'^''.'^'''^'' »'"» '^e 


" ^^='. i- iSi-462, and 


• l: 





The tybic Hammon shrinks his horn ;" 
la vain tlie Tyriau maids their wounded Thamuz mourn ; 
U3. And Kullon Moloch, fled, 
Hath loft in f^I-.adows drod 

His burning: i'lol all of Mackest hue ; 
In vain Aviih cymbals ring 
Thoy call tho grisly king° 

III disniall danco about tho furnace blue •'"' 
The .brutish gods of Nilo as fast, 
Isis, and Orns, and tho dog Anubis, bust ; 

24. Nor is Osiris seen 

la Mciuiiluan grovo or green 

Tnmipling tho uushowr'd gras3 with lowings loud. 
iVor can he bq at rest 
Within his sacred chest ; 

Naught but profoundost hell can be his shroud • 
In vaui with tiiubrrl'd unth.-ms dark 
TlKMiablo-.stoied sorccnu-s boar his wor^bipt nvk." 

thu is n.)t >!ili„„s in iv have <• 1 1 f Ti .. •\ '" . ,n' ^''''' ""O- '"''> ^hifh an ..rror 

("I'a... Lost." 450 ,57) •-i^u::^!:^- aJX"!:"^:^ Xz:z:^^^^^ ""^'^^' 

./•'In '<l'i.m.lise Lost," i .W.40-. Milfnn .i. , ,^"""' """'''"'"'■'•'*' <li<'tioiiariti.s. 

Mo...h. whom iu'^)^^.itiJ\:tA^^^^^^ "? »•'" worship of 

aHs,M-iat.>.i with this i«win .Int v is that f,, V "*""' ''"" '''''« i''"'' Poc.jjiirh' 

lire.., as«i,.rin,Hm to him ; h o ,Vth, vli si r '"".>"" V'''^'"'^' "'"' ''^I'w- all" o hij' 

folliiito tho i.ractifo of worshiimin.r.nii ....''"''• *^''''' "* «'iff"rc..t times 
nations surrou.HlinM' (;anaa.., u. 1 k is a u u.,i v s. "'' ".f «'""'P>-«'>^I,„rst ho 
Ban wore s„l,stuntiull.v the sa.iio 1 -iu- '"-■, "o is ^o..'.'?' ""'"''\*'' t''"' *'»'"«'» «» <l 
'• ( hemos." whi.h Milton mako« tt.<other r.a o for ?• • "?"*"" *« '>"»«ve that th. 
for " Moloch." Hoo Jor. xix. l-fl a.»l xxJi % V it ""•■• **'*'' '^''^">' •"•other na. « 
preset ,«rticiple use.l jmssivel , a ..| mSs s a ,,a L'^m """t" " '""••""<^" I'oren" ^ 
'•The ark was a ..,•e,,ari!,K^■• Ir is oss ^howtn' r im/'Mn '"^ ' '•"♦«'' "' '-'<» 

active force, as tho iinajfe of Molwh is sni d t mV. i ' "^ *!'"."" ^f'^e" »'« word un 
iniRht IMJ heated from witi.i,, the i.-Hms he , * ',''"'''',' !'"".'" '|"'"-'"' '" "niertlmt i 

12 moum 

Tiii; HYMN. 

"■'• ^^« ^eels from Jiula's land 
The (Iredded Infant's Imnd 

K.rrr "V;^"'''""^''^^^^ ^- ^-«ty ,.vn - 
i>oi all the gods beside ' ' 

Uni'^QV dure ahidn, 

Ouyr.P'!""/"'"' ""^''"" '" ^"'^'^-y twine :» 

Cun ,n h. swadiing band, controul tbe da:.aea crc-.v. 
■"■ '^"' when the Sun in bed 
Cnrtain'd with cloudy rod 

Hie flocking shadows ],alo 
Troop tot h'ijifornal jail ;«» 

r,'»'>ht i^lipa to his scvorair' grave • 




'" «" «til| Hupvivo ir. 

Hi. 2. 

Vf II by 8hakuniw.ars »•■ 

„..- „ O'HI WllH HMj'd, ._ - . 


And tlio yollo\v-.slvivto(l luyes 

i^iy after tho ui-ht-stoe.^ leuviim their 

moon-lov'd maze."' 

ar. ]]ut see, the Virgin blest 
Hiith liiid licr JJabe to. rest, 

Time is „ur UnWom KonJ shouM hero Imvo eiulin- • 
Heuv lis youngest teemed star 
Plath fixt lier polislicd car, 

Her sleeping Lor,l with'han.lniaid lamp attendin-".^ 
And all about the courtly stal)lo ^' 

Bright-harnessed"' angels sit in order serviccaWe ^ 


orally i.sed in tho sense of a " few ^^ an ? f a[ .71'° "^'* 'V'""'^: ''" • ^x^J " i^ "ow ^.0,.! 
sense and cons:ruc; i<,n, whu.h a J e? ,m,lf f,l,K. '"" "1 ^l'° •''■"'■^''- I" *'«« above 
...on Shakespeare'in •. Mn' h a7oSuTS . ;r"'^^^ '' ^i'^^^ f'":'"*""'-^ ^'*"->' «"»■ 
b t Spenser, ui the "Faerie (^ic^ene '■ i 3 ifi « w^l "1\ ^M ' .^"'cl. Ins several way"; 
pilla^re of a thlof. " His," i„ \bis line is fo^' Us ". "' ^v\ ST '''•^" <'•''• various 

fay in this eonso in tho " Faerie Oneenc " iv •' ii 'V " P-'^^'i'^" "''■^- ^F^si-t 
shows that oven in his tho real .mr; rono- V. 7 *•*••'•'•.«'" o tho title of his poem 
eoM.e obscured, and Shakespeare ir'S^^ ''"'?,??" ^^^ ?"d "f-">rio" had b " 
old Kny sh "faerie" moinf ••-..* -^ '*'' *"" <'><.iiiion form of bi^ilii- ti,« 

;:yant^ra:es,•:t?i7l; ,st .S'^;;ri;!' .'^i- '" ''r^--' '^---inSau.:^? 

fairy." Hen .lonson. in his "Ol.crm, •• „ <? ■'^'^^.''* '" *''« sense of tho iiuHkrn 

Fre«eh/A, wi h the same n can n^'a d thh ?, in T'\ ' 'tl" ." '^''y" '«"•".. ho inscription of the time of dC .Tcth. in e «p., . ''.?^"!-'^?/«- «l'i<'h is found. 

tiny. Faerie • and " fairy" are der m f mm " fav " Mii'f ? "V"'' . "•■ "'"'''»-'^'' <" «'e«' 

fr^i v:^^"i^'''»:;!r'^-^j;!''j^i^-r^-''nn^ 

lo.'ro,"',..> tlie w:.rd'L'''^.;pp„'S1o\o'^«:J'r''^ 

' ...ase" inol.l K„.,.ii,|,. The refer neo in n , f 1^'^"'^'"?^'''''" "'•'^''". and was hj^ t 
eves for hr.Klin,- their revl in s winded inonhvH^,^ ^^l^^l'^f^ '«"'''»^«« of t^o 
"MidsnmmerNiffhfs Dream." ^" '"'""' ^'P"*" ^^ "lo lijrht of the moon. See the 

ly used, asin the expressi,,,, a "tem "S hn.« ' ^^ "''""' '» ^■'^'«'' "^ i^ntill .^"u/n'K 
word "(Kt- means that ties arb-^l lu I'Llr '''''■'''' i^'"'''' i'' hero used. Tho 


eamo nltimately to mean the or.iimi v eo, i '^^^ '"'"oi"- <'f a horse, 

tho trrm c,.m,w,o Exodus xiii. is. an I K iCs vv n 1. > ''" ^i. "" *'"> "''"'-••• »^o " 
the saino sense in " Pai-ailiso Lo«"" ii ino*" ^V,'J' "'"' ^■'"'- ^*- Milton uses it in 
tho form "harneiu- forT«mVo; ar.'.our ^' '"'^ ^ ^aueer ir. "Cant. Taies, "wTa, hw 

rn formof versifleation. (.) in verbal P^^i^rfi^'Hr^^X^'^f p;S;;:^? 





^t-TSe I., lino J. lioad «'g, i-- ■, 

;^;"o 4: read ' ro.,e,..pti.,n " ^ ^t^T^ T'''' ""^ '"'*>' -P'"-"- 
•vith cn„, on - release." "" ^^ ''""^ '' -^ '''^al '» lower pitch and 

which the precodin.sentenec wa. ter n a ed T ! ." '■"■''"' '"'•" *'-" tl-ut ui,„ 
the .-^rd, .. Now While- in the an.l " A ndall T ' ''! ''^''"""'^' ''^ " >«**V •" 

;-st bcdellvercl in the st, le an 1 w h / L" 'or / "" '""■'• '^'-' ^^ole .Un.. 

* Thy sacred rein,- in line i. and ■' , e t •• i li. r'""' """-' '^•"""^' ""-'•^ "^rc 
the gifts of the "wi.son.enfron. U J Kal <• Ver '•• f/^ ''":: ^""'•^'■^'"•""''-* -th 
are jri a. sln.ila; relation. ' ''^''""' "'"» " «oionin strein" 

l.l».l.o "Ihou- „„j .,„„,.. '""""' '«""' '".1 .««ll „( voice, u,,c ' e„, 

Came wandeiinu: from afar 


And su..*|)hs' burnintr lyres' 

Of all the race of man, ^ ' 

aUvays t.haK^c!li%hc^d,S!ion i^^^^^^^ //T ^''^ J"«thfuIneM of it, author 

fint^«todo.ntJ,eKnK■liHhlanun,aie•• a..rsiVW^^^^^^^ "' *' «>* " I <• ha s tho 

the jrrandeur, ti o ■ ».,ijf i native- ^^. of t e cmff . ' '^r*''*^" "».'*■•"'' it : *'Th"v 1 r 

m>.t.eHous excite.«„t--- allCe^Urb^'CS fe^J'ta^ 




The HyiMu. 

The spirit and purpose of the flrsf ♦«„ «♦„ 
must be rendered in Lvid. . u t s fa , 4 T ?"'"' ''"^ '"^•"' '""* •■«^-^- They 
citen,e.,t. They announce the rci^ p1 e "d'r' '"*' '"'" "'""- ""- -'« - exp.-es.ion„„„n,o guided . v\hose " "t.W^^^^ *'" ^''•"■'' "' -'— i 

wonderful Pa.toral Syn.phony to the .'Tletlr. " /^^--^r has h>.rd HarKlel's 


-'r:. ";:; th::.;:jr :: :;: :s *^ -?• - ^ ---• - •• -tor 

especially -Master." dwcllin. on t ." word wi i. 'T " " "—'--ted .one, 

"wanton," '..un." and "latan.our • and 1 H T '" """ ' ^'''^ «""''«^^'h to 

.Verse 2. Rc.d this dcepe a, i "1: J "f r,'""'""" ^-^ '''*'^" "^ ^^csu wonis. 
pictures. Linos 3, 4. and r. „,us 1.; J. ' ' ' 'r^'""' "' "'"'""' '''^ «'" which it 

trenndous tones ; but line n.av pi T," ""■"'?' ""' ^'"^ '-'""''. ""<> rendered in 
thoto,.^^^^^^ InlinearandS 

verses. '^^ ^:^^y J^ :z^x z:::^;'::'' 'T •'"' ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

force or loudne-s. The last two linos of ^^se h "^ ' """ "'-■' '''"" -^"^ ''•^«^--ivu 
pitch and lonKcr tin.c. ^iu, voice Zin^. fr"n i.u r"' ''"'""■'-' '^ '^"■"'^"^ '" "^ '^-P- 
orotund, in accord with the Kroate ,"'„;" , Z T " '''' '""'''• '''''' ^' ^he 
o^ verse .5 should also be read in Zr^lZ ^^Z^T' '"" ""^ ^^^''^ "•■'- 

'•^:^1.."-L::;;:;-- ^^^^ verse. Olve e„,phasls to 

a-id slower. ifroater, read " no more should need " deeper 

quality. '''" ""* swelling throujrhout, and of the j. u.est 

p^:;^:t"::::r;:;:z:''"« "^"^^ '^-^ -^ ■■— '>'"k tone. am.. 

pre.licts the reign of Chrl^ In 3.' '"'"^ *^'^"" *'^ ^^^^■^'- »^- -*»' "-'P-' Passion. as it 

U'rse 10 must be read softer and i„ io„er i.itch wifh 
especially in lines a and 4 In lin.. s H,n *" ''^P'^es^lon of sufferinjr 

V^se ir the force becon::*!: ^^ rii^''^^.;' '-- ->i. in '' 

events it describes The chief oun.hvi; in f hi ''■"■" """"•'^•° «' the 

'•terro^rofthatblast.'••^s„rface ' • 1,1 L^.. ??' "'"^' '"^ ^'■^'-•" to- Sinai.- 

Verse 18 affonis an ovun ,Io .^ a., i v '''"""" "''"'^'^••"'^"'l " th-ono • 

exprossiveof loathing a" !: Zi;: .•^'""^^'^•»^""""^' »' "- *• Tno uMee. 
When a loud whis,.r chan^ •„ ^vo ! 1 , """^i" r'""'' "' ""'""'' 'l-''^' • - 

"Id reading. They 
I tie force and ex- 
oiiin of voice and 

I hbuid HarideiN 
•'HKcptioii of th« 
tl> Kftjiriess, the 
**"< li )>utho8 and 
Milton's splendid 

">r. on "winter 
•o elevated tojie, 
ive emphasis to 
f theso words. 

fnrsin wliieh it 
uid rendered in 

In lines 7 and 8 

•cadinfrof thcfte 

II any oxcesjiivo 
"ire to a deeper 
i;r force of the 
rst three lines 
the other pas- 
qiiality should 

emphasis to 
need " deeper 

lal Syniphony 
of the i 111 est 

tones, almost 

n force, 
passion, US it 

of suffcri/it', 

'«iva of the 
to "8inai," 
J " throne,' 
The voice, 
quali^, , as 
the horror 
ftlso mark 

with such 
J the beau- 


tiful that j)ervaded the better forma nf f h» „i . 

verses refer. Verse 2.) e.pedll lyTrel ts th T "^'^""='"«'"- '"'^ ^o which these 
Verses "3 to o,nn, ,„ • ^"*"* f'^^'ots those ehuractoristics. 

and cnaelLr h^^th:,:;:;::;;:';:;::":,:;:;;' ;;' -- ■«• They pict,.re the darker 

swelling ton," r ,::^u::: ;;r " ::"r tt. r^ """"■^■^ ^ ■■"•- ^-^^^^ »• <■ 

«i". tones, as if the words pIS f««h fSu ar^iat ""'"-' '" '"" "''''^ -'" '•-^■ 


William Cobbett is, in some resets ..nonf fi 
chai-acters in the whole run«o of SrM.h' f ^''^^ 't^'"* remarkable 

Farnham, .Surrey, in 17G2 ami 1 hed n tl 1 ^'^^''''^T' ""' ^^'^^ '^"'•» "t 
twenty years old. He he^ame .set . 5 T"" ^'^'r < '" ''^ ^^''^ »^a' ly 
to Po,t«nK,uth. where l"e XU^l fo t he ;;%'":'•'*-"""''-** ter a visil 
saa, ami, .iisappoi..te,l in hi. eS o o U n ? v'"' ^' «'''"I^«« ^'^ tJ'« 
he soon afterwards enli.ste.l us Tfnn «nn 11"^'*'*'" "" '^ ""•"-of- war, 

to New Brnnswick. where he pLtsim^^ ^L"'' "^'''"*''"' ^^"« «'''««-^^' 
rapully tlirouyli the iK.u-co,mniss le/l 1' ^iT' '" «'"'"'^<^'.' '^"'•vice. rising , 
major. At the end ov eigh 3 , 1*'^: ''!,^ ^ pos.t.on of sergeant* 
after a brief toiourn in V,, ,l.,r Y^ . ^ allowu.l his •! rscharae aiid 

His time the.::S"p^U^:^ri'iX,:i:iS^'';^ ^^^My,u.t: Sil. 
pamphlets over the .'o,,. ,lt]trej-t^'^^^^^^ 

consequence I'hiladelphia beca e too h. t . !' ^.P""'- As a natural 
proseeutions for lil,e 1, he eiie-u/iy;; I'"'' ''''V' **•"'• ^ 
">ence.llifeanewasaregula iou J^^ Lon.ion, where he com- 

cn H,.ji,ter Mas at first a^T y Zan of th.^ o ^^^'^'^''f ^^^'^ ^^''"l^-'H PolUi- 
a few nionths Cobbett s .utt ual tern enL ' ]T'''''''^ «f'P''. ''"t within 
mn, asserted itself, and for he re ii dL , r'"^''"'' T! "^■^'" '"•'i'^^l- 
a vigorous denouncer^ of evervtS 1 1. t i ^ T'''' "^ ''•** '''f^' ''« ^^s 
of popular rights. Hi. good Vi it^^Jns Lvn T' '"^"'"'^ "'*'' '"« '^•^'^^ 
motives have been sueeml at ,.t f- '>«-^';", 'H'estiontd an.l ids 

cloubt that he. uas a s hicea hater of T '"'^'"f ^^ ^"'" "" «""'» '^^Bon to 
"telligent frion.l of Z .omim^ L h'"! '''"* "'I ^'^''r'^^ »« v^'^'H as an 
longed He tried several te to 3 .?tol>'''r''' '"""'^ '"^ ^'•"'''^Jf '>«" 
elected for Ohlham iii 18.S2 Sir Lbe • w u I''^'''*' /"".' ''''" "* »"«* 
Conservative party in tiu^ Ho , J »f /< ''"^ *'"-'" ^''« deader of the 

opposccUhe pLsaJe f t e S'n^in^r'n % "' '"^•' strenuous ly 
an average share of the copious Ui^rrLi" !•'''".' '" ^^^ ""^''^ *''«» 
with the self-suflicienoy w c of en ^ 1» r^ f '" ' "[T""' '^^''^ 1«"«'-. 
braced the first opportunity o ^ L iin! ^^1'''^ '''^;"'j"'« •"^'"' ^•"'■ 
Htatesman wlioni he had been W HculL *''" ^'""'" '^^ *''« "«"«^'. the 
cotton spinner." As nuLdit huvn » ^ f>r years ,is " baronet an.l 
^>g ,a.s tL grasp of a gS it t i 1^ an iSLT "\' '^'' r^V ''''' »« -"^J" 
Cobbett the editor of the AVW. • s, rvh^ f ''i' ''"^^'' '' «'"'' t''ough 

^^idh^^s ag.:.;s ^:;; ISL^liS? ^t'dl^,*| 

I 'i^l 

Hani things were said of Cobbett as w.,:! n» .,v hi: 

st vva;; ruiiittrked by Jeremy 




^^::z trrz r,:;rr '- '"^ ■""- °' - 

l'""r» usually s,,„„t , „ T , '""' "^ "'"='=«"y oxercte ; the 

■""" " ■'■-t ."i-akc ,.„a Writ" .,;*-:' *''?''""'■' """''' ""''^ 

>va"t „„ »,:1,„„1, „„ ,w„„ ,„ ' ^ "" "' >■""'■ 'if'^- You 

>""' oi,.,,,;,,.:::';; lyZ "\7 '"T"- "■■" "° '-■ 

WIS ,. ,„.iv„t„ .,„1,1,„,. „„ ,,,',■■ '.''•'"■"«' «"""n'nr when 1 

of ."y borti, „,. ti„.t „i tiTJZ t r'"""™ " ''"■ ^'«' «'«" 

my ^"..p,.„.k „,, „„, ,,„„,„t ' - ' ;7 -y «t to study i„, 
'ik" « year of ,:,y , ■ •" ' " • "•»'< '''-' ""' 'I<.m«,.,l „„,t|,i„,, 

"■"■■ '" "■.•„t,.,..til it J 1 ,:;';;":''7'" i'"«''-o c„„.ii„ ..r 

«/. «».'- .such ei,;':;: :::^:;:4!""; """ -^ «■■"• ah,-? 

"•Iv-so or ,.„f„u,„,„ ,„„ ,„ "" ' " "'out ,,„r„„t or friend to 
0--0 can tl„.,.t"^;. "■"'■'■;';'■",""« "■■""'••"<i..«, what 

othor ,o„v,.uicu„-osr'To ! '"'' ""•"""■'"""'''■•I "» to room „r 
™.np„ll,.d tofo,,..,„»<,„, ' ■\''. ''"" o' » «l'««t of paper, I ,va« 

".«lf-tarvation. fid ^ , "^ . 1 '"°"' "'""""' "' " "'"'•^ of 
«-. ; ™.I r had to ad :,';"';' """■ "'»' I -'"-' o»" n.v 

'"«. '™,ing, whi3t,i„: .:;::; •■";'"■'; "- ^^^'-s^ i"..g>;. 

the most tln,„.htless 0, ,,,,?, V ,"'"'"'' "™"'"f 
their freed,,,,, f,,„„ „„ ,„ ' ""l' ""'"■ «"°. ■» the h„„,,,, „f 

«'".«that tl,a,l to..iveTow;,„d !'■;'"' ''"'"'^ "' """"- 
That farthi,,, „,,,, „L ;; , ™ ™ for i,^, pe„, „, ,„.,,^,. 

»» now ; I had ™.at he.hlt . *■• ' ^'"" "" '"" »» I 

V'f^orrectne.8" i„ tho ,,«„ . , ""oUucated, or 


ffiven von flw.i, f-. II ii p" upi.s that 1 Jjuvo here 

ten „,';(„, f "'"/"f"™' "'"'"- -"■ "-Inch 1 l,„e 

«obriety ,.,„, al«ti„e„e. ' f i^^ f r 'T™, " ''^'' '■•^«-' 

t;.e Wo,se,. habit of h.^han. ,;"„'., I u: '. "t T''-"-' 
than aiiv other thin- I m.,,.,1 . """3' time. To this, more 
i" the ai-my. I C l"' • ,l" ! "'>V'^'J."^"'"""'''"'">- >'™""tio„ 

wait one moment for „,.. nj , ' '"' ""■'■ '"r"' '" '"'>""'««. 
-i-d fani eoipoi,,, .. e,.. 1;,: , "f "'"'"'■ '"■'■"'^•>™-- 

.«^'r Ate !;/;rrry;r "■'"'""«■-''<' ".*"....i w^ 


-l"«l H.c»c ,,„„i„, , ,. ,.,"'' ^ '•"'■ K"-"- y°". --eally sub- 

Y "-<"■ ^" -I nev ; :;„'i,7r"'vf ' """ "'"" ^ 

'•''■A w„, wanted l„ ,„ak,. o„ t ■ „ ■ '" "'■" '"™"<"i<»'. " 

man »•„, ,l,v»«.,| forth,, „ i , •* ''"''"■" ""•»■ "'l"''' 

loft to „,c, I ahviv 1 , i '" ""™' "'"' "'" ■"""'■'■ w«» 

::::r t:^:::;:./ tv''t ^'^^ -^^^^^^^ 

" Tho modern pronunciation Tt • W* » 1 .« "■'" """■ '''""' ''"='• 

sweat follows n>ore closely the usage of ^onis 


; and of rigid 
u, reuJiy sub- 
vlmt I (11,1 l,y 

pronictiori, n 
the ii'giiiient. 
10 any other 
uioining was 
"^"'K> in hno 
s : to get up 
ock-^ shave, 
iiy shoulder, 
'»dy to hang 

and bread. 

fast as the 
lad an liour 
lit of doors, 

to exercise 
niiittcr Wiis 
K' as tliut" 
vhich gave 
dd in vain 
t, eight or 
eat of the 

rhf torni Mas 
Iso the inftii- 
B verb "hiis. 
derivation of 

1 J)eorinK t' • 
I for it. 

'play"— here 
s constantly 
» the Latin 

erivcfl from 
njf nso(l lip 
lly deri vetf 
e abnut the 
089 and at 

« of words 




day breaking in upon the time for cooking their dinner, puttinL^ 
all things out of „rder, and all men out of humour. Wlu-n I 
was conuuun.ler, the men had a long day of leisure before them; 
they could nunhh, i„t., the town ..r into th., go to «et 
raspbem,.s. to cat.h birds, to catch hsh,» or to pursue any other 
n.creatioi, and su.-h of them as chose and were cpialiiied. to 
work at their trades."^ 


I^rtb;"^!:;'" ?S"" rl^S •• 'wlKi"'^ '"^"^- ^ho An.lo.S„xn„ ,onn wa« .r..nn 

"ICen." The •^..o.h.n. .^'di^h^Ver^i;:.: .T'lr^ ^ ^/.J^i^^-^^ Kn.lisli 

upclt "Kwete" by Chaucer. "'""Ltu swet, afier the aiuilojry 

or iLt. It Is sjielt "Kwete" by Chaucer """"' "'"^'^ '■'i' ""uiojfy 

railklill was L' fh.,I «ifh „ _.: ." '", '''"l rs of llu ,e tW.) Kelf-nmr n inm, h.,f 

i raiikliu «., fllrcl will, a i,,,.™ rompreCiVivi Ini.JI. . ," " '«L':|""'I" "»». I'M 
Mit than Cobbolt l)<»««»ed ' mtollotl an<l » more (jhiloiiophlcKl Uiji. 


Lord By.™,, an,l, „ae,. fi,„.„i„, l.i/lloiisrcdjit If 'jIL'^fc 

i.;?ai'"KSr,'u7r,;l',!;i:rAr:;rL'j*' ■! •■>« K.«ii.!.. «- .», ,.,h.r, 

an 01 

ua,'e-^ i« a Nonji put by Hyron in thrii o, h ,.f „ r-'^ '? ■ ^"S'"'''. <>r any other, 
.0 of the char^ters if, KZ j .an » Thi ,.rn of tf *""""'-'' "'"* '" f"t'-««lu<fd 
ked in a Mediterrariean voya^'e. i^li^t af CibJ JlniVof""' *^"'-" """''''^ "•^«» 

'One of the wild and smaller CycUles, 

minstrel, or "poet," is lenresente.! VJ r-,Lb 'u . " ^''»''"'n»f« fcstiv ties. The 

I: -,.[ 








Burl«a,„l Siotch Ueviewen, '' a «l . '*'?^j'? P»l'i.^lied hi« "lc„i/lish 
J,>H i.terury contc,nj,omric« Jn tl « s 1 ''"^ '' ''««'•' -'i^atu.g sa fon 
Kurope wl.iuh oecu ucl f «,« ycl ,). ° ^l'"'" ''*> "*'^ «"' o.i u tu ur of 
aiul seoo.i.l cantos of "(IWI.I , f ,,"';'">< *'"'t *'"'«« ho wrote the fir^* 

renir'"' *" ^**'"- ^" ^''^t year i.,. w ft';; u?" "^. ^'"■^•'' ^■^'••- P»^- 

riul only a year, sepurutcl fro,,, f, ' , ., ' /^ "*''"''' ^'^ had beon .nar- 
her reasons lor this eourno Mere ne er ,'*^f"«e«l to return. Th. .,/h 

i'-'Jglan.l never to rctur. frl "^ 1 P"'*'''"' ""«' l^y»<'i» at onc« Ir f 
wrot^the 'MVisoner o ' ('hi Ion ■•■''"'vr'"r /l!'- ''t t'enevrX.^ e 
fhil.le Harold." The I ei "' fil'i'd;?'' "'"' the thii I canto of 
the next two at Pisa th, H.i^ \'^''-^ «"« «|'«Mt at Venice „.u 


TIi<» isles of Grec'fin ? <}.„ ,•>! * /-, 

v^itcto . the isles of Greeco !" 

VV liore buniin^r Sapj,!,,) 

loved and suntf.* 

those in thoXL,s '."'■'■''-■" .''*'''^«^'' ''a'Huvcai, to Thi» '•■'''' "'"' '"«dtrn. 

her unreriul e lovi f*; Phn'" "I '•^''' '''« *« ex,.lo,Je th„ ,Sj^''/ ''' h««r« her name, 
san.o tmd tion hero «n,i .^"k " *" •V^"""'* ""■'•i'le. hut Bvron'^, /i h": ''<-•"'»? driven by 
Canto II.. BtaLa So':""" '"^ '^'^ "^ «'"' "'«r« Poi'-ted Ser"^;co"to u''lr*'a'H ""l?^ 

TS^;':;^1:j;;%'^^;:f--in*^ot.yot forgot. 

^e promontory referred to ,« theineS L ;i:,trero:,'' « 

i-i-utiwia, tHe modem Santa Mauia. 



« Delos, a k 
the wuten at 
«ho was pur» 

WTiero grow tlu, «rta of war an.l peac- 

M hero I)dosro.o, ami l.ha.huH .sprung]^ 
Etera,,! Hummer gil, Is tlu-m yet 
But ulj ..,.|,t their sun, i s,.t.« 

1^'li' ^ u an.I the Teiun muse/ 
Tlio Jioro'« harp, the Jover'n lute. 

""J^^^^^'r^^'-^^'-y-'UrHhures refuse; 

Then, phu-e of hi,th alone is mute 
To sounds, that echo further west 

ri m your siros' "Lslumlsof iho"* 
The mountain, look on .Afarathon- 
V'ia ^3IaraU ionlook.s on the sea ;" 

.ho wWpVr;, Jz\^y^^ ' "^^^^^SSiS^^^ 

•t differed Hcverulv fn. „' h o. k f 1 '" ''.'' '^'^r"' '*'>' '«""«•■«■ Pr « i'r h *1,. / 'f 


i ■ I 



. I f] 


!! I: 


Hiiilcs fmni A«lv 

"" Oa 














1653 East Main Street 

Roctiester, New York 14609 USA 

(716) 482 - 0300 - Phone 

(716) 288- 5989 -Fox 


And musing there an hour alone, 

I dream'd that Greece might still be free ; 
For standing on the Persian's grave," 
I could not deem myself a slave. 

4. A king sate on the rocky brow 

AVhich loolvs o'er sea-born Salamis ;" 
And shi])s by thousands lay below, 

And men in nations : — all were his . 
He counted them at break of day — 
But when the sun set where were they ?'^ 

6. And where are they ? and where aft thou, 
My country ? On th} voiceless shore 
The heroic lay io tuneless now — 

The heroic bosom beats no more ! 
And must tliy lyre, so long divine, 
Degenerate into hands like mine V^ 

the plain adjacent to it the Grecian forces, B.C. 490, under Miltiades, defeated the 
army sent by Darius Ilystapcs of Persia to conquer the country. Tlie plain was offered 
in 18C9 to Byron for about !?4,500, on wliich oh^cr he remarks : "Was the du:it of Mil- 
tiades worth no more? It could scarcely have f-jtched less if sold by weight." 

10 That is, on the Siwt where the slauuhtcred Persians were buried. Traces of the 
mound erected in honor of tlie fallen Athenians are still visiljle. 

11 The kitif,^ ref . rred to is Xerxes. The form " sate " is, with Byron, an affectation ot 
a kind in winch he indulged frequently, and not ahvaj's with a correct knowledge of old 
English Usage ; for some curious examples see the opening stanzas of "Cliilde Harold ' 
Salamia is a small island off the west coast of Attica. In the st ait between it and tlit 
mainland was fought, B.C. 4S0, the battle in whith the Greek fleet under Theniistocle< 
destroyed the arnianicnt collec*;cd by Xerxes, who, on the shore of Attica was an eve" 
witness of the contest. The " rocky brow" was one of the declivities of Mount ^Egaleos. 

12 Point out the figure of speech. Compare the description of the same scene bv 
iEschylua : ■' 

Beep were the groans of Xerxes, when he saw 
This havoc : for his scat, a lofty mound 
Commanding the wide sea, o'erlooked the hosts. 
With, rueful 'rics he rent his royal robes, 
And through his troops embattled on t he (shore 
Gave signal of rctre.t ; then started wild 
And fled disordered. 

18 The minstrel contrasts his own song with the productions of the old Greek poets 
The " lyre —fabled to have been invented by Mercury— was one of the most ancient of 
musical instruments. It eoiiivistcd essentially, as the modern ban) does of several 
strings stretched across a frame, and, like it, was p'.aycd by twitching the strings with 
the fingers. As it was generally used to accompany the voice, poet'rv intended to be 
sung came to be known ns "lyric" poetry. Compare with this stanza Moore's "The 

ham niir>A t.hrniltrVl Tnrn'a VinUa >' 

hai-p that once through Tara's halls.' 

same scene by 


'Tis somcthinjr, in he dearth of fame, 

Thougli link'd a jug a fetter'd race, 
To feci at least a patriot's shame, 

Even as I sing, suffuse my face ; 
For Avhat is l(>ft the poet here ? 
For Greeks a blush— for Greece a tear.'' 
Must ive but weep o'er days move blest ? 

•Must we but !)lusli ?— Our fathers bled." 
Earth ! render back from out thy breast 

A remnant of our Spartan dead ! 
Of the three hundred grant ijut three. 
To make a i\e\Y Thermopylaj !'° 

What, silent still 1 and silent all ? 

Ah ! no : — the voices of the dead 
Sound like a distant torrent's fall, 

And answer, " Let one living head," 


«• R^^^\^^ \ '^. <1°"''<="J ^'■o"' the An-loiiaxon doon; dear, hv the addition of th« 
suffix ^A which smiles "condition"; it theivfore ineans '' dcarne^s " a,'' hea h " 
from hal means "wholeness." Tlie oii-inal nieanin- of " duar " "pom« f^ h.,.^ ' 

InMo?.;^i-"P''u'°,t ''■'"' ^^7"^^ character, and tiiat he s:iw i;,tle radn.ire n ti^e 

Son^^ed ?heniN*e;r;Ur^^^^^^ ^"'•"^'^" "" '^ '^''"'>^ *'-* '^ "-' unwittiajjly 

15 Notice the antitheses in the precedin- four lines. On " but," see Note 19 p 923 

16 Compare " Childe Harold," canto ii. 73 : >.i • - • 

Not such thy sons who whilom did await, 

Tlie iTopclo s warriors of a willing doom, 

In bkak ThernionylsD's scpu'chral strait- 

On, who that gallant spirit shall resume ? 
Tnermopylno rthe 'hot gates ")-a narrow ]ias3 between Mt. (Eta and the sea anH 
leading from Thes.saly intoLocris-was the scene of the celcbi^eV?u^fenre trade bv 
Leon.das and Ins 3);) Spartans agaia.t the i nn>ensc army of Xe 4 n ™4S0 The 
aspiration for a " now T lerniooyto " was in some measure rcnlizedfr one o the in 
tSc posmon. ^'"' °' "'^^J'«"'l«"'=« ^^--^^ - «tr"fe'S'e for the possSn o, this luie st^^ 

JI \^f^ ^^i' "° «?*•■"'>: o' !>0P"lar leaders during the Grieco-TurkiPh war but onlv 
one, Marcos Bozarris, achieved a hi-h militarv rcDutation. and h« wm n-fe ° n-^"f. ".'.^ 
a ouiiOEo cmei. Keo Note 24, p. 27o. " ' . J "- wtta "-t ^, 0..5 



f -s 


i I 

.: AM 

r- II 


But one, uriso — -wo come, we come!" 
'Tis Lilt the living that uve dumb. 

». In vjiiu — ill vain ; strike other chords ; 
lull high the cup Avitli Saiuian wine ! 
Leave battles to die Turkish hordes, 

And shed the blood of Seio's vine l^^ 
Hai'k ! risiiij.; to the ignoble call — 
How answers each bold Bacchanal U^ 


You have the Pyrrhic dance as yet ; 

Where is the Pyrrhic phalanx gone 
Of two such lessons, why forget 

The noblei and the manlier one ? 
You have the letters Cadmus gave — " 
Think ye he meant thoni for a slave ? 

ifiWhat is the flf,nire of speech in this line? Sanios and Suio (Chios) have been 
fxniou ; in both ancient and modern times for their wine. Cf. " Don -hian," Canto III. 
stanza 31 : ° ' 

\n(l flasks of Saniian and of Chian wine. 

19 Sec Note 23, p. 234. The term " Bacciianal " is used hero in the sense of " wine- 
drinker," and coiivejs a somewhat unjust imputation on the national character of the 
Greeks of Hyron's day. 

20 On the " Pyrrhic dance " compare " Don Juan," canto iii. 29 : 

'Midst other indications of fesiivitv, 

Seeiiit,' a troop of liis domestics dancin;,' 
Like dervises, who turn as on a pivot, ho 

Perceivsd it was the Pyrrhic dance so martial, 

To which the Levantines are very partial. 
The Pyrrhic danco was Doriati in its ori^'in, and, like some of the rhythmic niove- 
ments of the Auicricaii Indians, was ori^'inally a war dance, as distinguished from one 
deviled for purpose.'^ of religion or mere pleasure. The motions of the Ibody were made 
in quick time to flute music, and were intended to be a kind of training in the acts of 
attack ;'.nd defence, the dancers being completely armed. The " Romaika," which is 
still dancod in Greece, seems to be a relic cf the ancient Pvrrliic dance. The latter was 
80 much thought of by Julius Caesar that he had it introduced into Rome. The " pha- 
lanx" was a body of foot soldiers set close togetlier, .sometimes in the form of a rec- 
tangle, and sometimco in that of a wedge. It was in use in very early times amongst 
the Spartans, and was greatly improved by Philip of Macodon. ' The reference in the 
text is no doubt to the Macc.'onian phalanx, by means of which Pvrrhus, king of 
Epirus, succeeded in roiting tlio more loosely organized Roman army. From the name 
of Pyrrhus comes tliu sjecond "Pyrrhic" here; the flr^t is from ■"P\ rrhichos," the 
reputed inventor of tlie dance leferred to. Tlie use of ihe same word in such different 
senses is of the nature of a i-un. See Appendix B. 

21 Cadmus was acco/ding to some aecouTits a native of Phcenicia, according to others 
a native of Egypt. He was the reputed founder of Thebes n Greece, and is said to have 
brought with him from Egypt sixteen letters of the alphabet which hail come into use 
in the Litter country. Their number was subsequently ini'ieased to twent\ by Pala- 
medes, and to twe!ity-four by Simonides. The latter, who died B.C. 467, is said to have 
invented the long vowels and some of the double letters of the Greek alphabet. 



Fill high tlui bowl with Suiuian wine ! 

Wo will iK,t think of themes like these ! 
It made Anacreon's song divine : 

He served— l)ut served Polycrates— 
A tyrant ; l)ut our masters the.. 
Were still, at least, our countrymen.' 




The tyrant of the Chersonese 

Was freedom's l)est and 1. rarest friend 
TJiat tyrant was Miltiades .' 

Oh ! that the present houi AvouJd lend 
Another despot of the kind ! 
Such cluiins as his were sure to Lind.^^ 


hios) have been 
lan," Canto III., 

sense of " wine- 
character of the 

•hytbmic move- 
lished from one 
ijotly were made 
,' in the acts of 
laika," which is 
The latter was 
lie. The " pha- 
! form of a rtc- 
times amongst 
eference in the 
yrrhus, kinff of 
From the name 
,\rrliiclios," the 
n such different 

irdinff to others 
1 is said to have 
1 come into use 
;wentv by Pala- 
, is raid to have 

Fill high the l)owl with Saniian wine ! 

On Suli's rock, and Parga's shore 
Exists the remnant of a line 

Such as the Doric mothers bore ; 

hen »«,,t to Ati,on«, whore ,„„,t ot hij .uhsinM ,1 ite L^ 2,1 O^S^» i.,„'''°'-'"!™ 

Mela^ ; (2) the Seythian>now the Crhnea • Av\h„ pf -^^ Hellespont and the Gulf r,f 
montory in Argolis, now Ca^ aierson W • anH«^o I "■""''• "°J ^^'^'-n^^'-k; (4) a pro- 
pro:ninent Athenian cS^^ thH n e of' Pi itS,f« *?r" '"/i^?*"; ^^^^es wL a 
of the Chersoncsus. which bad bee nolo niS 'w ?n^^^^^^^ ^""^^ possessio,. 

himself-Miltiaclca. Ifo ioincd Darius IlvstlSrJfirb XtfM ''''- "'i.;.'»'"e i"""-' as 
scein? future danger to Greece counse led th^ PnfHn 7*^'*"/'-lP'''''*'""' '»"''' '"''e- 
Danubo in the rear of the Pe^iarki^«-7o „« f^"^^^^ **>« bridfire over the 

After a somewhat chequered caTe? he rftu?ned o Athens ^'b^C^'^"" °' ">'' '"'"^l 

t:iTsi^' "''-''' '' ''' ''" ^* M^-ti^.^ Ko„.°i5airofr^^ 



I- ni 




And there, i^erliaps, s»./ie seed is sown, 
The rierucleidun blood might own." 

Trust not for freedom to the Franks— 
They have a king who buys and sells :" 

In native swords, and native ranks, 
The only hope of courage dwells ; 

But Turkisli force, and Latin fraud, 

Would break your shield, however broad.^^ 

II The last line of this stanza Is in Byron's M.S. : 

. Whi( h Hercules nii-ht decni "hia own. 

The on-inal homo of tl;o Dorian ra. c was Doris, in northern Greece One of thnir 
e:n!y Lirij-s .s sad to have heen ai.lecl hy Hercules ir. the recovery of hs throne from 
\v!ul!i ho \n\ Ijccn exposed. The desceiKlaiits of Ilcrculps— cal'f. 1 fm ii-^^?H ' f; ' 
Greek form of hi . name. Ilerakle;<ia,,,,^ been aftcr^^^^^^^^^ 

nesiH, took rcfw-ro ni Dons, at.d were hy tho Dorians rcstorc.l to t hd r , Cessions Tl,' 
Doriang reinai:icd in tlie Peloponnesus, and were tlienccforward (jio rnW rni' • •I'' 
their conquest (f the country bein- known in instorv asX retu 4 of iho^nf "^'*' 

1 ke of tho Hellenic races ; hence Ihe rcferenco in tho f.Mirth line V^r<Xt> „ ?n.f •<• .' 
8ca-port town on tlio western coast of Albania, nearly op,x,"te ?e sonUinrn .vf ''"?'^ 
of Corfu. Suli is tho name of a district along the sh re f rthcr to f . J^ m '^^"-J,',*-^' 
Suliotc.i of Byron's time were a mivcd race-mrt'v Greek bn/ iLn lif,f ith. Tho 
de<cendar,ts of fanulics who had, in tho 7 h ce^nSry takcrl ro ui^^fn^t.f '^'''^''T'-'^^ 
ons re-ion from Turkish opprcs ion. I'cr many wars fhevresHstPd « ^i ?"i'^1',"- 
efforts of the 'IMrki^h s.atrap 'aII Pacha-IiimSf Alba an desce £to sub l„o' "h "'° 
even the women takin- in the heroic defcneo iCan Lmnnf nVt,^ . "° }^^"^' 
Finlay'.s "History of Modern Greece"; and .scral^o Mrs Hcmars'^b^ 
o-,e of its episodes in " The Suliote Mother." T le Sullotes n i-^^ m ,,1^"^ °' 

ship of Dozzaris, then a mero yonth, abandoned he cStLdmnf,^^^^^ ^''^?*''"- 
t > the Ionian Lies, where ILe/rcmained untif S2o' D S^ B on'^Oreol"'f!;'*'''^^** 
1C03 he paid a visit to AH Pacha at Tcpelcn, and, on the vrrney back to AtLn " '" 
nearly lost in a Turki.s', vessel which was driven on tl e co4t of s„ii c ^f"^! m'?^ 

fo'r.-:'o" "• TT '''^'^ l^i-V'css with which the moCntkfnee^Ltt'l hV, ft'hen^^^^^^^^^ 
to have evoked a warmer interest in their history thnn Rvmn «r„i,i lu ■ ''?^"'s 
felt, and to have ^ecure 1 for , en. a kindher me, >i5S" Si ode bin but'ro?it ^^ 
would have received. I!: is worthy of note that durin- bis T-iv >, \i?o . • •'* ^''^^ 

he had totiban:!on an oxpc lition b.e h.adXn ed a-'ains Un^nt^ 
havinur been due to tl,o\niseondnet of I balid o?--Stc';''X.n' he hadTaTen"ln?o 
his pay and who gave Inm so much trouble th.-^t be was constrained to, lf«n,l if.? ^^ 
an incident which sliows the prosaic side of this half civilized li/t intn^^^^^^^ 
Their most remarkable cx;,loit during Ihe war ,V n cpe S^ ''%''«; 

defence of Missolonjrbi in 1822-23. In a brilliant sortirnlaS to '^vn 'c^ successful 

2-, Tho '' Franks," in the .nth century, conquered tho Roman province of Gaul and n-n v« 
that country its modern name, France Bvron ina ■ bive n Jn n,„ tl? V ' •., '^^ ® 
a frcnoral epithet for the peool'e of western Euro e'o^as™ ,n™ ''^'^ " ''"\^' 

French people. The kini of France at the time^vas'Lm^^ but^?he'?ofl°/ "'" 

in this ino niay be to the friendly relations subsistin;>-ra the t n c of m on's i«'t t^ 

Will Gaul or Muscovite redress ye? No.^^i.*.'^ *^'^. ^^'^^'^ compare "Childo Harold," cant?) ii* stanzas T^ <3i o„.i , 
" The Giaour," lines 1-1C3. in both of wlueh pass^es the gloonv"'ew iaken by" ByS 


ifl. Fill high tho bowl with Samian wine ! 

Our virgiiu dance beneath the slmde— 
I see their glorious black eyes shine;" 

But gazing on each glowing maid/ 
My own the burning tear-drop Lives, 
To tliink^« such breasts must suckle slaves. 

16. Place me on Sunium's marbled steep, =« 

Where nothing, save tlie waves and I,«« 
May hear our mutual murmurs sweep ; 
There, swan-like, let me sing and die :■•» 


\oiyr and severe strufrtric A !. nttcr of h^T'-' * '"•":'^'-''« displayed itself durS 
terminated by the inTorfcrence o ' re^t llrint ^ ^"'■'' "'or<^°^e'-. that stru^e faS 

Latin "i.he..e applied to V^^I^S, ^S:^Z^^ Z^'' '" '''^- ^^^ *-" 

•*' nee Mason s Grammar " S')r -nri " / 1 i,„i*. ci , 

29 Compare Sophocles' "Max" 101- ..o, .„""'' ^•^• 

Tolonna the southern extremity cf Attica tV i'!'n .. V *'^*' "'"''<'"* "'-^'ne of Cape 

rjrh.and in ancient times was crowned witif a tl '.'M'l''"'r''^°'">- ■ "^a^b' 3(X)fe?t 

(Mlncrv•a^. The cohnnns of tWs t^n n I «• ,- . ' '''"''i.^',,*'-""'?''' dedicated to Athena 

considerable <iistance by the tiavoIwl.L ''' '""u" ^'"' '" existence, are seen u * 

the occasion at once oflhe modern name of^y^^^^^^^^^ \''}^'''' ^^'-^ o'r land and t! e 
epithet, "marbled steep." Vear this ^nnt L,^° ca,pe and of the allusion in Byron's 
cribed in FUconor's po^^",, ''Tre feS™^^^^^ ^^ *he Dritannil'^Zl 

of tho vcasel, thus locatcs'the scene of the 6atastrophe • ' '''*''' """' *^^ ««*=°nd "'«'»« 

Ann'i"''' Athenian mountains thev" descry 

Aod er the 8uri,^e Colonna frowns on h'^h the capo', projecting verge is pK 

A range of columns long by time defiml • 

f'"-^ J^l'-^nted by devotion to smtain. ' 

Ait. ^" Olden times, Tritonia's Rncn^A fn.,k 

••llules and Cautions, 4S2. ' '"' ''"' * different view, see RushUm™ 

ally clJs'se'd amon;4 poeU^a^'l^^^ T'^"'-^' "^''^^ J"'^* ^"-e death is usu- 

history. Erman, in his '"Travels' in Siberia^ Vn ^"'yPn?^.'"? ^^"^ foundation in natura 
forth its last breath in note" most KSlW ct^^^^^^ ?" '''r!.' ^"''^" mounded pours 
land swan that its note resenib cs the v o in Z^^^^^ '"'^'^^ " '« "^i'l of thVlce! 

cumstance sufficient in itself to connect i in ?h.. '^f »nis,c presages a f haw-a e?r- 
Poctry abounds with references to the allnln^ ^ /' '''''"'}''>' '"^^ Pleasant ns-ociations 
with the allusion in , he te^L follouS^fJonfonrrD;? Tn^n"'.*''^ "™"- ^'^«'^'« 

; W^iat is that, MothcrV""' The swan mv^nvf' P"*^'"' '' 

Death darkens his eye and unplunics his winrr. 

I =1 


a J 


T J| 

f sv 





J' ] 


\ 1 






. ! 


A land of slaves shall ne'er be mine- 
Dash down yon cup of Samian wine !»' 

— Byron. 


wilhTnlr^^'r !; '■''"' ^''^ '""""'' •'"" ^"^ '"""'-^^^d ""•<=«. ««Pecially on "Greece - 

: ot^N :r.%:pZr''H' ' , 'i""^ 'r "r^- "^•^" •"-^' "'»''-'-* «. 

forcoTn •''alone • n^csT'", «■"'"■;' J'"'' '= ""'^'"^'^'^ "'"'•'''" -^^ '""-- the 

had just oeen heard Hirll'inJ: ' '^'^"'^ ^"^'^ °' ^'^ ''y'"^ father, who 

_ "Tis stranire that death should sinjy 
I am tne cyK'net to this pale, faint swan 
Who channts a doleful hymn to his own death, 
And from the or«an-pipc of frailty sinffs 
Tn +1,0 .. IT ^ X .^^"" "•"' '"'^>' '" ^''f'r listing rest. 
^Tn^the •' Merchant o>Ve„,ce.- he makes P„rHa sa?, while T^a.^an.o is choosing the 

Let music sound while he doth Aake his choice, 
ihen, If he lose, he makes a swan-like end 
Fadinsr m music: that, the comparison 
May stand m -re proper, my eye shall bo the stream 
T„ «m^ 1. " u ^".'' '™*<'''y 'Ifiath.hPd for him. 

point ofTath. .^mX^DSZZ' :^^t2.l7J^^ ?^ "f"^ '"""'^ ^""■'-- -* '^^ 
Dexdomonn'i^ foreho ii,.,rs anH he p alntivlo d haUa fwh-^ 1 1i'''"^ ■''"■'^"- "efcrrinsf to 
to her before her murder, Bmilin savs : *"^ '° persistently recurred 

What did thy sons: bode ladv' 
Hark can -St thou hear me? I will plav the swan 
In the .'Rape of Li^^lce^' '^^V '^'"^"' -"«-. -"o-.' "' 
And now tiiis pale swan in her waterv nest 

Pone in th<. '< Ti.^J'^l^X^^ sad dirge of her certain ending, 
i'ope, m the Rape of the Lock," canto v., says: 

Thus on Meeander's flowery inirgin lies 
p.^«o I.- 1. . ^"® •'^'^'""S >*\^'''*n. I'lfi as'he sings he dies ^ 

i^^Fvtu'"' '" ''^"'"^*'°" ^^•'*'^ *h«- ""-^- ha^« a reference to OWd's '.Hero- 
Sic ubi fata vocant, udis abjoctus in herbis, 
iTor o V,- 1,1 Ad vada Mseandn concinit a^bus olor 

32Tnese hnes are a fittin<r conclusion to what Lord Teffrpv c^\f^A «+Kio „i • 
ode 0.1 the aspirations of Gr.ece after liberty " ^ ^ ^^^^ glonoiia 



I'id's "Hero- 

Veme 4.-EmphMi8e "kinjjr," with pause, and "SalamlM," "thousands," and "na- 
tions." Uoa.l "all wore his" with force anil orotund voice, arul emphasise "his." 
Krul linen 5 and 6 with force, hut pause at "set"; then a«k the question bi deeper 
and more solemn tone, with emphasis on "where " and "they." 

Verse 5.-Li„e 1: eniphasiso "are," and "thou." Lino 2; reduce the en.pha«ls 
Slightly on "country." Lines .S and 4: do not regard the aiKicop,\, hut read "the 
heroic." Kea<l the passage from " on " to " more " deeper, and with mournful oxpres- 
sion, but throw fervor and Indignation into lines h and 0. 

.^!r*l""~^'"° ^" "^•"*™''" **'^'-''' emphasis, not "patriot"; because, if he cannot 
wield the sword nor strike the lyro as a i)at.iot, hq at leuHt fcols the patriot's »hame 
or his unworthlness. The expression is uttered as a rebuke to those who hear him, 
but who are sacrificing patriotism to pleasure. Lino : rea.i the first haU indignantly 
and the second tenderly, with emphasis on "blush" and "tear." 

Verse T.-Lii.cs 1 and 2: Emphasise strongly "weep," " bhish," and "bled," with 
rising inflection on the first two and falling on the third. Read the remainder of the 
verse with force and orotund quality and lofty expression; emphasise "three" and 
" new Thermopylce." 

Verse 8 -Read this ver«e with grandest solemnity, almost like a chaunt, and increase 
this quality in the quotation ; read the secon.i " we come " slower, but with more force 
than the first; emphasise "living" with falling inflection, and end "dumb" with a 
rifling inflection. 

Veraea-Give rising inflection to "vain," reading the words with an expression of 
despair; emphasise "other"; the remainder of the verse should be read with an ex- 
pression of bitter, mocking irony, mingled with scorn. 

Verse lO.-Line 1 : emphasise "Pyrrhic," and, in line 2, "phalanx," reading the line 
in a tone of indignant rebuke. Line 4: emphasise "nobler" and "manlier" Line 
5 : emphasise "letters" with pause, and "Cadmus." Line 6: read the question with 
indignant scorn; give emphasis to "think," and increase it with prolonged time and 
with rising inflection on "slave." 

Verse ll.-Read the first three lines with reckles.s defiance. Line 4 : emphasise 
" he" with falling inflection, prolonging the time, and, with rising inflection, "served"- 
then render "served Polycrates" slowly and robukingly, with emphasis and feeling on 
" Poly crates." Line 5: arising circumflex on "tyrant," as if he said, "a tyrant I 
admit, but," and read the remainder with patriotic warmth ; give emphasis to "mas- 
ters" and "countrymen." 

Verse 12.-Read this verse in the same spirit. Line 3: pause at "tyrant," and em- 
phasise "Miltiades." Lines 4 and 5: prolong "oh!" and emphasise "another." Line 
6: emphasise "his," but read all the line with force. 

Verses 13, 14, and 1.5 are to he read with an expression of recklessness, as if mocking 
the revellers, but mingled with stern rebuke. 

Verse 16.-Begin this verso in deeper tones, and with mournful expression, but pass 
to mdignation in line 5, aud give that feeling the fullest force in line 6. 

r* I 

I if 

1 ' * 

j: • 

W4 ^^^^'^J^IAN nEADEIi.-noOK VJ. 


ing the extent anfl tlmiJnlEs o X so' ^ '""'' ""twitLstan.!- 

matter of con ecturo. T ho S Le h^ IhN I "'r/'* ^'^^ '•«'"''^"'' '^ 
intro.luctiou. (cimp. i. an.uTmp ; , 1 n r' "'*" ''"^ Parts: (1) the 

por-Hon, family, social position ^;' I l,^ 'V'"''! «""''•'' '^" '^^'^"""^ «f tl»e 
an.l alHo of hs tS at t o i'.w .^""°'"''?'''^^'' '""»" "^^ the patriarch, 
•.otween ^o/> an. is tH vo comfi"" ';^'*'"""..- (^) tlio controversy 

between sin an,lafi'tio(;n"";£Ll^^^ '^'f"* *'"« «•' ''^^•«" 

by ElihH, to ./o/. on the o /e lan^an / ^ I Jl''"'*?''.^'^ (xxxii.-xxxvii.) 
(4) the assertion, (xxxv vH l.w ? "•' ^'".'f ^'''•^"''■^ "» *''« «t»'er 
manifested i„ the u^^^^^o^ ^^'S:^\ "^ 'r/'^". «lo.y. as 
Ho appeals; and (o) the esi™^^^ 

tion to prosperity, ami Lmhftodll I "^ «^ •^^^''' '>■« ''estora- 

cpmpletely miHint;rp ete (J^ ' '"Ldf o?^''^ ^''« '''^'l 

absence of historical testimonv as n /.''"^'."S '?^'' "^'''»- J" tl»e 

ous bibliographical 1 eor ' m^ " V"^'!''''''"'] ^^*'»« ^«^k, luuner- 
afforded by the text Ise f MLnlTf r""^ on the internal ovi<lence 
it was written by /<./> himself wK *'"'" ''T *'^" following: (1) that 
and that Moses, during h^firtv 1 ,v!'-^'"'"^ '•.,*''," V^^^'^^^'M era, 
of Midian, became a(m,a nt;d vitH T'"!' '^'*'' '^'^''''^ "' *"« 'and 
Hebrews, amongst wlZ saore. b .nt^ > "r*'''"'"^'«*' it to his fellow- 
(2) that it was tiie m'o luct,\.n f A'// '^ ^'^'r "T"'' «»"'^« remained; 
book; (.S)that it wa t rw k f ^'f''' ''"' ""^ *,''« characters of the 
Hebrew who live.l abo n tlTc Ino i^lT^A ^^ 1^- '''''"'« «^^' »• l«a">e'l 
tlie time of the Babylonish cap Uitvu' J i"S'*^ ^''^f '^""«» ^'•^"t 
whe:her Job was a real personage ov Jw ''\^- ''''^' ^^""'^ ^''«P»t«l 
whether the narrative s^a rS^to v o^n ,'''?*'Tr"^ >''" ^"*''«'-' ""^ 
alike of internal cvide.iL amt of tW^ \ * ""^^'f^ ^"=*'""- ^^^ weight 
in ^.vor of the view that t Ic o. ce t^T^ tt 'r'''^?^" ^^^"'"^ *" '- 
as Arabia Deserta, a patriarol of ^Pof In 'i *'^^. ^^''ahty now known 
long period of pmspedty T/e ,?4ml extS lF'°'"'"'^^^^ **^^*' "^^^'^ ^ 
was, during the tiine of hum ili' tion f n-l ^I r'7 "^^^tionsa ; that he 
remarks of friends who a " ud^ Vl ^ l "^ i-'^'" to the well-meant 
Hpooial judgn.entr, for . pedS " "s^c ^l.T^f '" ^'^ ^^"'"y^ sent as 

"•as not conscious; that af fer 1 s snl^^ •"•» with guilt of which he 

lUeaof the whi.-h is " i sh V n„ " ^''-'^ ' ."' ^^ ^'^"'^ »" ». to afford a better 
Pendix A. The ialics of tlVe au hor l^oT-vo; • ^'"''''^^'■"■■'^ "* "^hrew poetry Seo An 
chancres have been made i,. thftax". T'""" '""'^ '"'^''^''''^d, and onJy slight verbal 

«i^'° "es inK^i;;iS:,^^j^ J r ^.l"!^ "-ffl^cted .•'. it o.c„rs in only 
E.ek. XIV. 14; and James v, li. ^ ^"""^ «* ^ob." namely in Gen. xlvi. 13; 

V ■ 


Er^::,::^lt^^:::r;!;'hi;xr'' ""'''r ^^^^y- -«'"-"• 

preparation of the W( rk )nn o.i i T' '"'''''"' "•'J*''^'^" '" ^••*''«' '" tl'e 
im.Uiou ouaglT an w oood^^^^^^ iHuHtmU. the dh.ct of 

for hiH being 8o^u^l,ot^"^ i Z/ \ .«„' 7'" '^ "n.Ie.Hta.Hl llu, reason 
Htatenient that he rem aine utti ken L 1' ''""", '" "'"" .""^•^•' "' *»'« 
rible. in his faith in (^>.l AnX oh , 7 ""■'" ^'^ '^""^y. ''^'^ever ter- 
the very Drevulent i.h fl... \^^^ """• ""''""•>to.lly, to . cn.l.nt 

t»y Josns Christ himself, u So ^ T^ 7"'' *''""*'"'" ccn.lattd 
of his frien.l.. Juh „„t n erelv li.ft ".w 1 * ""''^*-''' ^" *'"' ^^''"««" 

'"•t assert., as tl>e t^^lli ^"^."""pe J,^ ''lil^TTrf "' '"'"""r' 
"I'lently prospemuH. The /r * ^^icke.! men are fre- 

showing; on the one ha .1 t W 'n ' *" *''""' "P *'"' '''«i^'"lt> by 

other, that afH Sh ^e ;M,tt r ^ is perlcctiy pure, an<l, on the 

'netho.l of .leali.y .ji;^'" " ' , 'T?'"*! ^^ •>'«c^ip'ino. loaves (iod's 

to the parties theLelve „S the fV"^'.*'^^^^^ *''^' •••«^'^'" '^"t 

'"•nself npon the scene ""'*''''"'»'«•• ''f the l,,.ok then h.ingR Cod 

tlio followin., palSe hneS^ ° '^'^A ^^''•^'' '« ^""taine.l in 

'lefenceof His tSne.^t f ol . ^-^'Pjanat.on of t .e n.y.tery, nor a 
an upright ml ''t\ll^ *" *'« "'^ P''-*«'^t a»d 

challenge to ./o to • t- 1 £1' "^ \^'V'" '^'"'"'"t« P^'^^*-. ""'1 a 
to .ue^ioa the ^Hnil^L^^.r^SSs^f ^irtl^ /^^^^^^^ 

Who .-. this that darkonoth counsel by word, without 

tor I wdl demand of th,>o, and answer tliou me » 

Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? 
i declare, if tliou liast understandincr. 
Who huth laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest?* 
Or who hath stretclied the line upon it? 
Whereupon are the foundations tiiereof fastened? 
Or who laid the corner stone thereof? 
When the morning stars sang together, " 
And all the sons of God shouted"for jo'y?» '*" 

(JcHl, and expressed a «ksl. to ! avc an om,o.S A^^^^^ T*""*'*' ''^ ^^^ ^^■«^""fc'« «' 

n.w gives him this o,,port„nitv.a,^ v \"L l : .« h^fVh"^' h^>^<^<xv,e beiore Hin>. God 
questions about the wiible, inaVer a vir 1 it s LiL ^"♦i,"",''-"'^ "j^ ™" answer these 
c-essfuliy the my. eries of His nVo a^Lo 'e , rent '' Pi. I '''"^ of trying to solve sue- 
phoncal expressio.. enuivaliuit to '■ nrrrarp t v of* " n , "^ '^^ '° "■" '« a nieta- 
tant bodilv task, the Orienta has to faTn un h fflL- ^^^T ^"^ .^"''^^f ^" ^^y "'"'J "r- 
Exodus xif. 11; I Kinffs xviii/40 n vln-"^!^ <^ "^ •^*'?. ""'^^ Compare 

I Peter i^ 13, a-d other^ i?,'A\S'tt .'a„,e''expSo;;"oj;;;/P''^^"-« ^'^ ^* = 
^^;The force seems to be. "for thou Knowos," the expression",::;;^ apparently used 
* The singular beauty of these two lines ha. made then, f.milia. to .vc^one. Th. 

I t 



f If 

I "HI 





Or who shut ..p tho ...a with .loors, 

Ami wt Iwrs ,iri,l ,|„„i.s^ 

A"cl sai,!, IIi„„„,„ .,,,„,( u„„. „o„,e, b„t no fu,tl,..r- 
I a,t tl.,m ,»„„M„„„I„| tl„. „„„,,i„^, „i„„„ H ,1, , 

T a . ,,,,«Ut tak., I,,,l,l „f th,. .Mul. of ll.„ 1,, 


And tlie.vatand aa a Karment '» 

A..,l fr„™ tl,„ wick,3,l tluM,. |i«ht i, vvithholden... 

And the; In-h arjn sliall I,o )„„koii 

0>_lu^UI,„„ walk,.d in th,. »„„,.cl, of tl.o deptlW' 

..tea ?SK° ' c:,x*i^r/„'.'r,r* '• -*«- ^ *= >..■« .™. 
doe. .hJc„*,;i^fetes'."" "•° ""■"'■"• »'«'•• •»i,i',',':,r:rs'™s 





Have tlio gates of .loath Won uih..u..I unto thco? 

!• luust tlu.u H..UU tlio .locrn of tl.o «lu.low of death?" 
Ha.s thou i,orc.ivo.l th. brea.lth of tho oarth? 
-Uuclaru if them kiiowust it all.»« 

Where is the way wh,:re Jiglit .hvelh,tli 1 
An. a./». .lHrkn,, wh.t-e is the plan, thereof. 

That thou shouldest take it tn- the hound th.-reof. 

And that th.M. Hhouldest k^o^v the path. /. the house thereof/ 

ivnovven tl..u // h..auso thou want then horn ? 

Or b-rame tlie number of thy days i, .nvat ? 

Ilast thou entere. I iuto the treasurer of the snow ? 
Oi hast thou seen tlxe treasures of tlie liail 
Wlu..h I have reservcl against the of 'trouble 
Agauiat the .lay of battl., and war?'" 

IJy what way is the light part.Ml, 
H7»VA s,.atto.-eth_t},e east win.l upon the earth T 

of r t^^^^^^^^ rii?^S^^ 

rcyian into which hun a s uls mss U 'a h"""V- ""'''"''t-" *"" ''"^ '''''J mysTc 'o„« 
Kii'M.HottMon of our Kn^.ii.h "or - hell " u nr f " 1 "'"^^^^^^^^ note that iho oduiml 
drawn from human si^ht • so that i i .. ''*A' '''''"*' ''' ^''n'lent, but a j !a<-n wifh 

pthorecl. from tho .'th^paH a-'^Ts refi^rrcHl hf';.'''?/' '"■^'"" ^''^ «"'h = ^7' it n ' *be 
tamont writers, in this view \ ih.h7 *"• ^''^tho «a.s noCal,)-.!' auonirst O n-ii 

tho spot whence it issues^" Tho ,.f^i ''"• '""".'hest limit of darkness audntXT* 
.'Tho„,„„c,„.,i„ cither .„ u,. .„„,„„, ,h. „„„„, ^... , . 

L I 


111 > 


Who hath divi.led a watercourse fo. the overflowing of waters"- 

Or a way for the lightning of tlninder ; 

To cause it to rain on tlie earth, where no man is ; 

On the wilderness, wherein there is no man ; 

To satisfy the desolate and waste rfrowid ; ' 

And to cause the bud of the tender herb to sprin- forth? 

Hath the rain a fatlier ? " 

Or wlio hath begotten the drops of dew ? 

Out of wliose womb came the ice ? 

And the lioary frost of Iieavon, who hath gendered it ? 

The M'aters arc hid as with a stone, 

And tlio face of tlie deep is frozen. ^^ 

Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades, 
Or loose the bands of Orion 1 
Canst tliou bring for;li Mazzaroth in his season 
Or canst thou guide Arcturus with liis sous P^ 

carried alon- by the wind: "a.islatcs these two hnes as if V ij^ht were 

When doth the li-ht <Iivide itself, 

18 Thnf ;<= ,• .. , f " ''''' ''""' '^'■'"■•^''^ '^ "P'"' the earth? 
18 ihat IS, in the uloiuis or firniameiit, not on tlie earth 

account for the phenomena comK.'ctea with H ' '"""' '*" ""'>' ""Porfeetly 

— „. uuiKV'iii) IS in ravor of thia > oi 

s i^TL^^^s iS -Js fo;;£i'7t:/^t t* r ''^?" :-^'"^^ >«■ ^'- -<;'- 

account for th , expression ' 'loo'e th . hamlf'Whf *"■ K^- '"*'' ''' ^'^■''- This would 
appear with the adront of « M-inr'ind nW^!/'''* ''l^* ^"" f'-^^e- As the Pleiades 
an nmnand the period of sto- s WhirlX L ^•''^'^'y' f." "f^'''""" comes in with 
stnUin. .antithesis between it „nd ^Sr^lC?::^ ^SyS,:;-^ iS^ 

dered " Arcturus." is now , enern Iv r..VT, '""""'■"•-'• The Hebrew word a, 
differences of opinionri^ri^^ll^i^fSi:::^^,''!!^.!!^!!!!''*'^^ t^^-t^h th 

lere are 
in iho 

' waters^; 




iased by suji- 
'licli often 
ight were 

iiljarly niys- 

ix. 9 ; and 
tenii "Maz- 
'olh, u.vimlly 
2 text, and 
al criiics is 
tions of the 
' oitl khnah, 
l;ttle doubt 
(lie "Seven 
.cs begin to 
has been 
iv incline to 
1 the tics of 
to whether 

1, however, 

the notion 
This would 
le Pleiades 
les ill with 
. 1 hero is a 

aiKh. rcn- 
h there are 
Ua" itj the 


Knowest thou the ordinances of heaven? 

Canst thou set the dominion thereof in the earth ?a 

Canst thou hft up thy voice to the clouds. 

That abundance of waters may cover thee ? 

tnnst thou send liglitnings, that they may ^o 

And say unto thee, Here we areP^ 

Wlio hat], put wisdom in tlie inward parts? 

Or who l^atli given understanding to the heart?- 

U iio can nund)er tlie clouds in wisdom ? 

Or who can stay tlie l,ottlos or heaven,=^^ 
WJion tlic dust growetli into Imrdness', 
And the clods cl(^ave fast together ? 

Wilt thou lumfc tlio prey for the lion 
Or fill tlie appetite of the young lions 
When they couch in thdr d(ms, 
And abide in the covert to lie in wait ?2.^ 



constellation usuallv p.ilipri fhn <i^ ^ ^ — ___ 

2" P 11- • "iJinaer a rew hoirs ahead '' i"«"'i-'iion is to 

. 2f The Hebrew word tr.m^lifoH «„* ,. 

• i 

: 3. 

i If 

' •> 

■J ' ? 

K ^ I 



II ,■ 

: ^1 




^oats of the rock bring 


Who provideth for the raven his food 1^ [meat. 

Wlien his young ones cry unto God, and wander for lack of 

Knowest thou the time when the wild g 

Or canst thou mark when the hinds do c '■. 3 ? 

Canst thou number the mowilia that they fulfil? 

Or knowest thou the time wlien they bring forth? 

Tliey bow themselves, they bring forth their young ones, 
They cast out their sorrows. 
Their young ones are in good liking,^ 
They grow up with corn ; 
Tliey go fortli, and return not unto them. 
Who hath sent out the wild ass free?^» 
Or who hath loosed the bands of the wild ass ? 
Whose house I have made the wilderness, 
And the barren land his dwellin<rs. 
H(i scorneth the multitude of the city, 
Neither regardeth he the crying of the driver. 


26 The raven is very solitary in its habits, and is said to drive awav even its vnnno. »= 
soon as they can fly. Whether thi. is referred to in the above itnes or nS the"^.? 
8 stent crying' of the youn^^ raven is a well-known fact of which the poet maker^mlr" 
able use. See Ps. cxlvii. 9, and Luke xli. 24. ^ "id.Ke8 aamir- 

27 The animal referred to is probably the ibex, which, like the European chamois io 
marvellously ayile and surefooted. It is mentioned in Ps. civ. 18, and I Sam xxTv 2-3 

28 The root of this w .rd is the An-lo-Sa.Kon Ucian, to please or delio-ht" In pmiJ 
English It was used iniiK;rsonal!y with an oblique case. Occleve hM"<'Vn,,r o^ * 
panye liketh n,e full well." Harry the Minstrefsays : " Our ky r e aSayne and that 
me likis .11. Chaucer uses only the impersonal form, which occurs in the'-PanVir 
bury Talcs "778: 'And if you liketh ille." equivalent to Ihe modTrn -'A.fd if i.' 
pleaseth you a 1." In 0. T. 13866, he has: '-That oughte liken vo- ,'' for •''tha oueht 
to please you." Spenser uses both constructions; an example of the imne.^onaTnn« 

nrh:-'" *^ *7**"<!<L*^"Tl'?." "• ""' 27. Shakespeare also u es both t^Trnper on" 1 
use be ng found in ' Hamlet" v. where Hamlet savs of the foil : '' It liLs me we -' 
From "like," i, this sense of "please," comes the noun "likinjr." uled abovl^n the 
hir-Bru;^'": '''"""■ '^^'^ ^"""^ ""' "°* uncommon in old English Barbour h'^ J" 
A ! fredonie is a nobill thing ! 

. . . Fredome mayse (makes) man to haiflE likinsr ! 

And again : ■* 

For fre liking t 

Is yearnyt our (above) all othir thing. 

i„S°™''"'"1 '''I!*' *^'',^J'"'V^'' °^ it the phrase "worse liking." equivalent to "sadder 
looking," in Dan. 1. 0, and the cxpnssion "well liking" i,, Ps. xcii. 13 in the "RohI 
of Common Prayer," where it is equivalent to "flourishing" in the common verek.,, 

u 'J'Jilf.T"'' T^^ ^^^ ^f^^' '" ""° "' ^^-^ ^'^''^««* '^"'J least tameable of animals It 
is graceful in its form and movemen s, and is, therefore, a fit object for poetical treat- 




The range of the mountains h his pasture, 

And he searcheth after every green thing. "o 
Will the unicorn he willing to serve thee, 

Or abide l)y thy crib ? 

Canst thou bind tlie unicorn with his band in the furrow? 

Or will he harrow the valleys after thee? 

Wilt thou trust him, because his strength is great ? 

Or wilt thou leave thy la])our to him ? 

Wilt thou believe him, that he will bring home thy seed 
And gather it into thy barn ? « ' 

Gaved thou, the goodly wings unto the peacocks ? 
Or wings and featliers unto the ostrich ? 

Whicli leaveth her eggs in the earth, ["cni,], tht-m 

And warmeth them in dust, and forgetteth that tlie foot may 
Or that the wild beast may break them. 
She is hardened against her young ones, as though they were 

not her's : 
Her labour is in vain without fear ; 
Because God hath deprived lier of wisdom, 
Neither hath he imparted to her understanding. 
What time she lifteth up herself on high. 
She scorneth the horse and his rider. ''^ 

1 /" This animal is referred to in Job vi. 5; xi. 12 • xxiv ''. • ?>, ,.i n . t • ». :: 

14 ; Jer. n. 24 ; x v, 6 ; Dan. v 21 • Hosea vi i o ah , , k '■^ ' . ^ • ^^^^^ xxxii. 

an animal with ,>m horn, but .',11 the ancient l4r^ons so Sdfr t t^TH^ '"'''^'''*^ 
with them. The wei-htof evidence seems to hein fLnrnff. •' ""Itipdition agrees 


the stork? Compare the ordinary martrinal readinLr of lino ini' rhv, , ['""'ns or 
question may lie in the con.pari.o; of tC shmr.if,..?o tL ostrir^ I- ."^^^^^^ 

_ g .J ,.,,^ .^.-iiiun i::t3 a means or Beif-protection in 


.1 1 





Hast thou given tlie horse strength ? 

Hast tliou clothed liis node with thunder? 

Canst thou inakc him afraid as a grasshopper ? a. 

ilie glory of his nostrils is terrible 

He puweth in the valley, and rejoiceth in Jus strength: ,«o 

He goeth on to meet the armed men. 

He mocketh at fear, and is not airn-hted • 

Neither turneth he back from the sword. ' 

The quiver rattleth against him, 

The glittering si^sar and the shield. 

He swalioweth tlie ground with fierceness and rac^e'- 

iVnther believeth he that ii /. the sound of the trumpet. 

He saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha! and he smelleth the 

battle afar olF, 
The^hii^e^ortli^^^ and tlie shouting. «^ 

test.mony of even the rece,/t obscT^^.V • tw '7'''"P'--V- '^c^'orJinfe' to the 
a«to;,.Katch, calculated ita si-eeil ut 26 nVilJs a,/hour ''^ ^'''^ ^'''""- ""'^ ""^ ^^i"' 

h4|??;^|Sf;;;^SS^.SS^.S^ ^,c,othing the 

that thai-e is a direct refo.c.,co to t e Sn,/or* ?'f '"'"'■*' ^^^.'^i"" *« «>'rect, othe;. 
Hebrew woiM is for,„e,| from a verl^ n.eani '^fn ,T, 1, '^"''" '"°''°" °^ *''« "'•'"'e. TJ>o 
yersjoM, the nieanin- "fear" is "ve to p u 7^° °'" ^'i"-- and, in the Sept msri it 
118 .3 certainly .nist^anslafed. The qr^cs-tlo re's nT, trans at«l "thunder" tne 
to iiH wonderful a-ilitv, whicli in srifp nM t; '• " * *" "^akinjr the horse afraid but 
and small an aninul. -'it should e'^' 'Jil't tlou InaHri:?' "!'''' " ^'^ ^»"*<^ ^^ ^o ''i"' •' e 

w The appearance of a sni.itwl bnr „ i *.''"" ""''''' ^"" ''^1' as the lo.u.t?" 
a favorite themrwfth poet H^ i . ^".?,/" ''"'*"'" ^'* ^^••■^- ^t'il<i"fr one. and it has bee-, 

The wanton courier tlin.s with reins unbound 
Breal<s from his stall and beats the tremb In. ground • 
Pampered and proud, I,e seeks the wonte;! K ' 

And laves, m hei-ht of blood, his shininir sides ' 
His head, now freed, I,e tosses to the sl'ic«' ' 

The flerv co:,rser. when he hears from far " 
Pr^.k-t nt; , ■■^' *'"'"P«^^ and the shouts of war, 
Sh f^o .1^ '"' T'"' '■''"' t'en-.hlinff ^^ith deliyht 

On hf.'^- Kf ^'"' Vr^'^i'"'' •'OP'^^ <he pn.mised flffht: 
On h,s rijrht shouldec his thick mane reclined. ^ 
Ruffles at s,K;ei, and d,i nees i n the wind. 
H s h";"y hoofs aro Jefted black and round ; 

h1 H,^ ^u *^f"'i'*' '■ '^•'^'■^'■"K ^^'^h a bound ' 
He turns the tTirf, and shakes the solid eround. 

Pope, In his <« WIn?<f„l p ^TJ'^" headlonjr on the foe. 

po, m nis Windsor Forest," describing a huntinff scene, says • 
The impatient courser pants in every vein, ^ ' 
And pawuig, seems to beat the distant plain • 



The Iiablts 
rdinjf to the 
lied one witli 

clothing the 
)i rect, othe/H 
i made. Dio 
i Suptuagirit 
nder." Line 
se afraid Init, 
of Foniuible 


it has been 
the "Iliaa • 



Doth the hawk fly by thy wisdom, 
And stretch her wings toward the south ?'* 
Dotli the eagle nioun: up at thy command, 
And make her nest on lii'di 1 
She dwelleth and abideth on the rock, 
Upon the crag of the rock, and the strong place. 
From thence she seeketh tlie prey, 
And lier eyes behold afar off. 
Her young ones also suck up blood: 
And where the sluin arr, there is she. 86 




Hills vale :, ami floods appear already crossed, 
It will h. .„ * , '-"^ ¥' **''"''^''' » thousand step, arc lost 

also in Jer. viii. 7. --""iiru mt south. The nufjration of birds is referred to 

3fi With lino VD compare Matt xviv oq ti,« .-,«„* ^ -i • ... 

is the great heig-,.t at ^^'hid, it H T ', and "f n>.n^ hich ft c .'i! dK^.f^^'t"*^' °' *^^ ^'''-'^ 
prdy. The deseription of its habits i t o>^i lin .-1 • ^f " ''""' ^^"'''^ "PO" its 
niony of moJerii naturalists tirawcHUn wnfo^^l'^'l'-^''"''"'''^'^^^ "" ^*>*= t*-^««- 
anin.als alive to its eyry for the pum,,s ■ of fZn J f ""'* ^'"^- r'"*^"* ^''•"'^ '"'•rics 
eaa-le is frequently mentioned th'^ Sture^ ts*^s ifi'nT^' "'^'^ *""!! ^'°''*^- T»'e 
to in Jer. iv. 13, xhiii. 40, xliv. 2-^ Lam v 10 pit v ■• "f 2 ''ri'' '•^Pa'-'ty are alluded 
its rock-dwellin,. habits in Jer. xlk IC 01 ad^^h i 4 -• i 'V "^' '' "«^P; '''■ L "ah. i. 8 ; 
xl. 31 ; and its c'are for its voun- i^i Exodus >^v /„='n°"f "*'''■ " ^'- ""' S> ^^'"'a'' 
this sublime challen,^e on Job is described in fhf'.?' ^f"-*- ''''V.'- "• ^he effect of 
above passage (xl. i-?„ : aescribed in the context imuiediately following the 

Moreover the Lord answered Job and said, 

Th^n Vrl„ 'epioseth God, let him answer it." 
Then ,Job answered t ho Lord, and said, 

BehoU , I am vilo ; what shall I answer thee? 
1 \Mll lay nnne hand upon mv mouth. 
Once have I spoken ; but I will not answer: 
A»f«. *i,i I ■ ^V^*^' ^"* I Will proceed no further " 
in^^^^:TILS^:^'k- '"" ^^-^'^^^ Hisaddre.sto^„. Speak- 
Gird up thy loins now like a man : 

wTif iL """"* *"/ *'''^''' '^"^^ declare thou unto inc. 
Wit thou also disannul my judgment? 

SS tS a°ran;;"lik'cpGci1 *''" ""^"* ''^^ "^'^^"^""^^ 

Or canst tlmu thunder with a voice like him ? 

^ec. thyself now with majesty and excellency. 

r^^f *r''^>'i'iyself with glory and beauty. ^' 

Cast abroad the rage of thy wnith : 

And Ijcholil every one that is proud, and abase him 

Look on every one that is proncl. and bringMiin low- 

And t^ead down the wicked in their place. " 

Hide them ni the dust together- 

A)id bind their faces in secret ' 

Then will I also confess unto tliee 

That thine own right hand can save thea. 

l 1 


r j 

> '.i 




safety applied to ovorcrctlii!din;„t^ o t,. treat.nent of interrogations, may be 
pronouns, an.i . annot he L'l^^:^ ,«■':: ^ir^^r^"''- T"^ ^''^^^^^ ^''' 
do.ninate thro,.^^, the scnten. e an.I en,l I 7 ' '"*"' '"fl«"^"«" '""-^t Pre- 

withtho verhare-Mvenr trri" h > T "' "'"''"' ^he questions commencing 

anticipate the ^.:^^Z^^r "' T''''' ^'"' ^^ "^ ^^''"'^^' ^^'^^--^^^ -° 
'"ost proper. TI.esXn.s o ir ; t r ' ?''' *"'^' ""^ ''^'"'^ '""'^^"°" ^"' '- ^^e 

Non.e instances a series of onn.^i!, 1 , ^''^ ''^ fe'rammatical structure. In 

the structure justifies t'^in^ir^r^^^^ ''""'^^' •'' ^'''' ^'"" ^'--^^' ''"'^ ^^'-" 
answers fonns an a.^ cealle c t o '' """'*'""'' ^^"^ ^''""•- '"««^t'°" *" the 

--. one of whi:: u^ttLe";;r " ::.:?'!r ""T trr'"^ ^^ ^-^ 

rejects such answers. Tliere is nodouht as f Al , ■ . ' '^'"^ "'^ other of wiiich 
to the first series. The v aTc I Z sn H T. ." °' '"■^"'"" ""^' ^^°""* ^« «'^''" 

power of Go-i hut thev n, nf ' "tter weakness of man and the supreme 

LhcrtL^^a^t ^SJ; :;iT ''!^P^'^'.*V''«---nce or common sense o! Job, 
cicrness of such a ^p T', , u 'T' 'T''T "'" "°* ""'•^- ''''' <^-^P-- "^ *-' 
appliodtothesc^ndS 1 • '''^° ^ '^^ ^^^^ '^""^^^t of the fallin^r inflection 
In these .p.estiorLth.;\r %'! T ''' '""'"" '''"'''''' ^"^ '""^« ^'^'rccable. 

couHUss from three' to fou. de-J ' Su , t.'n 'T ^'""'' """"°"^' ''''''"' '" 
e..ui^ for .no. lcu.e into an ^^^.^ ^^T:^:::.^^ " ^^ '^ ^""^'^ 


an<i crocodile: as if the objc^4 n lus^'csum^^ *" ^^ ^'"^ hippopotamus 

natural objects were to impress til moj^s Xh'on the n-in'T'^'w'^'' ar,aune'nt from 
onmipotent sovereiLmtv, and their eitiio.lnnnnL His hearers His own 

tained, for Jol, once tno -e rcafflr us h s nnrZ...^ ?''*'k'''°" "M"" '"''^'^ object is at- 
form the concluMon of tJ^e pocm:^ unreserved subnussion in these words, which 

I know that thou canst do every tJnwj, 
whJ'u "° *'}';'^'''t can be withholden from thee 
Who ^. he that hi.Ieth cout.sel without knowlcdffe^ 
Therefore have I uttered that I understood no? • 
Th.nss too w< nderful for mc. which I knew not. 
Hear I bcsce( h thee, and I will spenk • 
I will demand of thee, and declare thou unto me- 
I have heard of thee by the hcarin- of the ear ' 
But now mine eye sect h thee ; ' 

Wherefore I abhor nii/>>v!f, 
... And repent in dust and ashes. 

of "VS Kd S'deiSS^^TsSrS:^ -ston^tion to the state of prosperity 
three friends for their nlisrepresen?at o.'o ?he'n i'ld'lfe of "l '""?.^"'" ""'^^ °'' ^"^ 
ment. is a fit ending for a book of which in fhn '^^ , ' , n ''^l ovah's moral povern- 
to call it unequallelof its kind and vV H wil 0,,^^:. °' ^''°"''*'' "'* '** *« ^^i' ""le 
stand on its own merits, b^ccn toweri J u /a nn„ ^^^ when it is allowed to 

of the world." lowering up alone, far away above all the poe ry 



icturc. The 
ons, iiia^' bo 
adverbs and 
ill must prc- 
although wo 

will bu the 
inatiori, and 
•ucture. In 
5), and when 
ttion to the 
us of ques- 
r of which 
lid be given 
he supremo 
use of Job, 
ess the ten- 
X inflection 

^ush in liis 
dercd with 
t tlio final 
varying in 
cm simple 

cal figures, 
1 give the 

od resppc- 
lent from 
■s His own 
)C'ct is at- 
ds, which 

cd on his 
i govern - 
say little 
llowed to 
e poa ry 

best expression to the passages. Thus a series of figures illu8trate•^ the passages from 
Hues 1 to 19 ; and, as in their nature they suggest rest, or continuity, and magnitude of 
power, they should be read slowly with force or swell of voice, all rising to a climax 
in the final quotation : " Hitherto thou shalt come," etc., which will denitnd the 
grandest expression of voice, pervaded by a feeling of the deepest solemnity and 
reverence. In the passage commencing at line 80 the questions and the implied figures 
suggest animation, foae, and action ; hence the delivery must be, in accord with their 
nature, faster, bolder, and with none of the expression of reverence or solenmity which 
the first pas8a;res demand. But most of these passages have a natural dignity or sen- 
timent of power and freedom pervading them, and must therefore be marked by the 
appropriate expression. 

raution.-hGt the reader especially beware of rendering these scriptural selections 
In peculiar singing tones. There should be no diflfercnue between the elocution of the 
Holy Scriptures and that of the highest human compositions, excepting in the greater 
solemnity and reverence which should distinguish the former. 


^ William Wordsworth was the son of an attorney, and was born at 
Cockermouth, Cumberland, in 1770. He received a good early education 
at school, and spent four years at Cambridge, where he graduated without 
distinction in 1791. Two years afterwards he publislied his first volume 
of poetry, which contained "An Evening Walk " and "Descriptive 
Sketches." The latter was the result of a visit to France, in which the 
revolutionary conflagration was then raging. Wordsworth was at that 
time an enthusiastic sympathiser with the French Repulilicans, but he 
toned down in after life to an attitude of dignified conscr\ atism. It was 
the desire of his friends that he should enter the clerical profession, but 
feeling, like Milton, that he was better adapted for a literary life he re- 
fused. At twenty-live he had serious thoughts of resorting to law for 
the purpose of earning his livelihood wlien a legacy of £900 .-iflorded him 
the means ot resuming his favorit > pursuit, at least for a time. His early 
publications fell dead from tlie press, and but for the patronage of the 
f''^';l^t.^°"^;'^l^ '»« m'glit again have been forced to abandon literature. 
In 1/9/ he formed an acquaintance with Coleridgt, who, with himself 
and houthey, made up the leading trio of the " Lake Poets." In 1799 
he commenced the "Prelude" to the "Excursion," hut the former was 
Tn Pq",^ fr I l"'*"^ y*''^^^ afterwards, and the latter did not appear 
T I Av" 1 *'^® y'^'^^' ''*^^^''^ removed to "Rydal Mount," near 

l.ake VVindermere, where lie lived in almost complete retirement for the 
rest of his life In 1815 was published "Tlie White Doe of Kylstone," 
and this was followed by "Peter Bell " and "The W^aggoner." For some 
years longer his writings failed to make much impression on the public 
mind, largely owing to tlie popularity of Byron's poetry, but he was 
steadily gaining ground, and when in 1842 he brought out a complete 
collection of his works his high standing as a poet was generally co ceded. 
Un the death of Southey in 1843 he was created "Poet Laureate." but 
he neid the office only seven years. Hia death t( 




I i 










rrffTr of f H P ' ^ *'''°"' ''^ ^°"*'-y ^-hich may fairly be described 
as matter-of-fact, and many , ,, productions were in keeping with it 
He lacked the sense of lumio r^eces.ary to keep hin. from nukinJ hi,,' 
8elf ruhculous when he tried' only to be plain and mp e l^tlfs fact 
must be largely attributed ins early and enduring uinopularitv which 
pye way at last to the influence exerted by thatVr ion o? his'm,e rv 
n the production of which his theory was for«otter Umh^r thnrm.,^^^ 
b. mcluded much of his "Excursion?' the m tority of Id.^ o n ets some 
anJ «hiv''*",7K"^?T'"''^ '*':^""^ *"" familiirtocall for nSon here 
Sy Sl^dtlod;'- ^"^"-^-"-^ Immortality, from RecollecUonr^f 

1. There was a time when meadow, grove, aud stream, 
The earth, and every common sight. 
To me did seem 
Apparelled in celestial light, 
The glory and the freshness of a dream." 
It is not now as it hath been of yore f~ 

written. It is i.ot formed on any n.o iel ut i« nmnif sih f' w- ?;' *"■'*•'"? IT'''^^"*-''' 

mal,„o K«., a„d th™ only by tbo.e ,,!,.., liko i'h'^S .utS- ii-L "•i"^""" " 

Endowed with liighest gilts, ' 

The vision and the fa('Ultv divine. 

fixed the lines which t:::i:^6!r^ii^z^[l^':^X£^''' ""'•'"* '"^-^ p--- 

ill? "" ° ^""^''' *•''■''■'' ^^i" t'c few, think I, 
Who may thy import understand ar ght ; 

Riiffhn,.,!^ • 4. ^V''"i^''*'' fo""""'"' t^o arduous nnd so hiuh! 

■ Worimorth, In 1.1. Ilnp, " 0„ . Pfc,,,,, „, pe,„ c„„|„ „ ^, 

ine iignt th'it Tiever was on sea or la'id, 
n«„ „ . ^-10 ™nsecration and the poet's die vii 
Compare Ps. c.v. 2. See also the " Ex< ursion." Bl!."; 139-148 

Being frequently used to express a point of' S « " w! {'fT' ^.X*^^"-' *^^« Srenitive 

•e described 
iiig with it. 
laking him- 
lo this fact 
rity, which 
his poetry 
' that must 
iiiets, some 
iition here, 
llections of 

irtly in 1803 
letweun the 
le and con- 
|ioeiiis ever 
iiai enibodi- 
r siniplifiiy 
5 iiie itable 
enjoyed in 
;i)erience of 

j,'ht in the 
» till e anci 
; have pro- 

watch tiro 
"' realms of 
hith Ihey 
which yet 
le sente in 
lev. H. N. 
specfc that 
fj, indeed, 
ressif-n by 
for a life- 



Turn whorcsoe'er I iimy, 
By night or day, 
The things which I have seen I now can see no more. 

The raiiil)ow comes and goes, 

And lovely is tlie rose ; 

The moon doth with delight 
Look round her wlien the heavens are bare ; 

Waters on a starry night 

Are Ixnuitiful and fair ; 
The sunshine is a glorious birth ; 
But yet I know, where'er I no. 
That tliere liath jjassed away a glory from the earth.* 

3. Now, while the birds thus sing a joyous sonfr, 
And while the young lambs bound 
As to the tabor's* sound, 
To me alone there came a thought of grief :® 


i genitive 

4 This matchless description of the beauty in which tiio world clothes itself fn fh^ 
eye of the chdd, toned down by the dark t n<'e of reurpt th^V tho I;..? i : • *"® 
Ion er discernible bv the man, has ne xroeen 8urDas''s -d It i« nlH,""' J"*""",',*' '^ "" 
tio. to^the obvicjs fact that the ^^ll\n,illl\Z!T^t^^^^ 

spite of his peculiar theories Wordsworrh was a most nainstukin.r attirf n^ . 1 , 
be difficult for the most fastidious citic to alJlTr a 'Jv abl fo' the Jette Vt^^ 
stanzas. Compare with them the two stanzas of ShelleV'8 ••Lament"- 

O world! Olife" O time! 
On wliose last t^teps I climb, 
Tremblinj,' at tliat where I had stood before — 
When will return the (,'Iory of your prime? 
No more— oh never morel 

Out of the day and night 
A joy has taken flijrht I 
Fresh spring, and summer, and' winter hoar. 
Move my faint heart with f>rief-but with delight 
_. , , . . No more— oh ne\ er more ! 

Thu fourth stanza of Wordsworth's own poem •'On an Eveninc- of Extranrdinnrv 
affve ode."" ^'''"*^' ''"'*^ '"''' co.nposed'in 1818, contains obi^fufallusions to "^ 

thA 'T.v«,^!?h '/A'""*" u*""^' '^ on^matopoetic In origin ; it came into old English from 

Se PerS Sr* Th.'ronf^V" ^r"" P"'?^«.th>-""Kh the Moorish and Spa^.ish Irom 

drum ""^ '"^ '** imitative of the sound made by beating a 

,,„! ™^ ""^ 'a^'Z '"''*" ^.'**'^'" .*''*.* *" ^^^ P"«* »'o"e came a thonght of grief while 
^rief" Jfh^'^'^f h,m was ,n a joyful mood, or that his though s were entirelv "of 
Sr V. "'"thoutanv trace of jovou^ness. Which meaning is hero preferable' His sor- 
Z^L^^fi^y. i^'J'^^^ ^« '^^ '"«;' °' ^ »'«1"^ ed brother who had died in 1805, bu? this 
^„""^^i:/;^±•il•;:!^'^^yv.'l^■lI?.2^1 '^]^?.^^^^' -^ is quite unnecessary! 
hood "' """" ' — "' """ "" '' '-^'•"rc present witn faim la chlld- 

: (J 




KIH i 

A timely uttorunco gavo that thought relief, 

And I again am stron" -^ 
The cataracts blow trumpets from the steep - 
^o more shall grief of mine the season wrong • ' 
I hear the echoes through the mountains throng, 
ihe wnids come to nio from the liekls of sleep, 
And all the earth is gay; 
Land and sea 
Give themselves up to jollity, 

And wiUi heart of May 
Doth every breast keep holiday f-^ 

Thou child of joy, ' r. 

Shout round n.e, lot me hear thy shout, thou happy shepherd 
^. Ye blessed creatures, I have heard the call 
Ye to each other make, I see 
The heavens laugh witii you hi your jubilee; 
My heart is at your festival. 
My head hath its coronal, 
The fulness of your bliss I feel— I feel it alljo • 

Oh evil day! if I were sullen • 
While the Earth herself is adorning 

This sweet May morning, 
And the children are pulling 

On every side. 
In a thousand valleys far and wide, 

And the babe leaps up onhis mother's arm :-~ 

^ w:4SS%»tSn^rS^S,^^,,^^./'^a.e county,, who. 

•'Jo..itj...... Tennyson has.a.J^XrbKe';:;^^/raSo^^^ 

apnears tn Va " onn*e "^^^^ "' ^^^ ^^•"rd is uncerfain. hut it 

1"- iov or ex,iltation. Ve torn s '• feltilrr- nn7 '' '''^^ t*?.*' •^*'"" =^ '""'^« "' express- 
Greek and Ron,an banqS8.*"what i'th; Vrein treTtk lirj*'" '^"•■"'°"' *" '''' 


I hoar, I hoar, witii joy, I ht-ur ! " 
—But thoro'8 a troo, of many one. 
A single fioM which [ have looko.l upou, 
Both of tlienx H,>.,ak of .som.thiiig tlmt ia gone : 
Tho pansy at niy foot 

"^'^^'^ ^'^"^ ^'^^^ talo r(jpeat : 
Whither is flocl tiio visionary gleam 
Where is it now, the glory and tho dream ?" 

». Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting •" 
The soul that rises with us, our life's star, 
Hath had elsewhere its setting, 
And Cometh from afar :^' 


poet HHtrivin^ to banish. J.d tKeSce oTl ^TL ^ 'f^* ^S ho 

^ '3 Tho "somothiriK that h irone - m... ■'''"'*''' "'^ ''*''''* '*''«• 
droam," all refer to tho view of natur.. a'l^h y"*'"'"*0' Klea.n," the "L^iorv and th« 


pay^J'r^;:;:!^^;;^' £-U*- do«cnbed ^ ..abrupt.- perhap, 

servo to show, however, that theahruo np,, L , V'"*'' "^ ""'« *^^«"«i<lorktion wfll 
po.od. The poet nets out with a lamcMfta fon fL h' '^ """"'''-''' '^^ '« Jfeneri ?v 8un 
hood. Ho ehidos h i. l.t J f °" j*"^,"'*-' demrted "tflory" of hiJ* nhn^' 
Mature, except hiiilsolf. is Kiven up'' ^^ oin^'v'V''"'f L'^ *''^'^'•'«^' '^t a time when in 
last 8 3ven lines of stanza 1 shovv that h.. L ^' ^"!' ^"^ ""esolves to be joyous ton tk" 
of faot the most abrupt trTZ.£^\^\olen.''yuyV^^^^^^^ 
stmza 5 ho turns for relief from hii «.?)„! 'Vl^" '•■"'" '^^at precedes thpn*^ 
development of the child t lo 1,7^ ,1'^*" ^^'^ ««"8idemtio„ of the ine iahu 
fhe "philosophic minJ- ITrin.. to thn;/t,*'''!.''°"'P'-'"«''*'0" which the inm,!, ? 
common si^ht" was a .partOi,, m* vM '''/'iu 'i' "^'elestial light" i„whh'*^^*" 

eferrin^• to simo of his!,l "^ without bemnninjr r.s woll ;!« "^.^^t**"- expressed by 
"<l «plel>dor he snnil\?r? ^'^''^^f'" nensatio^s and'^.if J'k'L^u:^;^*!'.''."*..^''^- After « 


intent stlitp' ", *l.'' "■^"^ TH" "for,;.Hin;;;.";:"!-' r "'•'"■'■''"^ ^'■'' ^^^'^^^ the^be?t'S 

appears at fr^^^^""""- ^'" honvonlv hodv fhnV „ '"^'^ ^^"^ ^""-l'' "t best verv 

existence. \ BimiVorTnf v^f *[A.,Mi,ion from the nrerodent 'to' fhl" "^'^"''f*^ »''ew of the 
A mm.lar antithesis ,8 expressed by the teS "birth" and" "re?'. "'**^ "' 







. 1 





Not in untirt) f(»rg(itfulii,i88, 
And not in utter nakedness, 
But trailing (douds of glory do we come 

Kroni (rod, who is our homo." 
Iloiivf'u lien ul)out us in our ii fancy !'" 
Shades of the! l)egin to cloao 

TT'pon the growing hoy," 
iJiit he beh(')ld.s th»3 light, and whence it ilows, 

ITo sees it in his joy ; 
Tlie youth who daily farth(!r from the cast 
Must trav(d, ntill is nature's priest, 
And hy th*- visi(m splendid 
Is (i\\ his way attended ; 
At length the man perceives it die away. 
And fadr into the light df common day.' 


«. Earth fills hor lap with pleasures of her own ; 
Yearnings mIk; hath in her own n.ltural kind, 
And, even with something of a mother's mind, 


iR This oontmuejl reference to the rising of a heavenly body constitutes a most beau 
ul metaphor. Kveryono who has nm.Te a practice of watchin/«u rfses must ha"e 
3n over and over ajfain the "clouds of Klory," which afterward fade awanto the 
brighter lifjht as the suti advaii-es toward the meridian. ' 

stanS':^""^^" " ^"'*" ^''*'^"*"'*'"'" '""""•' 1*'='»'''^'-' !'• l-^O. and especially the first 

Why are children's eyes so bright? 

Tell me why ; 
'Tis because the infinite, 
Which they've left, is still in s'g-ht, 
And they know no earthly blijjht — 
Therefore 'tis their eyes are bri^'ht. 
Compare Wordsworth's lines to " II. C., Six Years Old." The child to whom this )i tie 
poem was addressed, one year before the conMnen.ement of the above ode, was llarilev 
Coleridge, son of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and himself subsequently a poet, 
n That is, the prison-house of our earthly life. Notice the change of metaphor. 
18 Contm-it with this fine description of the maimer in which the heavenly light seen 
'?/ . 'ir. ' '*'^'-'*' ^y 'degrees as he grows to manhood, the following satirical lines from 


' Essay on Man " (II. 275-282) : 

Behold the child, by Nature's kindly law. 
Pleased wit'i a rattle, tickled with a straw : 
Some livelier plaything gives his youth delight, 
A little louder, but as empty quite : 
Scarfs, garters, gold, amusehis riper stage. 
And beads and prayer-books are the toys of age : 
Pleased with this bauble still, as that before. 
Till tired he sleeps, and life's poor play is o'er. 


And IK) unworthy nim, 

Tho huMU'ly nurse doth ,dl nho can 

To make h.r fostm-child, hor innmtn nmn, 
Forgot th.) glori...s h.. hath known, 
And that iniporial palu.,. whenco lio cumo." 

fiohold th<. child among th. n.-w-horn lilisses- 
A SIX ymrs' darling of a pj^jny ^[.^^ j «, 
See, where 'mid work of hin own han.l h., Ko. 
* ivttcd hy suiiies of his niothor's kis^^es, 
With light upon i,im from his father's ,.yes!«' 
See at his feet some litth- phm or chart, 
Som.. fnign.Pnl fn,m as dn-am ..f .unian lifo 


with nowly J. u'ued art : 

Shaped by hims* 'fe 

A weddi ,' or a festival, 
A mournuig or fuiuirnl 

And this hath now his heart, 

And unt, ho frames his song; 

lieautifiil ami pathetir lines : 

It waMa.hilliHh iifnorancc, 

Hut now iiH litfle joy 
To know r,„ farfh.r <.ff from hi^avun 
Than when I was a hoy. 
to he that, for the sadness fdt hv the \^^t 
>heha,s pleasures a.laj.l.d to nMnix thl\^rl' 
and as Hhc cannot pre^erNe for th , -' 
I tries toniukehim for-ct f hem Thnr; Iri 
u.lydifTerent etynioloRic.. One is Iron, thi 
mean, o desire stron-^Iy ; the olher i from 
' lud. and means to B■rie^ c. .Shakespeare u"e" 
;■ ' y. The noun )" yearnin^r- in the texTh 

Compare with both passajrcs ' 
F remcmhcr, I reniemher, 

The tlr-troes dark and hiifli 
I used to think their slender t 
Were . 'oi-e against the sky; 
19 The meaninar of 'his stanm h. 
earth eannot lie held re.sponsil.l, 
■iffs which jfrow out .,* fho carflih 
_ irted K ones of his , hildhood, sh, 
t«o Ensrlish verhs to yearn," wii 
Anglo-Saxon neorn, ca-er or desirous 
th • AnKlo-Saxon mrn,, miscrahle or u 
I. verb " to yearn •• in tho second L 
for ,,ed from the first of t^e above two >,. 

cpu^S^ Z:^^^^1^:Z ih;!'S::^!S,r -S^- S-'^^e ; see Note 1« above, aod 
"81 years'." Tlie pwntie was ul h V ,« . i ' ,J'''P"'" tl'e use of the i>ossessive 
nst k"«ekles,a li/ue'o^'I.rtMVree.nSeV-"^^^^^ ^^^ clilowtoVh'^ 

tion. i by Hon. r as dwellin,,^ on the shores of Ocean ' ''"*' '^ "'"'*' "' '^^'''^^ "'«'"■ 

meani, - " to ornament," Is from the A, Id s.'vn^V'T 'J'"' '"'""' *« «=«» : the second 
tlie ab, iMssago, is probablv from th « ; .^?^''■*''"" *« a^'orn. " Fretted "in 
these,, it "slVhtlyTon^ied-'therhiHT'''^ these yerl>s, and seems to be used 
H.hi8.. other's endea^^ts ^Vth the fi th ll,!^"eon''*"'^^^^^^^^^ ]" his own workthi 
Coleridgv: '^"'- """ ""e tonipare the foUowinjf, by Hartley 

And yet I cease not to behold 
i-ie 1 !,_„f in iicr eye. 






Then will he fit his tongue 
To dialogues of business, love, or strife. 
But it will not bo long 

Ere this bo thrown aside, 

And with new joy and pride 
The little actor cons another part, 
Filling from time to time his ' humourous stage' 
With all the persons, down to palsied age, 
That life brings witli her in her equipage. 

As if his Avhole vocation 

Were endless imitation. ^^ 

8. Thou,^' whose exterior semblance dotli belie 
Thy soul's immensity, 
Thou best philosopher, who yet dost keep 
Thy heritage, thou eye among the blind. 
That, deaf and silent,^' read'st the eternal deep, 
Haunted forever by the eternal mind,— 
Mighty prophet ! Seer blest,^* 
On whom tho se truths do rest, 

22 What s the figure in the last six lines? The verb "con" fmm fi,^ ,^ ^ 77" 
" cunnien," to test or examine, and that froni the Anirin SnvmfT ^^ "I'' English 
means (1) to examine eloselv, and (2) to reweat fo, th« .n^^ ,' ,"""»?"- to know- 
ou<fhly. It is related to " can," the lattLr^bdnJ eaU vT^rnvL''"^ "'"''^ ^^°'- 

present tense. The word "sta-e " trom th^ ,Mvt^} L , P'eterite form used as a 
Ltorey of a honse, n.eans the^Jed Sfonnt, SC^^S^I:':'^ ''"!"^' 
theatre It comes orij-inally from the Latin MahJ hmittZt e^s'v to t ^""^'. '" « 
stages of the transformation. The epithet " 1 i/n n .'rn,w " h. ■ f '^ *''''"^^' ^^'^ th" 
the theatrical stage for the inirpose Lf exhib t 'hTfolliof « T, '"^ *° the nse c f 

wifi Tn'^\' " ^^l'**'"''' ^■^"' ^'''•^h a stage, ' ^ 
" Persons" is nsed hoi ' -f *!!'' l"'^*'"''^ '*" ^^'^'^ actors fl 1. 

•'character "ira'pfc'.' 7t 1 %eHv d'ftm'iM? %''"'' 'I' °''f'"^' ^''«"' -"- «' - 
reference beh.g to fhe orantL !ff \t. ^V."/::* *'''"""«^'' *"'.' '»"««'■''. *" sound, the 

reference being to fhe^rrctice of the o'-'""-- tl"-ongh, and sonar,; to sound, the 
masks while peTso,,ati,,gttacters on the sta^e ''"''"'' ''^° '"°'' "■•^«--"0"thed 

>',"" presence," and "hoa en born freedom" n , ff""!"!'.""^' '/truths." "immortal- 
the first stanza speaks of hLw i.fl^" .u:?.'j^/^'" *" h« 'things" which the poet 


in the flrst'stank Speaks of haviZ'see^^^ to tne "things" which the poet 

onger discern. The rcvst of the ston^ris a m .^tin ' *'"' "'"''' "^ * "^'^"' ^e can no 

its unconsci,ms efforts at becoming nmVlirttvfnst/n!;^^^^^^ "''^'ll '^"^ -^^"^ 'or 

of the heavenly. " ^ e.irtniy, mstead of retaming what it still has 

2< What is the figure in "a deaf and silent eye"? 

- "Prophet" and "seer" are here used as' synonymous. On "seer" «e Note 10. 



Wliich we are toiling all our lives to find 
In darkness lost, the darkness of the grave - 
Thou, over whom thine immortality 
Broods like the day, a master o'er a slave.^^ 
A presence which is not to he put by •=» 
Thou little child, yet glorious in the r;ight 
Of heaven-born freedom on thy heing's Light,- 
Why with such earnest pains dost thou provoLe 
The years to bring tlie inevitable yoke 
Thus hlin^ly with thy blessedness at sirife ? 
Ful soon thy soul shall have her earthly freight 
And custom lie upon thee with a weighf 
Heavy as frost, and deep almost as life 1 

joy ! that in our embers 
Is something that doth live, 

That nature yet remembers 
What was so fugitive.^ 



r I 

U i 


<,inZ T , ■ '?"°'"'^''* '"eans ''glorious "Vhpn..P''°P^'' ''^"'e "Slave," which 
slam. Ea,r]ym the Middle A<'e.s theShv«o f ^"'^,,Ru«8ian term for "iriorv" i7^HU 

him hither, of the ' WJfu IZ '"'''"'"d the man of the '' imn nr 1 ** •• l?** J« '^'^'-''^ 

■ i 

' ti 


^1- Ij 



The thought of oiir past years in me doth breed 
Perpetual benediction ; not, indeed, 
For that wliich is most worthy to be blest: 
Delight and liberty, the simple creed 
Of childliood, whether busy or at rest, 
With n(;\v-ll(!(lged hope still fluttering in his breast. ^^ 
Not for these I raise 
The song of thanks and praise f^ 

But for those obstinate questionings 

Of sense and outward things, 

Fallings from us, vanishings ; 

Blank misgivings of a creature 
Moving about in worlds not realised, 
High instincts l)efore which our mortal nature 
Did tremble like a guilty thing surprised ;^ 

bers." Com are also Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales," 3880, where the "Reve" says 
of old men : 

Yet in our ashen cold is fire yreken ("raked). 
What is tho icx.- uf " that," in the fust and third lines? 

31 A beautiful p.cture of ordinary child nature, apart from the " recollections " 
which fcnn the special subject of the ode. ''Most" here is obviously not a superla- 
tive of comparison, its force beinj,' merely intensive. 

"2 That is, not for these only, or even chiefly. 

33 These seven lines constitute one adversative to the preceding two lines : " Not 

praise;" the next thirteen lines constitute another. The two advcrsatives are in 

ai)i)osition with each other, both referrinij to the departed "glory" of cliildhood. On 
"obstinate questioninj;s " compare Tennyson's "Two Voices," and especially stanzas 
00-129. The following lines may bo cited liere as probably suggested by Wordsworth's 

Who forged tiiat other influence Moreover, something is, or seems. 
That heat of inwanl evidence. That touches me with mystic glea'ma. 
By which he doubts against the sense? Like glimpses of forgotten dreams 

Ah! sure within him and without. 
Could hii dark wisdom find it out. 
There must be answer to his doubt. 

Of something felt, like soniethi?ig here : 
Of something done, 1 know not where : 
Such as no language may declare- 

On "fallings from us" and "vanishings," compare Wordsworth's own remarks on thiri 
ode, and esj>ecially the following: "Nothing was more diHicult for me i)i childhood 
than to admit tho notion of death as a state applicable to my own being. * 
But it was not so nmch from the source of animal vivacity that my dilBculty came, ns 
from a sense of the indomitableness of tlie spirit witliin me. I used to brood over the 
stories of Enoch and Elijaii, and almost persuade<l myself that, whatever might be- 
come of others, I should bo translated in something of tlie same way to heaven. With 
a feeling congenial to this, I was often unable to think of external things as bavins rs- 
ternal existence, and I communed with all that I saw as somethinir not apart from, -nt 
inherent in, my own immaterial nature. Many times while going to school h-^s I 
grasped at a wall or a tree to recall myself from this abyss of idealism to the reftUtv. 
In later jieriods of life I have deplored, as we all have reason to do, a subjugation of an 
opposite character, and have rejoiced over the remembrances, as is expressed in the 
lines ' obstinate questionings,' " &c. 


But for those first affections, 
Those shadowy recollections, 
Which, be they what tliey may, 
Are yet the fountain liglit of all our day, 
Are yet a master light of all our seein^' • 

liphold us, cherish, and have power to make 
Our noisy years seem moments in the being 
Of the eternal silence : truths that wake, 

To perish never j 
'Which neither listlessness, nor mad endeavour, 

Nor man, nor boy, 
Nor all that is at enmity with joy, 
Can utterly abolish or destroy ! »* 

Hence, in a season of calm weather, 
Though inland far we be, 
Our souls have sight of that immortal sea 
Which brought us hither. 
Can in a moment travel thither, 
And see the children sport upon the shore. 
And iiear the mighty waters rolling evermore.'^ 


34 Parse the words "uphold," "cherish" "truths" Tbn „„„ 
light" and "master liKht" seem intended to eon evas f^I^.lv T'^''°"'k/' ^"""*'^i" 
that, shadowy as these reeollectioi.s of childhood a c^t^cv are Jni^th'''''"'^''- ^^^ '<'«» 
source of light on tlie real nature of man am) nf iS.j' rJf!..'*' '' ^^.? '".''?* ""Portant 

.1 '- 

.. - --- — ^v-. Coniui 

Silenr-e! coeval with eternity! 

Thou wert ere nature's self began to hi • 

Thine was the 8^^ ay ere heaven was fornVd or earth • 

Ere fruitful thou-lit conceiv'd creation's birth 

35 The grandeur and appropriateness of these seven lines have npvor h„„. 
and they are pervaded by a subtle relation l.etweei. "p irT^nd f!,rn wl f h '"njassed, 
be described. The stately rhyihin of the three- Knlr.,, I V ' •''"'' <-"'"' '^'^•'''b 
trasted with the more rapid move nent o1 the i ,t™ i '"'^''^'"fte's is agreeably con- 
forms a perfect climax orbo 1 , oe fc and oLl^tZ1^T''y''''^'l''^' ^^"'-' ^^^ '««» '«"« 
passage the well-known one from the " Scu^si^ " Ck IX-"*^* ^"""^^'^ ""'^^ *»"« 

A • , ., , ' ha,\o seen 

A curious child, who dwelt upon a tract 
Of mland ground, applying to his ear 
Ihe convolutions of a smooth-lipped shell : 
To winch, in silence hushed, his very soul 
Listened intensely; and his countenance soon 
Br ghter.ed with joy ; for from within were heaixl 
M r nurings, whereby the monitor expressed 

- -.!!.. J., -ivfi Its iiaiivc si». 




■I 'i 



10. Then sing, ye birds, sing, sing a joyous song! 
And let the young lambs bound 
As to the tabor's sound ! 
We in thouglit \\ill join your throng, 
Ye that pipe and ye that i)lay, 
Ye that tlirough your hearts to-day 
Feel the gladness of the May !»« 
What thougli the radiance which was once so bright 
Be now for ever taken from my siglit— 
Thougli nothing can bring back the hour 
Of splendour in the grass, of glory in the flower; 
We will grieve not— rather find 
Strength in what remains behind : 
In the primal sym vathy 
Which having been must ever be f 
In the soothing thoughts that spring 
Out of human suffering f^ 
In the faith that loo]:s through death, 
In years that bring the philosophic mind. 


Even such a shell the universe itself 
Is to the ear of Faith ; and there are times. 
I doubt not, when to you it doth impart 
Authentic tidings of invisible thinjrs ; 
Of ebb and flow, and ever-durinL' power : 
And central peace, subsisting at the heart 
Of endless agitation. Here you stand, 

(lore and worship, when you know it not: 
i^ious beyond the intention of your thought : 
Uovout above the meaning of your will 

J^^^^^^^^t^^^A fpSfl-lv '^.^^'^^JI^^^^Z^^^ part 
her festive mood, are now the result nf \ Ar i.i ,;).„„ i ^^'"Pathise with nature in 
in the study of human lif^: comXt^n fS whft'S "'°'^ ^"^^^^^"' ^«°'-* *" «"d 

'^^^^^1:^^&:j:^^^^^ Of 

acteristic of man. ^ ^ "mt aeparts, remains behind " as a char- 

TinS/PKr'^" "'• '■'• ^'^ "'^ Wordsworth's "On Revisiting the Wye ubove 

For I have learned 
To look on nature, not as in the hour 

tL o?T^"^'^ y°H*h ; but hearing oftentimes 
Ihe still, sad music of humanity. 
Nor harsh, nor grating, but of ample power 
io chasten and subdue. 
39 CoinDare Browning's "James Lee's Wife" : 

For cold, calm years, exacting* their accoun. 
Of pain, mature the mind. 



the earlier part 
i with nature in 
ul efifort to find 

teristic even of 
ind " as a char- 
he Wye above 



\nd O ye fountains, meadows, hills, and groves, 

Forebode not any severing of our loves !" 

Yet in my heart of hearts I feel your might ; 

I only liave relinquished one delight. 

To live beneatii your more habitual sway.- 

I love the brooks which down their channels frat, 

Even more tlian when I tripjjed lightly as they /^' 

The innocent brightness of a new-born day 

Is lovely yet f 
Tlie clouds tliat gather round the setting sun 
Do take a sober coloring from an eye 
That hath kept watch o'er man's mortality f 
Another race hatli been, and other palms are won. 
Thanks to the human heart by which we live, 
Thanks to its tenderness, its joys, and fears. 
To me the meanest flower that l)lows can give 
Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears/^ 



favS ^^^z: '^li^Tit'n^!;^':''^.^^^ 

with nature which in his case amo, uited all ost to ,v n?h^^ '^^ the love of and sympathy 
.n abundance from his writir.,.sTo illSrate^lil^cCaS^Wstic ^^^^^^^'^ ""^ht be^^iteS 

moditf "S^ls li;"'^'"'!!,'' ;"•.'• 1^ " •?-'•* -^ h-'^'-t." The adverb "only " here 
" »,'Iory •• is 'o Xqui h a slUle delight and"for"?h?:'h"^' ^'^ '''' ''''' "' ^^^ <^«PaS 
pathy with nature as well a "with human it" '' '-'"'npen^'ted by close sym- 

^^'Stm:''^:^:Zi!^:^'^::^Z^ fon^ etymology see 

Bryant's "complaining brooks ; " "ee Note 11 n lii r ^ fi-ozen brook. Compare 

" tripped," Burns' " Some trotting Cn's mcanden'^ P**'"^ '''^^ ^^'^ expression 
•<•■' Cf'. line 7 of the second stanza. 

th:^^ire?gr^eso'Th"fl7^'^j:;;r^"T*h?r4s'?"* i»^r^^^^^"^-™*° ^« *<> 

placed as a preface to the ode : ' "^ °' ^^^^^ ^'^""^ ^y t^e Poet himself 

My heart leaps up when I behold 

A rainbow in the skv ; 
So was It when my life befran ; 
So be it when I shall grow old. 
^ Or let me die [ « '"• 

The Ciiild is father of the Man ; 


I ' i 

¥ ' 3 









Puro tone must bo the prevailing quality of voice for reading this selection This 
quality may pass into the fullest orotund in the llfth and eijfhth stanzas. The modu- 
lations arc not extensive in con.pass, generally varying from the lower musical rfo to 
upper la, but chiefly lying within the compass of lower mi to la. The passages ex- 
pressive of joy and exaltation will require a higher pitch and more frequent rising 
inflections, while in dejection, solemn meditation, and affection the voice must descend 
and have mere frequent falling inflections and monotones. But throughout the poem 
its meditative character forbids all excess either of modulation or inflection 

Stanza l.-Read the flr.t four lines with animation, and in the higher pitc'h su-gested 
abcve, increasing in fervor on the third and fourth lines; but descen.i in pitch and 
give a softer and sadder expression to the remaining lines, Increasing that expression 
on the last line. 

Stanza 2.-Rcad the subjects and their attributes with emphatic warmth, rising 
to a climax on the 7th line. Read the next two lines with depressed voice, and with 
expression similar to that endi ig the first stanza. 

Stanza S.-The first three lines are .o be read in the same spirit and quality of voice 
as the first lines of stanza 1, with a prevalence of rising inflections ; a slight depres- 
sion of pitch and an expression of si^ness must mark the fourth line; but the re- 
mainder of the stanza is cheerful and animated, and therefore a return to the higher 
pitch will best give the adequate expression. Tlie words "cataract," "trumpets" 
"echoes," and "winds" require a certain imitative modulation to give them due ex- 
pression. Thus "cataracts" and "trumpets" demand rxjmlsive force, "echoes" a 
swelling and reverberating tone, and "winds" a prolonged and owelling one, with 
the medium stress. 

Stanza 4.-The first fifteen lines are similar in spirit to the preceding stanzas, and are 
also to be read with similar fervor and modulation. A little difficulty marks the fifth 
line : its metre is trochaic ; but, if reail as trochaic, undue accent must be given to "my" 

And I could wish my days to be 
, ., ^ . . . . , Bound each to each 'by natural piety. 

In the autobiographical sketch of himself given in the " P'rclude" some of the most 
striking trains of thoudit are reproduced in a more extended form -Tul in the mem 
"On Revisiting the Wye above Tinterii" (1798) esuecialK- litio^ qi ii-> ^„i r *• 
leading ideas of the ode is treated in a ^dilifeii^t '^^^ vy Vhriclea of pVe^e^^^ 
which IS not by any means the m.-st in>, In Wordsworth's oS the subTeS an 

Happy those early days, wlien I, 
Shin'd in my angel infancy I 
Before I understood this place 
Appoint;.-d for my second race, 
Or tauglit my soul to fancy ought 
But a white, celestial thought ; 
When yet I had not walk'd above 
A mile or two from mv first love, 
And looking back— at that short space- 
Could see a glimpse of his bright face ; 
When on some gilded clond or flower 
My gazing soul would dv, ,il an hour. 
And in those weaker glories spy 
lome shadow of eternity ; 
B jtore 1 tautrht my tongue to wound 
My consrfence with a sinful sound. 

Or had the black art to dispense 
A sev'i-al sin to cv'ry sense. 
But felt through all this fleshly dress 
Bright shoots of e\erlastingness. 
O, how I long to travel back. 
And tread again tliut ancient track ! 
That I might once more reach that plain, 
Where first I left my glorious train ; 
From whence th' enlightoned spirit sees 
That shady city of palm trees. 
But all ! my soul wiih too much stay 
Is drunk, and staggers in the way I 
Some men a forward motion love', 
But I by backward steps will move : 
And when this dust falls to the urn, 
In that state I came, return. 

grom this poem to Wordsworth's ode is a L ^i'der intlTv^VinT^tmenUhan even in 


.ation. the f^ • Xl,:'~: :^ --'-. -'^ re,„i.« t..e ..per n,^. 

Jvr^2t-:::Jl^.T' ''"'7*^. °' "" •'''""-*^'^ "intimations of immortalitV-is 
orvot: r^Zr.aT.'^'/^t'""^' *'"'*''''' '^''^'"^'"'^ thebe^taualiti 

-■ell. •■Elsewhere" InT-a ar • au""' ,'' ""^' '^^ """' "'''' *"-^""^""^ ^"^^ -'^ 
pitch, and be read with .L "■'"""■ ""'""^"'- '^'"''« ^ «*"" » '"^^^ ri^e in 

ncBs^nc enirir LS o r"^ " who is our home - to a tone of «oft- 

fcHvea risin,. LtL to .'bov- in' 'T ";""-'-^^' ^'"^ ''■■»-* '" -notone, but 
elevated tote a.^e^prtsion ' I " i J / 'rr '^V^ ^'^ "".^^ ^^'^ -- 
creased force and elevation of feehlg rL tt la t u o T !' "' "''' "- 

with saduer expression Give "ma ," an i " ? ' '" '°''"" »''**^*'' ''"'* 

time ; pause at '' fade " and il. T • ''''''' ''"P^*^''' '""^ lenKthoned 

fulness • ''"^ *''" remaunns words with an expression of mourn- 

stanza 7 is in the spirit of Shakespeare's "Seven Aires of Man " o.^ • .. 

sa.„e varied expression, in harmon/with the chaTaet^;: a d e^'nts pieZrTh': 
first nine hnes are light and cheerful in tone, and should be read in fhn h l ?! 
suggested above, and with that radical stre s whil give tofhe deliver^!' " ''^ 
animated expression. Read line 10 in lower pitch. slo;i;a! d so e and '^'eTe 

mamder of the stanza with quiet expression. ' 

Stanza 8. -This splendid apostrophe to childhood demands the best orotund au^lifv 
of for its delivery. The inflections of the n.onctone charair ,2t live th^ the mus c of a chant or a recitative : but the reader must be arl t'hl it i and no smgu.g. The expression demands exalted fervor, nmrked by such 
reverence as w.ll distinguish the fervor from mere passion. Read "Thou 'and an 
.tsappo.t,ves that follow, higher and with greater force than the quaS. clause 
The d.iference of p tch nu,st vary only between a tone and a semitonl eI h vtaT; 
should have the nsuig inflect on, as " thou " " nhiloxmihpr - <>k j ^i. . \<^a"vc 
word Of each subordinate elaus; may end •with^'a^moro:; of:' H • ^ tSr^ 
he final word of the series. " height." line 15. must have a decided ri ig infl ^ 
to u,ark the dependence of the entire apostrophe on the clause that follo/s and with 
a longer pause to mark the rhetorical divisions. Read the last thr e i„es Jow r 
slower, and more b^iemnly. ioyf^r, 

Stanza 9.-The fervor must be resumed in the first four lines, which, being exclama- 

ory are pervaded by the rising inflection, with which they terminate Give emphasi 

"joy,' "embers/- "live"; also to "remembers," and "fugitive." Line T: read 

benediction' with great warmth. In the succeeding lines, as far as "praise " ^Z 

nsing inflections to " blest," and to each negative object, as "delight " " hberfy " &c 

as far as " pr-aist-." From iino 13 the expression is solemn but warm, the pitch of voice 







deeper, and the inflections jfonerally fallinpr, uniess otiierwiso sanctionwl bj the de- 
perHlenceof tiie ciauscs. TJie words expressive of tlie in.n.ortal intimations-" qiics- 
tionmjfs," < niis^ivingH," "iiigh instincts," &i..-tal<e swellin^f and solemn empiiani.. 
Linos 20 and 27: "nnnients" demands emphasis, witl, downward inflection, and 
eternal silence," wliiclj is antitiieticai. takes enii-iiasis and ri>in>r inflection. Tlio 
clauses tliat follow, as far as ' destroy," are to l.o read with greater force. The re- 
mainder of the vese must bo road in lofty, swellin- tones of full orotund quality. 
The passage is of the sublinicst character, and should be rendered with adequate ex- 

Stanza 10. -Read the first seven lines in hijfher pitch, and with animation. Note 
that lines 4, h, 6, 7. and 12 to 18 are in trochaic metre. These lines should bo read in 
that measure, and not as su-gcstod for line .'i. in stanza 4, which is irrc-ular. As lines 
8 to 11 refer to the remaining clauses, and are negative in form and nature, they end 
with a rising inflection, and are pervaded by it. They should also ho read in lower 
pitch than the succeeding clauses. Give greater emphasis to lines 12 and 13 es- 
pecially to "grieve not," "strength,' and "remain behind"; also to "primal s'ym- 
pathy," "soothing thoughts," and " suffering," in lines 14,10, and 17. Read line 18 in 
loftier and more swelling tone, and slightly subdue that expression on the last line. 

Stanza 11.— Greater fervor again marks this verse; but as it is cheerful and hopeful 
the modulation is higher, and the rising Hi.flections prevail. The last two lines should 
be read with greater calmness and dignity. 


Goldwin Smith was born m 182.3, at Reading, England, where his 
father was a physician He was educated at Eton .nd Oxford, taking 
his degree of B.A. m 1845, with distinguished honors in classics. Two 
years later he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, but he never prac- 
tised his profession. He acted as assistant-secretary to tiie first and as 
secretary to the second, commission appointed to inquire into the con- 
dition of Oxford University, and was appointed a member of the 
education commission of 18.39 In 1858 he wi.s selected to fill the Modern 
History Chair lu Oxford, and signalized his accession to it by a series of 
lectures, since republished, on " Tiic Study of History." His stronelv 
expressed opmions provoked a reply from the Westminster Review and 
T iopI r: ^"''*^ responde<l in letters to the London Daily News 
In 1868, after resigning his position in Oxford, he was appointed Pro- 
fessor of English an<l Constitutional History in Cornell University 
New York, ami d.iring the greater part of the time which has since 
elapsed he has resided lu Toronto, spending a portion of each year at 
Ithaca where Cornell IS located. In 1867, appeared the series 
pyf'»T\'"*lf^'\- IV'^^^^^Slish Statesmen, Pym, Cromwell, and 
Pitt, which, after his "Lectures on the Study of History » is iiis most 
iniportant historical work. Amongst Ids other literary productions is his 
Life of Cowper which forms one of the series of "EnglisJi Men of Letters ' 
Though he has written much and on a great variety of topics, he has 
done comparatiyely little work in permanent form. During the trreater 
Dart of his residfince in Toronto he has been a contributor to Canadian 

n«d b> the do- 
ations— "qiicB- 
t.'iiui finphaitii. 
influotioii, and 

1 flection. The 
lorce. The re- 
otund quality. 
Ii adequate cx- 

niation. Note 
)uld bo read in 
iilar. As lines 
ture, they end 
read in lower 

2 and 13, cs- 
"primal sym- 
lead line 18 in 
he last line. 

and hopeful, 
lines should 

, where his 
ord, taking 
isics. Two 
never prac- 
irst, and as 
to the con- 
ber of the 
he Modern 

a series of 
is strongly 
ieview, and 
aili/ Neivs. 
inted Pro- 

has since 
ch year at 
the series 
iwell, and 
is his most 
tions is his 
f Letters.' 
cs, he has 
he greater 
' Canadian 


a'cri^dn^/o?;. i'P;'''?;' cxprosHion. and he never has the appeaSe if 
Jh^ « .1 f *!'"*'' "'■ «'''"''^' ^"'' tl'o «ake of form. Ho Jirries easilv 

bv a nn ill ?^!''' command wf.en he"" wishes to iUuminate hisThe ne 

nnSTf thanduboration. and tlieivtoie those are in the best 

StrrinL^ff^Ttk^'^'* .'"^ "'^': ^\'" ^■""^- --^ '^''oSt thi'J^.b; et* 
,W , 1 f 1 ,• , "" ''««"^»* 'Cfi'efc the reader fools is that the writer 

rvotrhuJififi'S'li? Tt *'"S'""^ necessity ephime.!;rh"asS 

piSiJy wo^hr'n:t^t^;;';:tE''"*""'^' ^-'"^ ^'-^^^^^"'-^ -^^^^ 

To save Saxony, Gustavus I.ft Bavaria half conquered.^ As 
he hurried to the rescue, the people on his line of march knelt 
to kiss the hem of his garment, the sheath of his deliverin<. 
sword, and could scarcely be pre^■ented from adoring him as a god."« 
His religions spirit was filled with a presentiment that the idol 

^^^^^^^^^^^V^Z^:^^^^^ ^-l^i "The Great Duel of 

able estimate of the .W^s pro-ressl nd ni ,Hs^o^^^^^^^ description and a valu- 

the battle of L.itzen «as a brKisate In ,ofn? nf ? ^l'**'' ^"*'"'* ^'''•" «' ^'hich 
tion a3 any sunnnarised .acco nf, o K^.h „. ' , '°L"L?.l'°"".*»'« V<]m is as near perfec 

tion as any «"nnnariscd .a.u-ount of such an n 3anV '"u '"^ ^'"J'*''" '" "« '""''■ I'^rfec- 
to exception on the ^'ron.ul o prejnc ire o"iSn^^^^^^ f "•''",• *"^' *J '^ '^'''^ «P«'' 

are. All «tude.^s of n.odern »itiry ^.^rbSSl^iiJ^l^^^l^l-'^.^P^'^^t^ »-a.Iy 

the Klc'tor I'alatine, I'Vedeii k, 1o\ - Haw of^ m'.-'i r'^nf ".-" r^"**!^' *° ^"'-' *'"'""e 
the ^anie time (1G19) beca'ne EmDem r . ^ •."/nv,. '• ."f *'"ff'''^"''; ^-crdinand about 
itself into a general war betwee^^a German I'm ;Vn? '1'^'^'^"^ '««oIv(- 

nence untifisao, "he . Gu tavu, Idol Z,? *''"''f 'Tk "?, '"i'"'''"^" ™"'"'a"der of end 
policy of the ^:.;.pe.o,'San^d himself art'l^^^^^^^^^^ ".'? "r"'j'^'*"'« "menaced by ho 

of brilliant military a'cWevemen r» e reSfcJf le /o^^^^^^^^^^^ '"."?"■ By a series 

penl. Wallenstein had been for son' o real^n Pmml:? f^l'' *,"•'' P°"^'"" °' extreme 
been defeated bv Gustavus fit Leiusic in l^-ii ..f, o • '"'"'"'* •""'""land. Tilly had 
was borne from the baaie-fie II to dio win " ' f''?'"" '" ^^ '- "" t^e Lech, where ho 
head of a larye army I.e for le (1 st timl i rf'^T "'?;)* ""'^^ 'balled, and at the 
latter lay in an ent cM..ho,l \Zh'1 .1± i!!?!.''„'^',"^"»"^«r':<» Oustayus. For months the 

quote his own words: " Gustay.Ks wUYhc son of that r?^^^ '"" J'^'t'ce. To 

at once the bonds of Denmark and of Rome ,nd had ^"^**^;^'« ^^^ who had broken 
Lutheran._ He was the son of thL r-."2,Tv.'"? .I'?'^ I"^<'e Sweden independent and 

luauoa. Devoted from his <=Wi^o^lo the^Prote^l^^^cS^tKSlS'a 






m which thoy tru3te<l wouhl be 3oon laid low.^ On the 14th of 
^ovouiber ho was leaving a strongly entrenched camp, at 
Xaumberg, where, the Imperialistn fancied, the season being so 
;tr advanced, he intended to renutin, when news reached his ear 
hke the sight which strnck Wellington's eye as it ranged over 
Murmont s anny on the morning of Halamancu/ The impetuous 
luppenhcm, everanxions for separate command, had persuaded 
an Imperial council <,f war to detach him with a lar-^e force 
:i:.ainst llalle.n The rest of the Imperialists, under WalFenstein 
were quartered in the villages arouml L>it^eIl.^ close within the 
■ungs reach, and unaware of liis approach. "The Lord," cried 
-istavus, y. delivered him into my hand," and at once 
lie swooped upon his prey. 

■• luacter and habits of her jleonle, h . S« e c !;. ^ 'vL ''','',''?'J^'' '"' *" **'«' general 
•■vt, on Htiinulated by the u 1,1 iuenrrrthe . a>-l TnrLf! til''''';'' "^'°"''"'* '' his i">agi- 
na^ia; Kitted by nature both i,rm ,7knd bS\ • thrvn\^\'*'*"^:''>^^ «" SiunSi- 
hiumclf a hero. * * * t" h «t nf hi' "'.'^.y<'^"K "^'"'f'' ^^ already shown 
and relij,nop. His discipline redeemed the war from !!'',''•' '"""^ ''*!""« ^^^e discipline 
far au war in that iron ale could be a J) . w\u-ery, and made it again, so 

he was not himself an ascet™ saint'-" ''^""' °' »'"""^L"'^ ""'' f "'''""fol- I" rcljion 
inspired his army witii devotion." ""' "® ^'"^ devout, and he 

tion'^'^i;St'^:r iL^;:l,i;!!rs'^bSr;] '^ «"^-' <'' --f^- 

to what extent the history of the vo Hd C l ' '^^^^ be hard to Sy 

by n,en like Ca3sar. Gustu^us. Walbnstk a'ty^mrJ^lVn "^ "*'"' ^'"^"^ '" ^^^'^ 

his left wing in the i.o ^ Ki bdS hrU't'S K^'Th"*'.^^'*^'' l*'^,''^ 
ported by the centre, was speedily routed and thonmfii*- ^^^ ^^^''""^ '^ft, un.up- 
same fate, while the rest of the armv"warthrln in?n . V *'• '* ^^"^^ "''- ^''^^e^ t» e 
The ubove comparison of thirisrs amwentlv s^Z Vnn„r^ l>.v a genera! attack, 
one .ecn the mistake made by AK^t h, mJ^v"' ?'T,'' movement heard of with 
take, Made by VVallen.tein in alloNWng WeZS to H,^!^ «' array with the 
ch.raeteristic of a master in the rhetorical a, t '"""* °' **'^ anny-Jg 

fld;?c"e^ "^i' wrrSTd^ni^bSreS c'SfnlrbeT *'^ ^h"^^?^^ -"* «' -"- 
fully master of the situation. "^'"'"''® "® *'°"'«» "«* be dispensed with, and was never 

1813, the great battle in which Nanoleon Rni^^^^ I" ^^^^' "'^« ^""Sht in May! 

allied armies of Russia a, d Prussia Z^itStt '''•'"' * ^ard^earned victory o^ er the 
grounds. A short diatanee to the east near Tprnl"p*^? '"''^'^ "} historical battle- 
plain of Breitenfeld in 1631 ; o,, thr^aine snot L ;fi?9"'T "'? '^^^^''^''^ "^^'y °" *he 
Gu9tavu«, defeated the Archduke Leopold Tnd oJl^< Torstenson. a lieutenant of 

same pluce was fought in October, 18 rthethrerXvI^t„Hr°'°^^^^^^^ ^"'^ "e^' the 
Napoleon was exil^ to Elba. Not far from nti^^^ ,^""1?' *^ ^^^ result of which 
Frederick the Great defeated the Smbined Cnoh ll^" I'.^^i^f ^'^h' ^here, In 1767, 


"Bre.k imm i itli every man and gun. Tlio enemy 

ia advancing miier. H^ is already at the pass by the hollow 
road."» So wrote Walknstein to Pai.i)enheim. The letter is 
still preserved, stained with Pappenheim's lifo-bh.od." But in 
that mortal race, Pai)peidieim atood no chance. l[ull« was a 
Ion- day's march off, and the troopei-«, whom Pappenheim could 
l.-a<l -nllantly hut could not control, aftc^r tliin- the town had 
d.sporKcl to plunder. Yet the Swed<r.s great opportunity was Liitzen, though in sight, proved not so near as flattering 
KUides and eag.>r eyes had made it. The deep-l.anke<l Rippach, 
Its bridge all too narrow f(,r the impetuous columns, the roads 
heavy from rain, delayed the march. A skirmish with some 
Imperial cavalry un.ha- Isolani wasted minutes when minutes 
w..Te years ;»o and the short November day was at an end when 
the Swede reached the plain of Liltzen. 

No military advantag.; marks the spot whore the storm over- 
took the Duke of Friedland." He was caught like a traveller in 
a temi)est on a sh.dterless plain, and had nothing for it but to 
bule, the brunt." What could be done with ditches, two wind- 
nuUs, a mu d wall, a small canal, he did, moving from point to 

10 What 18 the rhetorical flsrure here' 

Hrunt 18 of Scandinavian oriL'in. and «PPin» tr. h» „-..:. — *„.i -i;">,.„ ^*-,. ..''J*^"*.' 
'• Dun.." the idea of heat having partly giveiT way to «;ai'of';hock?m' s^^eled" it ^"2 


- > 



point .l.innK th. 1...,- lUKht ; and ],of.,ro morning all hin troops 
I'xccpt I'app..nh,.i.n'H .livisinn, hml cuiuo m ami wero in lino ' 
\Mu'ntlH. morning hrokr, a h.-av^ fog lay on tho groun,!.'- 
HiHtoriaiiH Imv., not fail.,.l to nnaark llu.t thorn is a .^n.pathy in 
tilings, and that the <lay was loath to ,lau-n which was to bo" the 

Hho choHo a l.a.l mode for showin,. horVsympathy, for, uhih; tho 
fog provontod tho Swo.los fron. ulvancing, part of Papponhoim's 
corps arrivod. After prayers, tho king and all his army Kan-^ 
Luther's hymn, - Our (Jod is a strong towor""'~-tho AfarsoiUaiso 
of tho militant Reformation.'" Then Gustavus mounted his 
horse, and a<hlrossed the diif,,vMt divisions, adjuring them by 
their vietorious nanio, by tho memory of tho l}reitonfold,»7 by 
the great cause whose issue hung upon their swords, to fi-ht 
well for that cause, for their c(^untry, and their God. His hcnirt 
was uplifted at Liitzen, with that IIel)rew fervor which uplifted 
the heurtof Cromwell at JJunhar.'" Old wounds made it irksome 
to Inm to wear a cuirass. - God," ho said, " shall bo my armor 
this day." ^ 

Wallenstein has boon much l^eliod if he thought of anything • 
that morning more religious than tho order of battle, which has 
been preserved, drawn up by his own hand, and in which his 


"oS.r'STIS;.""'^'-" '''°"''*»^ *^- '" ""^«"^ English, though it «a« very 

laws , nay l,e n.ade by an arrow shot at a venture, a windering pcstrience a mndom 
bullet, a wreatii of mist lingering on one of the worid's battle-fielis ■' ' 

NotJ^r^'iS^V^rS^'SvSSl:^''' "'^ ^^^^-^^ ''^^^"^^^ "presentiuionf (.ee 

C~. ' ^^"f"'""'**'"" war.«ong. There are several English versions of it^ne by 

18 The expression "militant Reformation" has reference to the fact that the re- 
ligious movement inaugurated by Luther was both supported and opposed by force of 

^r;n/w'?'^^r "''''f.?!^''''''''^' ^'^ reign, and of the whole ,>c r od down to the 
peace of Westphalia m 1848, were due to this cause. The Marseillaise was the popular 
song of the Fi ench Revolution. What is the figure of speech here ? P"pu'»r 

n See Note 7 above. 

18 The battle of Dunbar was fought between Cromwell and the Scottish general 



troops Boon nro utill formed in iM-uvy inasHeH, in contrast to tlio 
liglitcr fonuiitiouH of (Ju.stiivus. lU; wuh currieil down \m lim!S 
in a litter, Immii^' ciii.plod by gout, which thu surgeons of that 
day hud tried to cure by cutting into the Heslj. Hut wh.-n the 
action begun, he phiced his mangh; 1 fgot in a stirrui. lined with 
silk, and niounted the* small charger, the skin of which is still 
shown in the desertcul i)alaco of his pride.'" Wc! may be sure 
that conhdence sat undisturlied upon his brow ; l)ut in his heart 
he must have folt that, though ho had bravn men around him, 
the Swedes, lighting for their cause und(ir their kijig, wero more 
than men ; and that in the balance of battle, tin n held out, his 
scale had kicked the beam.''* Then- can hardly be a harder trial" 
for human fortitude than to command m a great action on the 
weaker side. Villencuve was a brave man, though an unfortu- 
nate admiral ; ])ut he owned that his heart sank within him 
at Trafalgar when he saw Nelson iK-ariug down. 

"God with us," was the Swedish battle-cry."-' On the other 
side the words 'Mesu-Maria" passed around, as twenty-five 
thousand of the most godless and lawless ruffians the world ever 
saw sf^od to the arms which they had imbrued in the blood not 
of soldiers only, but of women and children of captured towns. 
Doubtless many a wild Walloon and savage Croat, many a 

Leslie in 1650 Tlie Ijattle-cry of Cromwell's men was the Hebrew expression, "The 
vllin " ^^^ ''■'*" ''•''^^'■*'«^'' «" the field by the singing of the I17th 

19 W.'.loiigtein's palace at I'rajruc v as regal in its magniflcence. In it he live.l (lurinir 
h.s en uml rut.remen surmund..l by barons, knights, and officers oh 1 an m 
K 00 mv and taeiturn in his manner, n.ystorious in his moven.ents, and intently wa "h 
ing the progress made ijy Ou.tavus uga'r,>t the League. Mr, Smith shows, in the pre- 
sent eMuy Wiat he is attracted by the somewhat eccentric grandeur of Wal ensteiii • ho 
shows .t still uioro clearly l.y the analysis he gives of his t-haraoter i, lis ecture "On 
Some SupiKjsed Consequences of the Doctrine of Historical Progress." After ^tting 
aside allensteins' irregularity," his "reserve and loneliness," his " nteCtual 
power,' and ills 'violence and unscrupulousness," „„ne of which are proper subjects 
o moral admiration, he finds remaining "the majesty of his chara,* r, downed by 
his nroud and silent death. ' "This majesty," he adds, •' was pro<lucr,d by sacrificing 

.hi Thio^h"' nlfh "*"■ ^■^^^'^t T,"' !'»««'""«- «'"'^e all. the paJsion ol fear^ra 3 
^^ W M VT*" as It vy-as, Wallenstein struggUil to attain." For a still more ideal- 
ized Wallenstein, see Schiller's dramas and his "Thirty Years' War." 

20 Point out and explain all the figures of speech in this sentence. 

21 Alliteration frequency improves the form of expression ; here it is rather a defect 

^hl^T^"^ !^^, Puritan battle-cry at Dunbar; see Note 18. The "Covenant" wa^ 
the watchword of the Scottish army on the same occasion. j'cuojh, »i«, 



/ t 

.. I 



fierce Spaniard and cmol Italian, who had butchered and 
tortured at Magdeburg, was here cou.e to bite the dust »» These 
men were children of the camp and the battle-fiol.I, long fa^uiliar 
wth every form of death, yet, had tl,ey known what a day was 
now before then,, they might have felt like a recruit on the 
mormng „£ h>» first field. Some were afterwards broken" or be- 
headed for misconduct before the enemy; others earned rich re 
wards; most paid, like men of honor, the price for which they 
wete allowed to glut every lust and Yevel in every kind of crin.e. 
At nu,e the sky began to clear; straggling shots told that the were catching sight of each other, au,l a red glare broke 
he nust where the lu.perialists had set fire to Lut.en to cover 
the.r nght At ten Gustavus placed himself at the head of his 
cavalry War has now changed; and the telescope is the 
general's sword.'» Yet we cannot help feeling that the gallant 
king who cast ,„ his own life with the lives of the peasants he 
had dmwn from their Swedish homes, is a nobler figure than the 
great Emperor who, on the same plains, two centuries afterwards 
ordered to then' death the masses of youthful valor sent by a 
ruthless conscription to feed the vanity of a heart of ejay ' 


time at the head of r.O.OOOnK^rceSl^who sensed hfmht"fl!^"'^^^ f"'^ «P^« »' 
in the plunder on whicli his armies s. bsisted Tho w i "^''^^°'" *'^® ^'^'^'^ of sharing 
remnant of the old BelirJo racrdescr bed hv p J .^*"?0"» are supposed to be a 
habitat is Luxembursr, a^„d X ad?JeJt portiS^ o[ Z^^■^ "Comjnentaries." Their 
two millions of then, in Belgium alone aildthov nl. .^'Z?"" ''"'^ ,?* 'l*"'^^- There are 
influential element in the populatio "f Ct rouTtrv th"*^ ^ well-defined and very 
work chiefly of the Walloon districts and Th^tt, ^^^- "^l«''^" revolution was the 
modern times have been of Waoon descent Th "n„ '"!""f"t Belgian statesmen of 
Latin for Gaels, or Gauls, and alsX •' VVeM;" JS "u-^^aehS 'f!?*.!^ *" ^""''' *he 
r;f Celtic origin, the Walloons being, however lo an ISi „^h "^•' A" t*»ese races were 
Ihe «rm "Croats" is here a in litm rather tlmTi oh ^^^^^^^^ 
Croatians were famous soldiers in those dav' but h!^, J^ n "J*^' designation. The 
light cavalry troops made up of Magyars and otl^^er.^^^^^^^ ^'"S^* regiments were 

Croatians. Magdeburg, one of the Germa,. P.^L.f l°'.''*^**i''" Europe, as well a.s 

sacked by Tillylnd Pappenheim, with th^os? SdlnlS^^^ ^"^ t^^^^" a"<l 

_ 18 the figure in " bite the dust"? """"^ cruelties, in May, 1631. What 

24 " On the wheel "; a common, but most inhuman, punishmpnt of fhof « 

xs!„;?,f „"sT^j=v £ fKs ~ v^ ---: 



tchered and 
lust. 23 These 
ong faiiiiliar 
it a day was 
3ruit on the 
)ken2* or be- 
'ned rich re 
which they 
id of crime. 
)ld that the 
glare broke 
en to cover 
head of his 
ope is the 
the gallant 
)easants he 
re than the 
sent by a 
' cjay.^ 


fter the death 
ihort space of 
ke of sharing 
osed to be a 
iries." Their 
e. There are 
led and very 
ition was the 
statesmen of 
to Oalli, the 
se races were 
nance patois, 
lation. The 
rinients were 
•e, as well as 
3 taken and 
1631. What 


to be passed 

a foot-note. 

lal courage, 
on, depends 

The Swedes, after the manner of war in tliat fierce and hardy 
age, f '.1 at once with their main force on tlio whole of the Imperial 
line. On the left, after a liard and murderous struggle, they 
gainful ground and took tlio enemy's guns. But on the right 
the Imperialists held firm, and, while Gustavus Avas carrying 
victory with him to that quarter, Wallenstein restored the day 
upon the right.'' Again Gustavus hurried to that part of tlie field. 
Again the Imperialists gave way, and Gustavus, uncovering his 
head, thanked God for his victory. At this moment, it seems, 
the mist returned. The Swedes were confused and lost their 
advantage. A horse, too well known, ran riderless down their 
line ; and when their cavalry next advanced, they found the 
stripped and mangled body of their king. According to the 
most credible witnesses, Gustavus, who had galloped forward to 
see how his advantage might be best followed up, got too near 
the enemy, was shot fii-st in the arm, and then in the back, and 
tell from his hcn-se. A party of Imperial cuirassiers came up, 
and learning from the wounded man himself who he was, finish- 
ed the work of death. They then stripped the body for proofs 
ot theii great enemy's, fate and relics of the mighty slain. Dark 
reports of treason were spread abroad, and one of these reports 
followed the Duko of Saxe-I.auenburg, who was with Gustavus 
that day, through his questionable hfe to his unliap])y end. 
In those times a great man could scarcely die without 
suspicion of foul play, and in all times men are unwilling to 
believe that a life on which the destiny of a cause or a nation 
hangs can be swept away by the blind indiscriminate hand of 
common death, '^ 

21 The first "right " in this sentence is that of Gustavus ; the second is that of Wal- 
lenstein himself, which was, of course, the left of the Swedes. 

as There does not appear to be good ground for suspecting any one of foul play in 
connection with the death of Gustavus. It was one of those incidents which, as Mr. 
Smith points out in his first lecture "On the Study of History," help to make a 
science of history, in the ordinary sense of the term " science," an impossibility: 
" Accidents, too, mere accidents— the bullet which struck Gustavus on the field of 
LUtzen, the chance by which the Russian lancers missed Napoleon in the churchyard 
of Eylati, the chance which stopped Louis XVI. in his flight at Varennes and carried 
him back to the guillotine turn the course of history aa well as of life, and baffle to 
that extent all law. all tendency, all previsinn," 



, i 


oanahian reader.— book vi. 

and hat T ' ,""' *''""^''" "' ""^ °«^- -« -treat; 

Zt V , 'v r " '"' ™'"«^-'" '^'''-■' «-»d though 
^. oenge. Ye so great was the diseouragement, that one 

cut hm ,h v„ ,v,tl, h,s ow„ hai„h»« Again the at„„„,le be-™ 

r to well. Ho k„ou- that his great antagonist was dead, and 
mt he was now the n.aster spirit on .h„ field. And with 

•erson the most desperate eomhat.,, prodi,al of the life ouwhieh 
«ceord,ng to l„s enen.ies, his treasonah.e projeets hung, y 

P 1',!!!,^ ™' "°""'" *^°'"*^ "=""''' '"'"• "''™ "'e remainder of 
Pappenhenn s corps arrived, and the road was onee more opened 

to victory I,y a cliarge whieh cost Pappenheim his own life »■ 

The cirnage had been fearful on both sides, and as fearful was 

the exhaustion. For si., hours almost every man in both aimi 

sCL -:,.''; "■™"^"'t "f ™"tal combat with pike and 
sword and four times that excitement had been strained by 
general charges to its highest pitch. The Imperialists held 
heir ground but confused and .shattered, their constancy ul. 
tamed only by that commanding presence which .-till mo "d 
along their lines, unhurt, though grazed and even n.arkcd by 
the storm of death through which he rode.- Just as il " ,,„„ 


30 Bernard Duke of Saxe-Weiniar, was aftPr Tillv w„ii . ■ 
most pronunent military figure of the " Thirty ySs> WW. ^^^^^^^ and Gustavus, the 

the scene. Ho was only fifteon when thT. «„^ \ ^ * ' ""*"' Condd appoared on 
he distinguished hinisef at the batt'e of W^ufen " hT*^' """"f ^"^ J'^^f^rs anerwart" 
the death of the latter, and after that eA^en hi ?onVn ^'^''^'e'^ ""der Gustavus, until 
lowed up the victory. He was defeTtecl at nShI Sen n"l«^'i f *^.*^ '^""J'' "^''^ fo - 
so ; but he kept up, for four yeans later ti 1 h s m ? ; i a^\^^' Jerdinand in per- 
m.i.tarv movements against thi empire' His death ssu^'n^^'i^; \'"'«^ «' brillfant 
by poison. h . oia ueatn is supposed to have been caused 

31 See Note 9. 

S2 The combination of g;in and bavonpf hiui ««<■ «» • 
known in 1632. See NotI 13, p 26^^ * ^"^ "*"*> '' '"vented at all, become generally 

_ 3.S Wallenstein was calmest and most 8elf-contron..H i„ fK i, 

ism rendered him insensible to personardanger elceDt in «n'}""'" '^ •''''';'°"- "'« ^^'tel- 
to interfere with his plans. Mr. Smith has in nnnfh'^ ? 'f ^ '"« ^eath was likely 
when the hired assassin rushed urto hi 'hlibe'd t h-H* "^ *^'' ^^"^^^ '•«''*t^J th^ 
are to d e," the great man. " tme to his maieJtv Ir ?' ''T'^ *'"*- "Villain, you 
weapon in his breast, and feU dead wUhSa woS " ^ °"* ^^^ *""'• '«^«»ed the 




was setting, the Swedes made the supreme effbrt which heroism 
alone can make. Then Wallenstein gave the signal for retreat, 
welcome to the bravest; and, as darkness fell upon the field, 
the shattered masses of the Imperialists drew off slowly and 
sullenly into the gloom. Slowly and sullenly they drew off,"* 
leaving nothing to the victor except some guns of position; but 
they had not gone far when they fell into the disorganization of 

The judgment of a cause by battle is dreadful. Dreadful 
it must have seemed to all .who were within sight or hearing of 
the field of Lutzen when the battle was over. But it is not 
altogether irrational and blind. Providence does not visibly in- 
terpose in favor of the right. The stars in their courses do not 
now fight for the good cause. At Liitzen they fought against 
it. But the good cause is its own star. The strength given 
to the spirit of the Swedes by religious enthusiasm, the strength 
given to their bodies by the comparative purity of their lives, 
enabled them, when tlie bravest and hardiest of ruffians were 
exhausted in spirit and body, to make the last effort which won 
the day.'"' 

Te Deum'^ was sung at Vienna and Madrid, and with good 
reason. For Vienna and M.ldrid the deatli of Gustavus was 
better than any victory. For humanity, if the interests of 
humanity ;vere not those of Vienna and Madrid, it was worse 
tha n any defeat. '^ ^ But for Gustavus himself, was it good to die 

34 What is the figure of speech in the precedUiff two lines? On the api^lk^^U^f 

,,'^'-^ll'lrsih<^'!>lid'lle Ages the tvM by battle of private causes between members of 
the nobihty was not o.ily common but letral under the feudal jurispi u(Ienoe of Frtm.p 
.Spain, and Germany The line of thouf,ht here is, that though such a mode of arbi -a' 
ri^ «H r?h^"'' "f ^^^'-'^''^ Providcre does not always visibly inter Ze to help tl^e 
rsht still the Rood cause generally assists its own supporters to win n the long run 
On "the stars in their raurses," see Judges v. 20. ^ 

S6 The words 7'e Dmm LrtMrfamws— equivalent to "We praise Thee O Ood " aro 
he opening words of a Christian hymn in Latin of ancient dT and un^rtain au^or 
sh p It .s usually ascribed fo St. Ambrose, who is said to have expressed b?ith[s 
exu nation on the occasion of the baptism of St. Augustine, but its pKctioti is nro 
bably much more ancient. From the frequency with which this h vmrhralwavs Wm 
employed ,n the services of the Roman Catholic Church to express eelingVof ?K ph 
ai,d thanksgiving, the words Te Deum have come to mean a thanksgiving service 
a< What is the flsMre of rhetoric in the renetition nt « vunno op,j u„j-ih»« 

1 I 





glorious and stainless, but before his hour? T.- u . 

\u. r 1 "■ ""^ *«»^P<^a^i"", Jie had bettor have lived 

JUS time and done liis wnrl' w^ -n ^i"d.veiivea 

ha«l . a ,,..„,..„,„.» He had won not 6..,, ho„o 'b ' l: 

h.stay In h,„. the spirit of tho famous house of Va.Te t^ 
«o first he.0.0 height. It was soon to n,o„nt to main s „ 
Christina and Charles XII. '» mountM in 

Goldmin Smith. 

ho''li^?"-^ 'h"% '^^'^ '" 1«'^" ^vas crownll unrr the tiH^ "-ssumed the function" 

she g-overned with v jfor and pomilaritv hnf i,. ip^V v ^ • I*'"?- For four veurs 
^hp abdicated in favor of ^0 nin ' rh.Lo n^^: '^ecoinin- weary of the position 
«;hiefly in Brussels, Pari, and Rome sh^dfed.f^/h''?''!'- ^^^' <" restless liK e t 
duct amply justifies the remark n' the ext and^Hu. "^'"'1 ^'^^ '" ^«89. Her co 
( harles XII. A statesman of ability and a ^owLn """^ «*'lte'»c"t holds good of ruined his eonntrv bv self wiii« ..k t-'^'^ of J,'eniU8, he ruined himself and 
kXdh"' '"'''^"'.^•V. lie aLM'th "SroLfi"n'°?^o?^^ *" ^? appearanc the 

killed by . lausket-bullet in 1718. while beKg'fsVaSl tor^gi^n 5S' '^"'^ "^ 

'iumph and 
which up to 
ips, Avel] for 
•er morality 
or his kind, 
r he was to 
f have lived 
her sphere; 
and ampler 
was happy. 
Jr, there is 
', but love, 
ed as the 
lhI for the 
asa rose to 
aadness in 


THE VISION or sir launfal.^ 


,oft"'^®4'^¥^®^^ Lowell was born at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 
1819. His education was acquired in his native city, and in 1838 he 
graduated in arts in Harvard College, under whose sJiadow he was 
born. He became known as a poet while attending college, but his real 
drimt in that capacity was made .when in 1841 he publislied his first 
collection of poems, entitled " A Year's Life." From that year down to 
180y lie sent forth from time to time successive collections of new 
poems, and in the following two years he publislied liis two luiinue 
prose volumes, "Amoiw My Books "and "My Study W.ndowH." In 
18uu iie succeeded his friend and teacher, Longfellow, h\ the chair of 
modern languages and belles-lettres at Harvard. From 1857 to imi he 
was editor of the Atlantic Monthly, and from 18G3 to 1872, of the North 
American Review. In 1877 he entered the diplomatio mwice of the 
United States by accepting the position of Minister to Snaiu, and 
more recently he has worthily represented his country at the 
British court Lowell stands in the front rank of American poets„ 
and tliough his writings are not so generally read as those of Long- 
fellow, they possess qualities which will tend to make their pop-ularity 
more enduring. He is best known as a humorist by tlie cefebratea 
Biglow Papers," in the so-called Yankee dialect,. but he is equally 
telicitous in his treatment of serious and even of spiritual subjects. 

y * 


I Si I 
i ' 


ic philosophy 

;y of life and 

minority slie 
he functions 
3r four years 
he position, 
58 life, spent 
9. Her con- 
il<is good of 
himself and 
earant.e the 
en, and was 


'My golden spurs now bring to me, 
And bring to nie my richest mail, 

if.. <^f{- ,?. T V'" * t"."**^ *". ****' .P*'*^'" entitled "The Vision of Sir Launfal," speaks of 
IvL .' """iM'H- " co"«>ft3, in its entirety, of the two "parts" hero Kim,, and 
two 'preludes," one to each part. As the preludes are not essential to the imder 
Jf'^uf, ""T'' "I'^y '''■^ ^'^'"'^ omitted, but they arc themselvos well worthy 

of study as poems of great intrinsic value. The openinir lines of the i>-elidu • > 
fart 1. may be compared with the oi)eiiin},' lines of " The Lost Chord," p. 89: 

Over his keys the musing organist, 
Beginning doubtfully and far away. 

First lets his fingers wander as they" list, 
And builds a bridge fnjni Dreamland for his lay: 

Then, as the touch of h'S loved instrument 
Gives ho))e and fervor, nearer draws his theme, 

First guessed by faint auroral flushes sent 
T ,,.,,. Along the wavering \ ista of his dream. 

In evident aUusion to the fifth stanza of Wordsworth's ode, p. 290, he continues: 

Not only around our infancy 

Doth heaven with all its splendors lie 

Daily, with souls that cringe and plot, 

Wo Sinais climb, and know it not. 

Over our manhood bend the skie^ ; 
Against our fallen and traitor lives 

The great winds utter prophecies ; 

With /^»>^ tntr\*- y.nj^„t. *U« x_!_ .x_..^^ 



For to-morrow I go over land and sea 
In search of the Holy Grail ;'•* 

Shall never a bed for me be spread, 

Nor .sliall a pillow be under my head, 

Till I begin my vow to keep ; 

Here on the rushes Avill I sleep, 

And perchance there may come a vision true 

Ere day create the world anew."' 
SloAvly Sir Launfal's eyes grew dim, 
Slumber fell like a cloud on him. 

And into his soul the visio flew * 

The crows flapped over by twos and threes, 
In the pool droAvsed the cattle up to their knees, 
The little ])irds' sang as if it were 
The one day of summer in all the year,6 

Its arms outstnt-^nod, the druid wood 

Waits witli -1 benedicite ; 
And to our a s drowsy blood 
i. . . Still shouts III' inspiring: sea. 

The rest of the prelude is c!iiefly a fine description of a day in June a season whieh 
BUgsests to Sir Launfol the " keeping of his vow." ' 

...t''''i''*'r.K ??^^ ^'■*"',' i« *'ie "ame given in the niedieeval ronmnces to the cup out of 
wlneii Christ was said to have partaken of the Last Supper with his distS on tl^ 
eve of li,s crucifixion. It was fabled to have been brought to England by JoseiO^of^AH 
?h»^ if ; ^y'^.'^'P* *'?'''^ ^'^ ^'^ descendants. Chastit^ in thou Jit%4 and^deed on 
Wi r* "^1 V*^!'7*.'•^'*n y^f.''*^ ^]) indispensable condition of its safety, aT^ one of thwn 
haviig violated this c.ndit.ont disappeared. In the time and couV of King Arthur 
the "questof the Holy Grail" was a favorite enterj.rise amongst his knights one of 
whom ,9,r G«ZrtA«,/, was finally successful. Mr. Lowell, in tiie note above referred to 
J;™ >•"*"'•" *" ^1?^ ^'''* *^'''' ^""^'^ "• P'^*'^ privilege, lie has " enlarS tl e Se o^ 
tZ Ro nnTT^'hlo' w'^r'"'"* '''' ^V^t]?^^^ ""^^^n'.V other persons thSn the her<^s % 
ref-n" bwfth^;^ also a period of time subsequent to the date of King Arthur's 
'•Rn^inH T„i?i»" 1 '^"''' '^"' ^''^"'f''^ '^ '.'o*. "^e Sir Galahad, a knight of the 
-rnn" )Tr>«hl '"'* i''^'"'"'*; T".'''!"^ ^"^"''*^ '«'"'^- The etymology of the word 
«„?. hie f^^t\ "'"c»i flisputed, but it may be accepted as finally settled by the re- 
a dHh tL^^iIV**' ^^^ derives it through the French from the low Latin VtM., 
nhn„^,i w° °''^ ^"'™/ *«^^<^'•''«^. a hf^J.^ dish, was purposely, af an early period 
±'1"''^?' '"*,°,T"2 .r^^'l ^^'^'^^ f"-/'"*''y •»«''"« "royal blood," though it was heU to 
mean lea blood." It was originally applied to the dish in which Joseph of Arinia" 
, ifv fhf.!;?^.^ have CO ected the blood of Christ, but was subsequently us^d to s g- 
nify the cup which held the wme at the Last Supper. ^ } ^ »% 

• '/^hat is the ^vntartical figure <n the fifth line? The "vow," in the seventh line 
IS to find the " Holy Grail." xXotice the poetical diction and form of the tenth line ? 

8econ!'I^vn.'^''i!^o"f «**"f.^^ '^Vil"- '^'^'^ P*"^' ^*'^ ^" ^"* ^^^ '*«* ^^^^ stanzas Of the 
secontl part, are doscnptive of this vision. 

•^*wu^ t'-h''^ description compare that of a June day in stanza 3 of the nrelude and 
with this line the first two of that stanza : preiuue, ana 

And what is so rare as a day in June? 
Then, if ever, come perfect days. 


And the very leaves seemed to sing on Uie trees. 

Ihe castle alone in the landscape lay 

Like an outpost of :vinter, dull and gray; 

'Twas the proudest hull in tJie ^^orth Couiitree 
And never its gates might opened b^ 
Save to lord or lady of high degree; 
Summer besieged it on every side, 
But tlie churlish stone her assaults defied: 
She could not scale the chilly wall, 
Tliough round it for leagues her pavilions tall 
Stretched left a)ul right. 
Over the hills and out of sight; 
Green and broad was every tent, 
And out of each a murmur went 
Till tlie breeze fell off at night." 



1^ ( 


le, a season which 

the prelude, and 

. The drawbridge dropped with a surly clang. 
And througli tlie dark arch a charger sprang, 
Bearing Sir Lnunfal, the maiden knight, 
In his -iJded mail that ilamed so brigdit ' 
It seemed the dark castle had gathered all 
Those shafts tlie fierce sun had sliot over its wall 

In his siege of three liundred summers long, 
And, l)in(ling them all in one blazing sheaf, "" 

Had cast them forth ; so young and strong, 
And liglitsome as a locust-leaf. 
Sir Launfal flashed forth in his unscarred mail, 
To seek in all climes for the Holy Grail.7 

The verb " drowse 
ri\ed from the Ai 
(Use Lost," \i 131 
the verb. 

-^i^^^^^Zo!^:t^^i^r^'^^' ^''"^ '""^ «•"*'' '"- of «- «t-nza oasses into 

■ "gilded mail 'MntWfonrthl!L"Inlr^^^^ hyperbole. Witfc 

^^ ., „,. .„. . mjicst, ;::au m lue oecoiju line of the 





\. It was morning on hill, and stream, and tree, 
And morning, in the young knight's heart; 

Only the castle ^noodily 

Rebuffed the <,'i. b ^f the sunshine free, 
And gloomed by itself apart ; 

The season brimmed all other thing; ^p 

Full as the rain fills the pitcher-plant's cup.* 

». As Sir Launfal made morn through the darksome gaie,^ 

He was ' '.vara of a leper crouched by the same," 
Who begged with his hand and moaned as he sate ; 

And a loathing over Sir Launfal came ; 
The sunshine went out of his soul with a thrill. 

The flesh 'neath his armour 'gan shrink and crawl, 
And midway its leap his heart stood still 

Like a frozen waterfall f" 
For tliis man so foul and bent of stature, 
Rasped harshly against his dainty nature,^^ 

first stanza; and with "unscarrcd " in the eleventh line compare the use of the same 
word in the fifth stanza of the prelude : 

Who knows whither the clouds have fled? 
In tlie unscarrcd heaven they leave no wake. 
On "lightsome" see Note 13, p. 237. Tho comparison with the leaf of the locust tree 
is an apt one. Compare the frequent allusion by poets to the restless leaf of the aspen, 
as in Scott's "Marmion," vi. 30: 

O woman ! in our hours of ease, 

Uncertain, coy, and hard to please, 

And variable as the shade 

By the liKht, quivering aspen made. 

8 Point out all the fljrurcs of speech in this stanza. The verb "gloom" is derived 
from the Anglo-Saxon (ilom, I ilijjht, which Skeat connects with the original of 
"glow," to shine. To "gloom," therefore, means to shine a little, while to "glow" 
means to shine brightly. This distinction is illustrated by the following, from Spen- 
ser's "Faerie Queene," Bk. I., canto i., stanza 14: 

His glistring armor made 
A little glooming light, much like a shade. 
Tho teim "gloaming," used very conunonly in Scottish as a synonym for "twi- 
light," is from the same root through the early English " gloniang." Goldsmith, in 
line 363 of his " Deserted Village," uses "gloom" as a transitive verb 
Good Heaven t what sorrows gloom'd that parting day. 

9 What is meant here by " made morn"? On darksome, see Note 13, p. 237. 

10 This whole line, and especially its endino-, is far from perfect in form. The same 
remark holds good of the twelfth line in the first stanza. 

11 Distinguish between simile and metaphor in these lines. 

la Compare Hotsmir's description of the fop in " I Henry IV," Act I., sc. 8 : 

And still he smil'd and tjvlk'd 
And as the soldiers bore dead bodies by, 
He call'd them untAimht taaves, unmannerly. 

the use of the same 

And seemed the one blot on the summer n.orn,- 
So he tossed him a piece of gold in scorn. 

"• i^^'/7T '"^'"'^ "«<^ ^""'^ ^-^^ from the dust - 
Better to me the poor man'.s crust, 
Better the blessing of tlie poor, 

Though 1 turn me empty from his door , ■ 

That, no true alms which the hand can 
Ho gives notlimg but wortldoss gukl 

Who gives front a sense of duty • 
But he who gives u sh^nder mite 
And gives to that whicl, is out of sight, 

That thread of the aJl-sustaining JJeauty 
Which runs through all and doth aiJ unite,-'^ 

The hand cannot clasp the whoie of his ahis. 
The hear outstretches its eager palms,- ' 

For a god goes ,vith it and makes it store 
To the soul that was starving iu darkness before ' 




1. There was never a leaf on bush or tree, 
The bare boughs rattled shuddcrin<dv • 
The river was dumb and could not%Jak, 

For the weaver Winter its shroud had spun 
A single crow on the tree-top bleak ' 

From his sinning feathers shed off the sun • 
Again It M-as morning, but shrunk and cold 
As It her veins Avere sapless and old 




And hIio rose u]) docrepitly 

For a last dim look at earth nii I soa.* 

a. Sir Launffd turned from his own liard gate, 
For anotlicr lieir in his ourldom tutu ; 
An old, Lent man, worn oiit and frail, 
lie canio liack from stioking the Holy Grail j^* 
Little he recked of Iuh earldom's loss, 
No more on his surcoat was blazoned the cross, 
But deep in his soul the sign lie wore, 
The badge of the suffering and the poor.s 

3. Sir Launfal's raiment thin and spare 
Was idle mail 'gaintst tlie barbed air, 
For it was just at the Christmas time; 
So he mused, as ho sat, of a sunnier clime, 
And sought for a shelter from cold and snow 
In the light and Avarmth of long-ago ;'' 
Ho sees the snake-like caravan crawl 
O'er the edge of the desert, black and small, 
. Then nearer and nearer, till one by one, 
He can count the camels in the sun, 

1 In Svr LauiyfaVs " vision" the scene changes from summer to winter, and from 
youth to old age. The prelude to the second part contains a vivid description of a 
wintry storm, of a Christmns scene inside Sir Launfal's castle, and of the wretched 
plight of the old linight himself, who is turned away from his own gate by the voice of 
the seneschal : 

And he sat in the ga'eway, and saw all night 
The great hall-fln so cheery and bold, 
Through the wind iw-slits of the castle old, 
Build out its piers of ruddy light 
Agamst the irift of the cold. 
The first stanza is a condensed description of the wintry scene which is depicted more 
at length in the prelude. Contrast this stanza with the second of the first part, and 
point out the figures of speech. What is the force of "never" in the first line ? 

a By fine poetical art the author in these lines brings clearly before the mind both the 
length of time occupied by the search and the terrible worldly loss which it had en- 
tailed on the searcher. 

3 In these lines is indicated tho'change which had come over his inner nature • the 
outward emblem of his purpose has disappeared, leaving in its stead the influence of 
that purpose on his own spirit. 

4 Parse "long-ago." The reference is to scenes he has passed through in the course 
of his search. •" 

ugh in the course 


As over the red-hot sands they ],a«s 

To whore, in its shmdor necklace „f grass, 

The little spring laughed and leapt in th J shade 

And with its own self like an infant played ' 

And waved its signal of paims.» 

■ 'For Christ's sweet sake, I hog an alms ;'_ 
llio happy camels may reach the; sprjn.r, 
But 8ir Luunfal sees o.ily tho K'rowsome' thing, 
llio leper, lank as tho rain-blanche.l hone, 

That cowers beside him, a thing as lono 
And white as tho ice-isles of JVorthern seas 
in the desolate horror of his disease." 

And Sir Launfal said,—! behold in thee 

An nnage of Him who died on the tn-e ; 

Thou also hast had thy crown of thorns'— 

Thou also Imst had the world's buffets and scorns- 

And to thy life were not denied 

The wounds in the hands, and feet, and side : 

Mild Mary's Son,_acknowledge me j 

Behold, through him, I give to thee ! 

6. Then the soul of tho leper stood up in his eyes 
And looked at Sir Launfal, and straightway he 
Remembered in what a haughtier guise 
He had flung an alms to leprosie, 



th^SKe^Jf^rzl? S.Vr4LToXJ^^ °' *^'« «*»"- -'*h the .node in 

dinavian origin, the root beinr^rrhorToro^^ 'rnJ' ^^P.P^ '" be oTIca'n- 

^ ■'Sir Launfal in the vision comm3h. i.T.u T^*'^ **"' " ^m«mm.' 

St^ ?h* ^'^^ 'dl""'y him with tCCuf ' Co,ftra?tM? n ^"' Z'^^*"' «*"•'«*' »>"* 
with the mode described in the first nar^o^^ *il®. '"'^<' »' giv njf alms here 

to in Note 3 above. ""* P*"*' "'''^ compare this change with that refer^ 

i^ i 






Whon lio girt his young life up iu gilded mail 

And fiot forth iu sciindi of tlio Holy Grail. 

Tliu hciirt within liini wiia iishcs and dust; 

Ho parted in twain his single crust, 

He brok»! the ice on the streandet's brink, 

And gave the leper to eat and drink, 

'Twas a niouMy erust of coarso hruwn bread, 

'Twas water out of a wooden bowl, — 
Yet with fine wlioaten bread was the leper fed. 

And 'twas red wine he drank with his thirsty soul." 

T. As Sir Launfal mused with a downcast face, 

A light shone round about the place: 

The lei)er no lougar crouidied at his side, 

Rut stood before him glorified, 

Shining and tall and fair and straight 
• As the pillar that stood by the Beautiful Gate,— 

Himself the Gate whereby men can 

■^.nter the temple of God in Man." 

8. His words were shed softer than leaves from the pine,^° 
And they fell on Sir Launfal as snows on the brine, 
Which mingle their softness and quiet in one 
With the shaggy unrest tb^ >wn upon : 

And the voice that was caimur than silence said : 

» In the fifth stanza the feeling expressed hy the knijrht is one of benevolence in a 
(.cneml way; in the sixth it is the foelinR of compassion for a particular case h s 
Cpr^t in which is increased bv his humiliation at the recollection of his youthful 
failt Contrast this stanza with th. ilfth of the lirst part. With the ninth and tenth 
lines compare Matt. x. 42. 

9Cf. John X. 7-9; xiv. 6. In the allegory of the knight's vision, the "leper* is 
Jesus Christ himself in dlsgiase. Cf. Heb. xiii. 2. 

10 The author's fondness for this tree is strikingly displayed in his beautiful ppem. 
"The Orowth of the I.egend," in which he calls the pine "the mother of legends, and 

says of one of the latter : 
•* It ■jrew and grew, 

From the pine-trees gathering a sombre hue, 

Till it seems a mere murmur out of the vast 

Norwegian forests of the past ; 

And it grew itself like a true Northern pine. 

I vision, the "leper" is 

•Loit is I, bo not afraid I »' 
In many clmios, without avaii, 

Thou hast 8i„M.t thy lifo for thoir.,Iv(;mil: 
•; '"J'l it is, -thi« oup which tlH.u 

i)KU fill at the .streamh-t for m.. hut now : 
This crust is n.y body broken fr.r thoe, 

This water His blood that died on the tree -^^ 

Ibo lluly Supper is kept indeed, 

hx whatso we share with another's noe.l • 

^ot what we giv(., but what W(. sluiro — 

For the gift without the giver is bare \ 

Who gives himself with his aln.s three, 

Himself, his hungering iieighbour, an.] nu- "^' 



0. Sir Launfal awoke as from a swound .— 
' The Grail in my castle here is found ! 
Hang my idle armour up on the wall, 
Let it be the spider's banquet hall; 
H(> must be fenced with stronger mail 
Who would seek and find the Holy Grail.' 

10. The castle gate stands open now, 

And the wanderer is welcome to the hall 
As the hangbird is to the elm-tree bough; 
No longer scowl the turrets tall, 

The Summer's long siege at last is' o'er; 
When the first poor outcast Avent in at 'the door, 
fcslie entered with him in disguise, 
And mastered the fortress by surprise ; 

conn.are'tiS*;.et:;rp;,;!:!}t'Lt^^ --P'o act of benevolence, 

th . acccH.t of the last ju(%nient in Mat't x"v 3?.40 ""'"" "'"-^''-•'••'^t'"*,' ^Pirit in 

f~;Vhid,'"^Jjro -:;;/,;"» j;,,;:-^-^^^^ f-- the An^^o-Saxon verb 

"Sou,.h" i« actually the noderrre™ntat fe o7.:^ '"'^'M:" ^^'''^"'^'^ *" ^"« «'ind 
m. amng. Chaucer uses the form " swoun " i^nd %Zl"^V' ^^^ etjn.olojrically and in 
of Shakespeare-splays have " 8wou~swound/-^^^^^^^^ '"sSnd"""''"^"" 

I -If 



There is no spot she loves so well on ground, 

She lingers and smiles tliero the whole year round. 

The meanest serf on 8ir Launfal's land 

Has hall and bower at his eoinniand ; 

And there's no poor man in the North Countree 

But is lord of the earlduni as much as he.** 



Part Flmt. 

Stanza 1.— Read th« first elffht lines with (Innness and expulsive force ; but, tem- 
poi-fil by the relitfious sentiment which prompts Sir Laun/al, the force must not be 
loud, and towards the end of the stanza it cliiinj^eB into softer and more effusive 
quality. Read the simile in line 12 with increased softness and the last line with 
Bolcmnity. 1 

Stanza 2.--Read this stanza with 8li<;htly expulsive force. Read lines 3, 4, and 5 
with increased warmth, but clianjjre to an expre.siion of command and greater force on 
lines to 10. The remaitider of the stanza must be marked by an expression of stern- 
ness, in harmony with the description. 

Stanza 3.— The expression should be similar to that of the last stanza, the force ex- 
pulnivo, and the reading dashin^j, with an air of iiidifference and denance. In lines 1 
and 2, read "surly clanjf" with imitative modulation, deep and harsh, and "charter 
spranjf " with expulsive force. In the succeeding lines the expressions "flamed so 
bright," "the fierce sun had shot," "three hundred summers," "blazing heat," de- 
mand energy and warmth of delivery. 

i» Contrast with this stanza the seoond of the first part. Point out all the figures of 
speech. With the " Vision of Sir Launfal " may profitably be compared Tenuvson's 
beautifid poem, "Sir (ialahad." Kin;.' Artliur's'knight of that name is the finder of 
the Holy (Irail, but wluit he finds is tlie hacrcd vessel itself. In a poem on the same 
subject by (Jeorgo .Macdoiiald, the finale more closely resembles that of Lowell's 
" Vision," as the following stanzas show : 

"Through the wood, the Runiiy day 
Glimmered sweetly sad ; 
Through the wood his weary wajr 
Rode Sir Galahad." 

" Galahad was in the night 

When man's hope is dumb. 
Galahad was in the night 

Wiiou (Sod's wondei-< oome. 
Wings he heard not floating by, 

Heard not voices fall, 
Yet ho started with a cry— • 

Saw the San OreaU" 

" But at last Sir Galahad 

Found it on a day, 
Took the Grail into his hand, 

Had the cup of joy. 
Carried it about the land 

Gladsome as a boy," 

" When he died, with reverent care, 

Opened they IiIk "est, 
Seeking for the cup ho bare, 

Hidden in his breast. 
Nothing found they to their will, 

Nothing found at all ; 
In his bosom deeper still 

Lrtv the San Groal." 

It will be seen that, In some respects, Lowell's treatment of his theme is superior to 
that of either of the other authors cite(i. 



stanza 4.-Soften the modulation to effusive quality 

line should chansre to soft, no . and trr.nnr T. , . , ^ ^^ """«''*• '"'* "'« *'"''• 

-crawl." "stood .till," '" u.pel " ^C^,!^ "T;': '-'"-^'•"." <•"'='.• -«hrin..« 
the fcclin. should pcnade the whole ta a Read Jh'e Tar?"" 1'™"""*''' '"'* 
gesture of head and l,at)d. '*^*^ '"" "^'^^ a significant 

Stanza 6.-Rcad tiie rebuke conveyed in lines 2 7 with i.n 
severity. Lino 2: en.pha.isc ■• poor" an "crl " Ti h Tam "• 7"!" °' ''^""^' "'' 
greater emphasi. to "cru.t " Li„cs 3 Lx T l'^ '""ections, givinj; the 

Line 5: en,phasise '< true," " han " and ho'lH ''•*•"' '""''''"'' " '^"'^ " «""1>»-^-" 
Lines 6 and 7: nn.phasi,; '• w doss Ld-a.'l ''"'"'' ^^^ "'""''°" *" "''"'"•" 
and with risin,. InflecUon on "d J" lor H '. "' '''"'" "'''' ^"^'^ '"'•^■«. 

greater softness and tendc no ■ en p n«iso n le "'"h"; " l""'""'*'' ^''^ ^■°'"'' »« 
«isl.t," <'threa,l," and " beauty "^1 h n ^^' '" * ""'"'''" '^'^'■''' " «"' «' 
inflection, giving, greater S'on at "'" '^""""''"* '-'""•^'^^ «'"' .isinr 

it. The n-odulatioMn'sl^owZ? :,''';'■'"'"; ? " '"'''''" "'" '^ '°"^'- '-"- -"' 

lines. Read these Ias;t:;r;"r r^r^^: I ^ n" p/i:?''^^^^^'"^ '°- 

and "outstretches" take en,u|,asis but w th b ' , / ' ^"'''•" " ''"^^^l''" 

•• am." a risin, and •■ pabns ■ ' aZin^ m^: ,, ^7^ :Z ^^ '"' ^f ■"^- ^^'^^ 
" Btore." and With dinUnished force. -Starving -L "L^^^^^^^^ 

Part Mrcaiid. 

BufTcrinjr. This expression, whi. h can be .iin tn H.f, ' ^*^''-»''*t'"" *'"! 

to,f the " cross " which the ZelHZ ^o^ '' L: n^ -^ l!/""^'^'; "'^" '"' 

into full syn.patliy with him in the penaliics he is L,, '»« «o»l." and entering 

ing and trenudous qualities of voiL ,t led wi h o f T""' "'" '""'^ "^•*'"- 

stanza 3. -Read line 2 wilh force, then pass to a softer tono v \ . 

and 6 .. sunnier " and .- lon, a,o." Read line 13 wh^^S; . t'Cn'jT T ' 
"red-hot sands," and read the last tlirce lines nifb ^ ^«, m ' , eniphasise 

on the words - lau.hc.l," " leapt," '^Z^r'^^J^r^'^:^'''''^ T'''^'' 
with a Ii;;ht and cheerful expression. ^'™' »'"! »"''«^^tl'er 

Stanza 4.-Read line 1 in softer tone and higher oitch witj, « ^ 
tone, and endin, with a rising Infleetion. Itc^ the es^ of the ^7 ^^ °' """• 
aspirated en.phasispervadin,^ the last four lines '^"** '''"''''•• "''^ 

Stanza 5.--I)istinguish the narrative from the Quotation tj,„ * .. . 
rendered with a reverential finnnoss, prcn.pted b^ t";.cJa .. fl tb °%''°?' ^ 

'• thee," in line 1. In line 2 eu.pbasise with solen,nity " in"- t^l ! ml ^"'' T 
remainder with pathos. Line 3: en,,ha.sise "Tho^" ^^h iuSZl^^ !""'""" 'i'"' 
pause Give t.en.uious force to "crown of thorn," anrl ri^ ^'^^J rr^r,' ^ 
transfer the emphasis. wi;,h tremor, to " buflFets an.l scorns" n« « u 

" wouMls," and. with less force. " hands, feet, and side " 7 "e 7 InZ ?'"'"' 
«hould be delivered ... softer and tremuions .ndtol^wi^rni^^^^^ 

t" ^ VJ "r'f "'" " '"" " *'"• " ''''■' ^" *•-•« " «"t'' tre ndous feelin. 
Stanza 6.-The whole stanza should bo re; dercl with LTcat war.uM, 1 T ut ,- 

expulsive force on leadinK>vords. This should n,ar. 1 e fit t „" a j th TtT\ 
following lines, to illustrate the imnulsive act, n, ..u.,J 117 1' ?.'"! ^'^l^'shth and 









through the repentant knight. Lines 11 and 12 : end each line with rising inflection, 
as if "only" were spoken before "crust" and "water." In lines 13 and 14 empha- 
sise "flnewheatcn bread" and "red wine"; and "soul," but with less force. 

Stanza 7.— From line 2 to the end, read in full, swelling, orotund voice, marked by 
warmth and dignity. Line 7: read "Himself the Gate" with bwelling emphasis, giv- 
ing "Himself" a falling and "Gate" a rising inflection ; then pause and read the' 
remainder in deeper and more solemn tones. 

Stanza 8.— Begin quietly, reading the simile from its nature faster than the literal 
passage. Line 5 : read the subordinate clause low and solenuily, pausing after "voice" 
and " silence." Line : read in higher tone, with warmth, especially on " I " and 
"afraid." Give a falling inflection to "I" and a rising one to "afraid." Line 9: 
pause at "behold," and emphasise "here" with tremor. Emphasise also "cup," and 
pause ; and, in the next line, " me," with pause. Lines 11 and 12 : give some force to 
"crust," with i)ause; give greater force to "body," with pause, and to "broken"; 
also some emphasis to "thee." Render "water" and "blood" in the same spirit, 
and the ending sentence tenderly, but solemnly. Lines 15 and 16 : emphasise " give" 
with rising, and "share" with falling, inflection ; pause at "gift"; emphasise "with- 
out" and "bare," Line 17 : emphasise " hiiiiself," and, in a slighter degree, "with" 
and "three." In the last line, "me" must be emphasised with solemnity, with a 
brief pause before it. i 

Stanza 9.— Line 2 : emphasise "Grail" with rising inflection, and pause; next em- 
phasise "castle" with falling inflection. Line 3: read with expulsive force, as if he 
were anxious to free himself from such worthless defences, with emphasis on " hang" 
and "armour." Line 4: give sligli mphasis to "spider's." Line 5 : emphasise 
" stronger," and end line 0, "Holy Grail," with solemn expression and rising inflection. 

Stanza 10 should be read in a more animated stj le, with increase of warmth on the 
last four lines. 


Paul, the Apostle, was born in Tarsus, a well-known city of Cilicia 
in Asia Minor. The date of his birth is not known, but he is supposed 
to have been about live years younger than Jesus Christ, whom he prob- 
ably never saw before the latter's death and resurrection. He was 
a Jew of the tribe of Benjamin, but in some way not expl.-iined in 
his biographical remains he was by birth entitled to the privileges of 
Roman citizenship. He probably received a Greek education in early 

1 "The King Agrippa," before whom this address was delivered, was n member of 
the celebrated h'erodian family. Tiie lirstof that liiuito attain eminence «as Antipater, 
an Iduniajan by oirth, and a Jewish Proselyte by religion, who was raised by Julius 
Cajsar to the procuratorship of all Judtea. His son, known in history as Herod the 
Great, gave by his ability and his notoriety his name to the family. Ar, an early age 
he was invested with the governorship of Galilee, and in H.C. 37 became king of 
JudaDa. His reign extended long enough to include the birth of ' 'hrisf, and he figures 
in Scripture history as that " Herwl the king" who ordered the cliiMren of Hethleheni 
to be destroyed, in the hope that the infant Messiah might i>erish amongst them. His 
Bon, Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee, is the Herod who beheaded John the Bap- 
tist, and who became reconciled to Piiate at the mock trial of Christ. Aristobulus, 
brother of Herod Antipas, had been put to death by his father, Herod the Great, but 

fits svu, ncruu .-\^:':ppa, cuuvslcu at xtuuic, uct»iiic, uj t.:sc :avuz u: iiix: i:ii::pciuz3 



fXZ pS Zat ttVuTon ottf ^^Yl ''"^^.^^^^ «*•» - ^-'th. 
Jerusale,,. The effect of th«? -^^ celebrated Rabbi Uamaliel at 
Hebrew learn m'wL to makehn^"""^ ^r '"'""^V^'^ ^° *his school of 
Pharisee of the^rst stS^^'AToctoT^^^^ ^ h « 6^,^^ ^^^^. ^^^ ^ 

aiKl, through l,Tm, on tT? on da n^P? -^V- h'^^hole future^areer, 

orthodox Pharisaism to a le^Slth^f ^ ^'/n,'"'"' ^'^ conversion from 
in the truth of 1 rclaim ti L \J ^J'^^^'l^'i:""^^ resurrection, and 
Phecy However ^'uv«? ^^^ the Messiah of ancient Hebrew pro- 

versiL, PauThhn el be reTeJlrr^K ' ^-""^ f*^^ '^"^""^^' ^^ ^^at L- 
occasions he nar ite, i)!ll- *"" be miraculous. On two different 
from th" stepTo te Rcfn a^^l^cas'tlerAVt' his frenzied fellow-Hebrews 
and Festus, is recorded in te ^omIT' A S^^aT' \''^''P^^ 
Acts ijc. 1-18) l,v hi^ fi-ipn.l nnri i ; it , "™ account is given 

heard the naSa fve f' o rPanr. n^ 1'^^''^'' ^"^^' ^^'" ^"'^ «« ^'^"ht 
version he reiSied at Dam ln«T' "^l ^""l^ '''"''* *""« ^^t^*" hi« con- 

quent career He was^l,! ITi • " * '^ ^^^'^'"^ ^^^"*« '^^ his subse- 

ceeded by iCSus Fesfnrwr''- 1 ^V*? ^?^"? ^^ *^^* *'">« he was sue- 

Bon.e a»d fatal disease. His son Herod A^iSna^i? '"I^ **'*''" «V''^'^"'y ^''^ a Joath- 
father died, was eventual! v created k^iovlri/,!'' ''''^« j^'^« o"'.V seventeen when his 
before him that Paul pleached h^rl.e*- ? e hi ^n^"*^. '"*'*n'' «'''*>ee, and It was 
him on this visit to Feafijs, and Klia w" i. min^ ^'^*?'^' ^'""V'-* ^'^^ **« "-'th 
wife of Fehx. Agrippa took part \WthTih.ViffT»". '?*'''.••" "^ l"-e^ i«"8 chapter as the 
that event lived at ^me in sffend d lux rv 1 5he th I^^^v? "'/j^^'*!''"'. »nd after 
He was the last of the Herod?an familyrfl^re olf t^'e'^^of his^tm-y"'^" "' ''"'^'^"• 
Pa.Jrt"•;ES„^^^?>'i'il*,h-lo^^^^^ Si strphanus non orasset. eecUHa 

iriwi," —{".-.• =£au tiu;, prayea, trie church would not have 





lem, tiieir intention being to assassinato him by the way. Festus for 
some reason refused, and on his return to Cesareu, Paul and liis accusers 
weie brought before him. As he knew nothing of the merits of theiTv 
disputations, he suggested to Paul, with the object of pleasing the 
Jews, a continuation of flie tiiai at Jciusalein, but Paul, who knew the 
peifldiou^ and remorseless character of tiie men wlio were thirsting for 
his blood, appealed as a Roman citizen to the Emperor at Rome, and not 
even the Governor of Judoeii dared refuse to send him thither. Whilst 
Festus was waiting for an opportunity of doing so, he was visited by 
Agrippa II. and his sister Bernice, and their curiosity having been 
aroused by his account of Paul's case, they requested that they might 
hear him for themselves. Festus assented, in the hope that he might 
thereby get rid of some of his perplexity, and thus furnished the occa- 
sion for this great oration. 

Then Agrippa said unto Paul, "Thou art permitted to i 
speak for thyself." Then Paul stretched forth his hand, and 
answered for himself : 

" I think myself happy, king Agrippa, because I shall an- 2 
swer for myself this day before thee touching all the things 
whereof I am accused of the Jews : especially because I s 
know thee to be expert in all customs and questions which 
are among the Jews :" wherefore I beseech thee to hear me 
patiently. My manner of life from my youth, which was ,t 
at the first among mine own nation at Jerusalem, know all 
the Jews ; which knew me from the beginning, if they 5 
would testify, that after the most sect of our religion 
I lived a Pharisee,* And nov/ 1 stand and am judged for the « 
hope of the promise made of God unto our fathers : unto 7 
which promise our twelve tribes, instantly serving God day 
and night, hope to come.^ For which hope's sake, king Agrip- 
pa, I am accused of the Jews. Why should it be thought a e 
thing incredible with you, that God should raise the dead ? 

» This was not the lanjfuage of mere coniplimctit. Though Agrippa had no political 
status in Judsea, he was allowed by the Roman cinj)eror So succeed to the ecclesiastical 
functions of his father, and he is credited with having paid special attention to the 
religion and sacred writings of the Jews. Paul's present pleasure arose from the diffi- 
culty he had found in making Festus, his judge, understand matters which all fiomans 
held in contempt. 

4 Double superlatives were ^ ery common in old English, and are not unfrequent in 

Shakespeare. With this acci ant of Paul's early religious views, compare Phil, iii. 4-6. 

, 6 "Instantly" here means "eameotly"; in Luke vii. 4 it means "urgently." The 

"hope" referred to is probably that of the resurrection from the dead. Comptu-e 

Acta xxiiL C 


I verily thougl.t with myself, that I ought to do mauy thi„g» . 
contrary to the name of Jesus of Ka.areth.« Which'thhu- 1 ,„ 
also d,d m Jerusalen, ; „„d many of the saints did 1 shut ub 
... l.riso,>, having received authority fr„„, the chief priests 
-d when t ey were „„t to death, I g„ve n.y voie,/ „st' 
them. And I punished them oft i„ every svna-o.-ue Z 
co.npe led them to blaspheme ; and being'e. X^^;', 
..^...t them, I persecuted the,., even nnto Strang oife 
Whereupon as I ^ant to Damascu., with authority and e™ ' „ from the chief priests, at mid-day, ki„r 1;™' " 
e way a light from heaven, above the'brigl.tae's Tt "' 
un shmmg round about me, and them which journeyed 

1, 1 * X, ■ ' ^''"^' ^''^'^^ Persecutest thou me ? it i«. 

hard for thee to kick against the pricks.^. And I said '^0 

t^ t -^"^ ': ''''■- '^ '^- ^-"^ -h- thou - 
.^ecutest But rise, and stand upon thy feet; for I have 

appeared unto thee« for this purpose, to make th e a minute 

n a witness both of these things which thou hast seen nd 

of those tbngs n. the which I will appear unto thee; de" Wer 

ing thee from the people, and from the Gentiles, unto whom 

now I send thee, to open their eyes, and to turn them from 

'.!:!i^!!!?:j!!L^^^ inheritance 

'r^^l^olX.tVT:\T;2^^^^^^^^ "^oad" in the revised version 

oxen at their worli. To kiJk s„Ph L'n •'^ T'^ """'^ ^'"' ^^e pnrposTof uS 
greater injury, and hence the pro^erherem.ofe r'*'n"r-i •^'°"''' «»"«« '* *« infl.Vt 
F? rUT" *'"' "."« «' substantially the i^me evnr!.ii '* '* " "^ ^'^'^'^ P'-o^'^'b '"^ "v" 
Eunpides says in one of his works • "I u-h<!/ ^^.""!,'^""'"'?«* «"«ent f^'cek writers 

fajs . It ,8 profitable to bear willini^ v fhl ^^^' J*'*''* against the ffoads " Pindar 
■» pernicious conduct." Terence a Rmnal^,® iJ'"""'*'.*' y°'*« -• *« kick atrainst the S 
^yy. '' It i« foolishness for tSokifkrr,- '^'\"J.'*t*«t ^ho was familiar with Greek 
Paul was still a youth, has the same i£"*'''"'* the^road"; and Ovid, who died while 







nnra T C^-, 

t«iu SV. 3, 





among them which tye sanctified hy faith that is in me.' 
"Whereupon, king Agrippa, I was not disol)e(licnl'' unto the 19 
heavenly vision ; hut showed first unto them of I>aniascus, 
and at Jerusalem, and throughout all the coasts of Judea, and 
then to the Gentiles, that they. should repent and turn to 
God, and do ^orks meet for repentance. For these causes 
the Jews caught me in the temple, and went about to kill 
me. Having therefore obtained help of God, I continue unto 22 
this day, witnessing both to small' and great, saying none 
other tiling chan those which the Prophets and Moses did 
say should come ; that Christ should suffer, and that he should 23 
be the first that should rise from the dead, and should show 
light unto tlu; people, and to the Gentiles. "^o 

And as he thus spake fhr himself, Festus said with a loud 24 
voice : " Paul, thou art beside thyicif ; much learning doth 
make thee mad." 

But he said : " I am n3t mad, most noble Festus; but speak as 
forth the words of truth and soberness. For the king knoweth 26 
of these things, .before Avhom also I speak freely; for I am 
persuaded that none of these things are hidden from him ; 
for this thing was not done in a corner. King Agrippa, be- 27 
lie vest thou the Prophets ? I know that thou believest." 

Then Agrippa said unto Paul : "Almost thou persuadest 28 
me to be a Christian." 

And Paul said : " I would to God, that not only thou, but 29 
also all that hear me this day, were both almost, and alto- 
gether such as I am, except these lionds."" 

And when he had thus spoken, the king rose up, and the so 
governor, and Bernice, and they that sat with them. And 31 
when they were gone aside, they talked between themselves. 

9 What is the figure of speech ? 

10 Compare with this more extended aecount of tlie subject-matter of Paul's preach- 
itiff, I Cor. ii.1-2. Compare also Isaiah ix. 1 2. 

11 The hand "stretched foith " by Paul was fastened with a chain, according to the 
usual Roman custom. The g-esture and words were no doubt 8pontaneou,s, but the 
highest oratorical art could not. under the circumstances, have devised anything more 
anoronriate or effective. 

vith a loud 24 

; but speak 2 6 

Br of Paul's preach- 



2fr'^^^-'--^^oeth nothing .o.h,o^^ 

bee?::t:UiS'i?;:t f ^"- -TUs .an .night have 32 
^^t^erty, if he had not appealed unto Cesar." 

' ' - . Acts XXVI. 


that, With a ,«wer that al,n„st "„„ e ! T^ '"'' ^"'*''^""'' ^'« <^°"version to 
«l' that the apostio "had d<.,rnnH ""'"''P*' ^"^ •'^''«'« '--om b.m the 

cess.sof oratory, must distin ^ut ^S';^;^"'' «f "-»'>'. "ut free fron. thtt' 

Verse 2 : Commence with c-iln nol , « ^' °^ '""'' ''" ''^'l'-^^''- 
"happy "and "thee." yl"^T\ ''""'"''^ °' ^■°'^-«'. fe-iving emphasK to 
With tremor on the last 1::^^^:^):: "^--V' anS ""rttW?^ 
Blower as if invoking, their testi„,ony V se \ 12"'^ '" '''' ''^'' '«»''- '-^ 
« 'th nsinff infleotion on " testify " a • * ^'"P'^''^'-'' «" " knew" and " testify " 

cli^tinotly in "straitest sect" L -nErr'^"'*- .■'"'"'^ ^^"^ "«*" -"'*'*" 
e.nphas.s especially on "Pharsee." Ver le L. r"'' "^^"^•^"^'^'y. ^ith marked 
with force, as Paul is here shoNyin^ th! h ■ *"" ^"P''" *« "^°'"e" (verse 7) 

Chn^tianity. Vorso 8 : In the ^Sf ht fl urr^'*"!.'^^^' '" ^'^ -veL; t'j 
of the orator, and the question must ho nnf/K ^°^*"°"^' P**"' ^''hibits the skill 
With emphasis on 'incredible "ad lith ' ,7^"'""' "^"^ -mn.anding force 
•God," "raise," and "dead." '*' •'^"'^' '°'-^''^' b"* Sweater solenurityron 

verse 9: emphasis on "myself" ami « . 
deeper solen.nity, on " Jesus^ Chris .' '^^70- T T'"" ""^'"^' '°'-' ''"* -'^h 
gavemy yoice," &c., deeply and solemnly wTth . T^ °" "'^''''" ''"^ ''^'^d "I 

a great sin. Verse 11 : emphasis on "hi;! » ^ '" °" " ''•*-"''"«t." as confessing 
con.e With the n,emory of his ;:i t ; giy ft?!; oT*' '"^ *"""'' "^^ '^ "^ -er' 
^erse 13: commence in deeped pit h ma k J bv aw T" ""'' ^'^'''^^^ ""-" 
"^"d "sun." - ^ n. marked by awe. Give emphasis to " aboye " 

Verse 14 : the question is at once a rebuke and «„ 
be as one of appeal to conscience spoken f!nH , ?^^^' """^ "^ ^^«* expression .vil] 
on "per^ecutest" and "me " vd IT ''' ""* '"''' ''''''^''"y^ ^Hh emph<^i 
soft tones, expressive of guilt an^a" and the? "' T' '"^ =''^'"--' '" '^-P a"" 
sternness. Verses 16, 17, and 18: h^sHhree r"""™'^' "'*'' '^"^'^^"^^^ 
purest orotund quality, and .nark d by an exur T' '' ""' '" *«"- «' the 

n>ty. Give emphasis to " minister " "witn...''' --^"thority and supreme dig. 
words indicate the apostle's office. a^^d^hoTS the .""^""'-'" - ^he first tv^ 

Verse 19: emphasise '• disobedient/' vVX^^T" If"^" °' ^'^"^• 
should repent" to the end. Verse 21 • .IT ' '^ ^^^ solemnity from "tliev 

sise "kin." Verses 22 and 23 a se at Sr"" T'' '^""^■'" '-"-■ -'i empZ 
tiles " With more earnestness ' ^"'^'' ""^ '•^"'^^^ ^he remainder to " Get 

::-:^ar^2r-:--- -J^- .ouderquality, ^ 

-"pnasis on ••truth" and "sobern'ess.'' "^^'rseirL^K'""""'"''^' '"" ^^''''''y- with 

verse 26 . emphasm on "king,- and greater 







emphasis on "knoweth "; also on "hidden." Verso 27: this is again, as in verse 8, a 
fine application of the lntcrro(fation, and I'aul, as he himself roplicn to the question, 
puts it as an assertion in spirit, with ihe full expectation that the answer shall he in 
the afBrmative ; hence the falliiijf inflection should mark its terininati<in, with em- 
phasis on " know," Ve^jo 28 ; the emphasis is to be {fiven to " nje," and is arbitrary 
(introduction, p. 40). Some jrive the emi)hasis to " (Uiristian"; but, in the next verse, 
Paul answers " not only thou," Ac, wliicli bUj,'gest8, almost beyond doubt, that Agrip- 
pa had emphasised " me." A>,'ri)>pa may have sicken ironically, but I'aul accepts 
this acknowled!;ment as sincere, and delivers the remainder of the reply in deep and 
solenm earnestness. 
The remainder of the passage Is simple narrative, and calls for no particular remark. 


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, the most generally popul 

merican poeta, was born in Portland, Maine, in 1807. He was 

American poeta, was born in^'Portland, Maine, in 1807. He was edu- 
cated in Bowdoin College, wjiere he graduated in 1825, and he spent 
some three years in a Europedn tour in order to fit himself for the mo- 
dern la!igua,ij;e cliair in that institution. P'rom 1829 to 1835 he held this 
position, and in the latter year was appointed professor of belles-lettres 
in Harvard College. Again, before entering on his work, he spent 
some months in European travel, in order to fit himself the better for 
undertaking it successfully. His connection with Harvard endured 
till 1854, wlien he retired to devote himself to literature, and was suc- 
ceeded by James Russell Lowell. From that year to his death, in 
1882, he lived in quiet retirement at his home in Cambridge, near Bos- 
ton, the monotony of his literary labors being broken only by the 
demands of social life and by visits to Europe. Longfellow's career of 
authorship began while he was an undergraduate of Bowdoin College. 
Some of his more important minor poems appeared during his incum- 
bency of a chair in the sime institution ; but the great majority of 
them belong to the period of his Harvard professorship. To the latter 
belong also his> "Spanish Student" and "Evangeline," while the 
first-fruits of his retirement were "The Song of Hiawatha," "Miles 
Standish," and "Tales of a Wayside Inn. His literary activity 
lasted almost unimpaired till 1878, but subsequently to that date he 
wrote comparatively little. Longfellow had little of the real epic or 
dramatic spirit. His plots were of the thinnest character, and he was 
as deficient in humor as he was in the obji<;tive faculty ; but his poems 
are marked by a purity of sentiment, a felicity of diction, and a gen- 
uineness of pathos which ensure for them lasting popularity. This is 
especially true of his beautiful lyrics, some of which, as for example 
the "Psalm of Life," "Village Blacksmith," "Excelsior," and "The 
Builders, " are more familiar to the masses than the productions of 
almost any other poet. His works reflect little of the storm and stress 
of turbulent American democracy, but they do exhibit, in its most 
attractive form, the inner aspects of American domestic life. 

1 The plot of this beautiful epic is of the most meagre description. It is founded on 
the historical incident of the expulsion of the French settlers from Nova Scotia then 

articular remark. 



This is the forest primeval. Ti,o nmnuuring pines and the hem- 


Bearded witli moss, and i„ garments green, indistinet in the 

«t.u„l jiko ],r„id, „f ehV with voices sad a„,l prophetic, 

I Z fr ''"''"t''""' "'"' '•'""•' "■»' ««' ™ «'«' bosoms. 
Loul fr„n> .U rocky caverns, the deep-voieed neighboring ocean 
Speaks and m accents disconsolate answer the wa.Iof the 


Rty ^rS^, i?'lVl JtaTaTvTtT ""^''^ -^^^^^^^^^^^n^ under the 
swear alleRianee to the new power ad d H ,'", °'""'"",''' /'"'-■'"^h inhabitants refusal to 
British in subsequent wars."" T. at"' Sev te?e pro.linf.d r^"" ''"'''' «»''''i"«t the 
eniissanes is prol)al)le, but this fact .Iop: n^f „k' 1 • L*^" '" **"** ^'0"'^e by desitrninir 
an e-xceedin^rly fatuous and V.ffin n ill T *'"*°'^*' f^*-'"' f"'"'" the charire of p alin? 
willing to le^/e them hi S^etefSltjovm^t'XhlitT ''•''^ ? Oovernn^ett Xt% 


was too w^ak to bi'^r?^?;;^'^^^^^;^-- bt^sr^;^'^?'^^'^'^' «-S^ 

a measure of expulsion was resolve, tVorAmonUroh!^^^ Province, 

the one "on the shores of the Basin of Mi,mr"^^t '^'^ ***''*i^'*'"^ 

undoubtedly a hard one for th<. nuH. L A» * ^'*- ^'"' <^'^*' "' these poor peoDJe wna 

to the Sout'hern Sta^'Jh £ h y were JeTt'Cs TZ1 ■"«""!"f."^ and' tWoya^e 

in the confusion of embarl<ation l"rok«, un^n/h, "" ''^'^' *'^'!'°»«- Fanulies were 

her betrothed lover, for whom she afterwards searchLf^r , " '"*"'''." separated from 
at last discovers in time to see him die On ?h„ ^"V*'^^ '" *ain. and whom she 
Appendix A. The poem consists of a h-ii?' ^^e versification of " Evanifcline " see 
conclusion. The firs? partes ant^ovmtof'"^^^^^^^^^^ *"'' " Parts," ^nd a' brie? 

the departure of the settlerS; the sfcond narrates fhe unlrn"'^ ''^ th settlement and 
hffrnH'"'l"'''*'"'J*^u^^'*»' '*"'l reeognitiono"h?r lover Thl "k'^' °{ Emngeline and 
introduction and the first section of the first part *®^* includes the 

from tl';^r,Xtta\7ro';r.'}iiS'^ -"Q"ity. It is derived 

^ive forms " elder " and " eldest - " Eld '' wL vlX .' ""^ ♦'""'Parotive and superli; 
Shakespeare has it in the "Merry Wi es f vvf.f^ coninion as a noun in old English 
Measure," iii. i, gfi. Chaucer. fnTines 2445 24fi) of r/< 'A" h ^t' '*"'l " Measure fo^ 
forms of the derivative from mU ; ^"^ ^^^^ "* '^e Canterbury Tales," has both 

Til that the pale Saturnus the colde. 

That knew so many of aventures olde, 
• ThnI I '"* ^'^ o'de experience and art, 

That he ful sone hath pleased every part 

As sooth 18 sayd. elde hath gret avanta^e 

In elde is bothe wisdom and usaje* *^ 
Th« .. n -A .. " '"*^ ^^ *'''' out-renne, but not out-rcde 





This is tho forest priiuoval * but where are the hearts that 

bcncatli it 
Leaped like tho roe, when lie hears in the woodland the voice 

of tlie Imntsman ? 
Where is the thatch-ioofed village, the homo of Acadian 

farmers, — 
Men wlioso lives glided on like rivers that water the woodlands, 
Darkened by shadows of earth, but reflecting an imago of 

heaven ?* 
Waste are thoso, pleasant farms, and the farmers forever departed ! 
Scattered like dust and leaves, when the mi,i;lity bla.sts of October 
Seize them and whirl them aloft, and sprinkle them far o'er tlie 


Nought but tradition remains of tho beautiful village of Grand- 
Pr^. » 

Ye who believe in affection that hopes, and endures, and is 

Ye who believe in tlie beauty and strength of woman's devotion. 
List to the mournful tradition still sung by the pines of the 

forest ; 
List to a tale of love in Acadie,^ home of the happy. 19 

PART rriiST. 
In the Acadian land on the shores of the Basin of Minas. 
Distant, Pfuluded, still, the little village of Grand-Pr(^ 

* What is the fiirure in the rei>etition of this sentence? Compare the reiietitioii of 
the sentence, " Still stands the forest primeval, " in the conclusion of the poem. 

B Parse " darkened " and " reflectinjr." What is the figure? 

6 Five years after the deportation of the Acadians. a large colony of families from 
Connecticut came to occupy the deserted farms. They found sixty ox-carts and as 
many yokes. At the skirts of the fonst were found the bones of cattle and sImcd 
that had died of starvation during the first winter after the event. The new settlera 
found also a few straggling families of Acadians who had escaped the *'arch of tho 
British troops. They had, from fear of discoverv. refrained from cultivaiing the soil 
and during these five years had eaten no bread. Many of the exiles afterwards found 
their way back to their native Acadia, and, though dejirived of their old farms became 
once more prosperous and respected. ' 

1 This and the following line strike the key note of the poem. The author's object 
is not merely to awaken sympathy for the suffering Acadians ; it is chief! v to describe 
tho efforts, the hardships, and the constancy of Evangeline, in her sear h for her lover. 

8 The French form of "Acadia." It is still common amongst the Itench people of 
bjtn Nova Scotia and New Brunswicli. 

French people of 



Lay in tho fruitful valley. Vast meadows stretched to the east- 

Giving tho village itg name, and pasture to ilock.s without num- 

l>ikes that the hands of the farmers ha.l raised with lahour 

Shutout the turbulent tides; but at stated seasons the flood- 

Opened, and welcomed the sea to wander at will <.'er the 

West and soutl. there wore fields of flax,' and orchaids ai,d 

Spreading afar and unfenced o'er the plain; and away to the 

Blomidon rose, and the forest. oU. ™d aloft on the mountain, a. 
Sea-fogs p,tche,I their tents, and n.ists from the nnghty Atlantic 
Looked on the happy valley, hut ne'er fr„n, their sLiondl 


There in the midst of i,s farms, reposed the Aeadiau village. 
Strongly bndt were the houses, with frames of oak and of 

Such as the peasants of Normandy bui» in the reigns of the 

lies on the south shore of the Bash, nf m;,,^^ of Fundy is "mjyshes." "Oraml-Prd" 

.™.Fps«;ro7 r.;irT;e'ji£ ->=^s 

the tidal inundation. Both an 

of earth, furnished with sluices v,...iuh 

AnlSJJfistS*'"" '*'" '°'"^ ^°"^ °' '"^^ ^-"«'"' 'o-"ty.and especially of the 

th"tI?;;;;2Lro7rrJn"e Of hiirithXM'^^ ^""°1^ "'- --^'^ '•' «-1-Pr^ is 
^-nf "l K^"^'* Scotia alo^' tL Z^ „ ' f, °dv % T.T^V' '""^ "''"'i' '" rth-western 
fi'O feet high, of most picturesque appearLncP and i«f>, * prccpiee of red sandstone 
Indian legends. The southern shore of™heBavnf r^f ?"• "^^ P"'"* °' ''""'« ^^^''^^^S 

tui;^i^;:;;.^'/fe^^^£- -- -ttled in the early p^:;T 17th cen- 
"enry III. (157.. , .^q) ^nd Henry IV. (i;,89l610). Henries referred to are 







Thatched wore the roofs, with (lorrner-windows; and guhles 

Over the basoiiu'iit below protected and shaded the doorway." 
There in the trainiuil eveningH of summer, when briglitly the 

Lighted the village? streets, and gilded the vanes on the chimneys, 
Matrons and niiiidens sat in snow-white caps and in kirtles 20 
Scarlet and blue and green, with distafls spinning tlu^ golden 
Flax for the gossiping looms, whose noisy shuttles within ditors 
Mingled their sound with the whir of the wheels and the songs 

of the maidens." 
Solemnly down the street came the parish priest, and the 

children * 

Paused in their play to kiss the hand he extended to bless them. 
Reverend walked he among them: ml ip rose the matrons 

and maidens, 
Hailing his slow approach with woi la f affef ionate welcome." 
Then came the labourers home from t -j- field, and serenely the 

sun sank 
Down to his rest, and twilight prevailed. Anon from the bel- 
Softly the Angelus sounded," and over the roofs of the village 30 

\* The projeetinjr jfah'e and the uprlprht window in the roof are still characteristic of 
the houses of the French people in Quebec and the Maritime Provinces. 

v< Notice the onomatoiMMjtie character of lines 22-23. The French women of some 
parts of tlie Maritime Provinces and of OasptS are to this day peculiarly fond of striltinjf 
colors in articles of dress. " Kirtle" is supv>osed b\ Skeat to be the diminutive of 
" skirt," with the initial "s" dropped; compare " pattle " in Note 8, p. 221. " Distaff," 
a st.T.ft used in spinning, is from the AnjrloSaxon distcef with the same meaning, and 
this is made ui> of two words, meaning " bunch" or " heap," and " staff." 

IB Veneration for the priest and submission to his authority are still characteristic of 
the French Canadians. 

n The word "belfry" has etvmologically no relation with "bell." It means^pro- 
periv a watch-tower, and is corrupted from the old English "berfrey," which is from 
the old French berfroit, and this from the middle high German hercfrit, a tower of pro- 
tection. Owing to the change of the liquid, th(! origmal meaning of the word and its 
true etymology have been alike obscured. The "Angelus" is a prayer to the Virgm, 
Instituted by Pope Urban II. in commemoration of the Annimciation. It begins with 
the words, AnneliM Domini nuntiavit Marice— "The angel of the Lord announced to 
Marv,"— and contains also the Ave Maria-" Hail Mary,"— the salutation of Gabriel. 
The prayer is recited three times a day — at sunrise, at noon, and at sunset; on each 
occasion" at the sound of a bell, called from '^ association with the prayer the "An- 
gehis" bell, as in this passage. The name is repeated by Longfellow in the fourth sec- 
tion of the first part of " Evangeline": 

Sweetly over the village the bell of the Angelus sounded. 


CohumiH of pal.. Hue «m,.ke, like clouds of in.onso nscon.linK 
Kone from a hmulrod homth«, the ho,ue« of peace and content 
ment. together in love these simple Acadian farmers-- 
Dwelt m the love of Go.l and man. Alike were they free from 
Fear that r.icn.s with the tyrant, and envy the vice of repuhlics;.- 
Neither locks hed they to their dnors, nor bars to their window!; 
But the.r dwellings were oi.en as day and the hearts of the 
owncre ; 

There the richest was poor, and the poorest lived in abundance i- 
Somewhat apart from the village, and nearer the JJasin of 

IJonedict Bellefontaine, the wealthiest farmer of Orand-Prtf 40 
Dwelt on his goodly acres; and with him. directing his house- 

Gentle Evansdine lived, his chiKl „„,! the pride of the village 
Stalwart and «,,.,t„ly in f„r,„ ,v„3 the of seventy winter • 
Hearty an, „ale was he, an oak that i, covere,! with snow flakes '■ 
White ,. the snow were his locks, and his cheeks as brown as 

the oak leaves.*' 
Fair waa she to behohl, that maiden of seventeen summers. 
Black were her eyes as the boiTy that ^rows on the thorn by 

tlie way-side. "^ 

Black, yet how softly they gleamed beneath the brown shade of 
her tresses ! 

Sweet was her breath as the breath of kine that feed in the 

and^'lS^y^^^'cSr'''*"" °' *'^ ^■''--'--*- h-e assigned to ,.npo^ 
19 What are the figures of speech in these two lines ? 

derives ;;r rA'n^!^.Kn^te s th'js^; i^^„trv^ "r^^^^^" '-*'^ ^^^ing 

speech in this description. ® nieaning. Point out ihe figures of 

"en," and the .orn.ption of '• K^^ " khfp^ Th"1 ^ *^^ '^"'"°" P'"™> ending 
J the authorized En^sh versSn^ ^Bibt^. e!J: fcSV^^^^ 


i- r 

; 3' 

■ ' i 

# y. : 






When in the harvest heat she bore to the reapers at noontime so 
Flagons of home-brewed ak;, all ! fair in sooth''^ was the maiden. 
Fairer was vshe when, on Sunday morn, while the bell from its 

Sprinkled with holy sounds the air , as the priest with his hyssop 
Sprinkles the congregation, and scatters blessings upon them, 
Down the long street she passed, with her beads and her missal, 
Wearing her Norman cap, and her kirtle of blue, and the earrings, 
lirought in the olden tiuu; from France, and since as an heirloom,'^* 
Handed* down from mother to cliild, througli long generations. 
But a celestial l)riglitness — a more ethereal beauty — 
Shone on her face and encircled her form, when, after con- oo 

Homeward serenely she > walked with God's benediction uj-'n 

When she had passed, it seemed like the ceasing of exquisite 
Firmly builded with rafters of oak, tlie house of the f, mer 
Stood on the side of a hill eommandhig the sea ; and a shady 
Sycamore grew by the door, with a woodbine wreathing around it. 
Rudely carved was the porch, with seats beneath, and a foot- 
Led through an orchard wide, anil disaj)peared in the meadow ; 
Under the sycamore-tree were hives overhung by a penthouse. 
Such as a traveller sees in regions remote''" by the road-side. 

M " Flajfon" is a doublet of "flask," both beinjr derived from the low Latin /a«ca, a 
kind of bottle. From jln»ca came the old French Jlancon and more nioJern flacon, 
whence the modern Kii'zlish term. "Sooth" moans here "truth," but its original 
Beimo was an adjectival one. It has been traced back to the Aryan root at, to be, from 
which is derived also the word "sin." 

as Point out the Ajrurcs in this and the two following lines!. 

«The "loom," in "heirloom," is the sanui word a.s "loom," a weaver's machine. 
It means in both cases a piece of furniture, from the Anjflo-Saxon neloma, a tool or 

»■'' In some Roman Catholic coiuitries. The term "pcnth'iuso" is a popular cornip- 
tion of the Latin aiipnidieium, an nnpendajre, the intermediate forms beinir the old 
French nnentix, the old Kni^lish ";ii)ontico," and the more modern but stilt archaic 
"fientlce" or " jKjntis." The droppiiis.' of the prefix is not uncommon, and the change 
of the suffix into "house" is due, as Skcat points out, to "an effort at making sense 
of one part of the won! at the ex^jime of the rest." A jwimlar American name for 
stioh an appendage to a wall is a "lean-to," the etymology of which is too apparent to 
call for remark. 


ter con- «o 


Built o'or a box fov the poor, or the bkased imafo of Mary ,„ 
iarthor down, on the slop, of the hill, „s the' well ^Z 
mo8s-growii . 

shMinf'tt'i' "'"; """' '"'' "^" " " ''■'""•^ '"^ '^^ •-«- 

an, IH r- "",' ""™^' ™ "'" »""'■ --« "'-' W„3 
ana the farm-yard. 

There stood the broa.l.wheel'd wains,» and the antique plou-hs 
and the Imrrows ; ^ ° 

strutted tl^ L-dly turkey, and crowed the coek 'with the 

Voice that in ayoa of old had startled the penitent Peter » 
Lurst,„g with hay were the barns, themselves a viUa.-e. In 

each one ,. o -^u. 

Far o'er the gable projected a roof of thatch ; and a staircase 
Under the shelter„,g eaves led up to the o.lorous corn-loft. .„ 
There too the dove-cot stood, with its meek and innocent inn.ates 
Murmur„,K over of love; while above in the variant breezes 
Numberless „o,»y weathereoeks rattled and sans of mutation » 
Thus, at peace with God and the world, the farmer of Grand- 

Lived on liis sunny farm, and Evangeline governed his household 
Many a youth, as ho knelt in church and opened his missaL 
Fixed his eyes nrK)n her, as the saint of his dee],est devotion^ 
Happy was ho wlio might touch her hand or the hem of her 

garment ; 
Many a suitor c ame to her door, by the .lurkness befriended, 

.h.. s,nw. p.,„.. ,. ,„„, „.„„. . ,:JL":^:^:z"sr.z^^i;'rs^ 

2' See Matt. xxvl. 75 and parallel passages 
Of" J^St'^Ve^r^Jt^h'^^ i'; ::i»=^i"5 '" -1._-'- '» «"« ^. compare the u«. 

: S-^ J"-, llliC J. 




I i 





And, as ho knocked and waited to hear the sound o: her 90 

Knew not which bout the louder, his heart or the knocker of iron ;' 
Or at the joyous feast of tlie Patron Saint of the village, 
Bolder grew, and jjressed hor hand in the dance as he whispered 
Hui-riod words of love, that beomed a part of the music. 

But, among all who came, young Galuid only was welcome ; 
Gabriel Lajeunossci, the son of Basil the l)lacksniith, 
Wiio was a mighty man in the village, and honored of all men; 
For since the birth of time, throughout all ages and nations. 
Has tlie craft of the smith been held in repute by the people. '^ 
Basil was Benedict's friend. Their children from earliest 100 

Grew uj) together as brother and sister; and Father Fclician, 
Priest and pedagogue"^ both in the village, had taught them their 

Out of the self-same book, with the hymns of the church and 

the plain-song."^ 
But when the hymn was sung, and the daily lesson completed, 
Swiftly they hurried away to the forge of Basil the blacksmith! 
There at the door they stood, with wondering eyes to behold him 
Take in his leathern lap the hoof of the horse as a plaything, 
Nailmg the shoe in its place ; while near him the tire of a carfc! 


Lay like a fiery snake, coiled round in a circio of cinders.8« 
Oft on autunmal eves, whoii without in the gathering 1,0 

80 See Qen. iv. 22. Verify this statement by references to history and literattire. 

81 "Priest" is M clearly of Greek derivation as "pedagogue' is. The former Ja 
contracted from the Latin pr.:sb,jt.r, which was intnJdnced into Eniclaiui in7,!^l^ 
Saxon tunes, and preHbyter is the Greek j:rexbutero8, older or elder. ^ 

82 The term "plain-sonfr" really means "simple son^." ' It is apHll.-a to a Rnmo„ 
Cathohc chant, whi-.h is an extremely sin.ple n,olody n.mle up of note, o Suaf vSue 
in time and included w.thm a limited compass as rt,'{fards pitch. The invention of 

[■ J^summer NVt'^ Drea^m? iii^ V^li^£. £\£TtV7u^^JX: S' 

38 For the purpose of beinjf expanded by the heat, m order that bv subseouent oon 
traction it may bmd the wood-work of the wheeltotfether. The word - tue" is Sf 



Bursting witli ligl.t seemed tl.o smithy, through every canny 
and crevice,^* "^ 

V.'arm by tl.o for^. within tl„.y w„tcl,«l tI,o lul,„„ri„(; IkJIows, 
A..d as UB pnntin,- „,,.o,l, „u,l the »,«,■!;» e..,,ire,l iu ashes, 
Mcn-nly ku3h,,,l, „„,! .„i,l th,.y were ,u,„s .-oi,,,- i,„„ th„ chapoL 
Oft on d.„ SOS lu «.i„t«-, ,., swifl; as th„ «„«,,, of th„ ca,.lo," 

Bowu h. , i.,„„„ii„,,, th,,y ,i;,ic.,i „™y o'..r th„ „;;,a„,,. 

Oit ... tho hams ih,.y ,li„,|,.„i t„ u„. ,,„,,„,„„, „,,j^ „,, ji,^. ^.^^j, .^ 

S.«k..g ,,,,-er .y,.s (h,.t w,„„l,..m,s st,„„, whid. tho swallo,; 
L™.gs f.,„u ih„ ,,,,„,„ „f t,.„ ^„^^ j„ ^^^,^^^^ ^,^^ ^ _^^ .^^ 

iledgiings : 

Lucky was he wlio found that stone in the nest of the ,.o 
swallow !••« 

Tlius ivassed a i^^y swift year«, an.l thoy no longer were children 
Ho Ava. a valiant youth, and his face, like the face of tho 


Gladdene.1 the earth with its light, and f-iponed tliought into 

She was a woman now, with the heart and hopes of a woman. 
Sunshine of Saint Eulalie " was she called; f„r that was 
the sunsliine 

Wliich, the farmers l)elieved, would load the orchards with 
apples f 

She, too, would bring to lier husband's house delight and abun- 

Filling it full of love and the ruddy faces of children."^ ^,, 

M Notice the alliteration in this line "fv,. .. i <• _„ ■ ',. 

mou3. ■"•uiisiine. cni... ami "crevlco" are strictly synony. 

3; Another instance of cfTeotivo alliteration " i. „„* . • ,. 

as is onlirfarily aMserted jjui; i,^^,,.!^!? u .„„ ','* not derived from "sweep," 

"8«'ep,"and pp. ''y.worJn/' ' ^' '*'" ""K'ually a strong verb, with p.t. 

s« The rcferencj is to a local superstition. 

- ^, _,„„_ 5.^jj_jj.j. ana as an 

I, I 







As this poem is i 1 dactylic inctre, tl.o tcndc.„..y will he to put too strcg an cnmhasls 
on the accented .yllahle: "This Is the | forest pri | niovul. The | vnnnnmn^ ; pin-* 
ftnd the I hOrnlCcks," This su-jjcsted i.. the introduction, may be prevented 
by ,«usin^' at the proper rhetorical intervals; by con.hinin^', as one word, unhnportant 
With important words, readin- (ho with less force and more rapidly than the 
latter. \v he,, the accented word i. in.portant, its quantity n.ay he lo-thenetJ, and tho 
pause should follow. Tims, i-. the above line, let the reader (1) p.olon.^ tho Quantity 
of "this," and pause .-^ftor it; (-J) join " is-the-forest " as one word, rerwiniL' "is-the'' 
rapidly, and proK.n,;;in- "forest," with a pause after it, and unvin- to "pn-- almost 
asstrontr accent as "me-" and oven prolongrlnjJT "val." The habit of sc.inninL' leads 
to tho sinff-sonpr; and attention to the sense, imuso, and emphasis, and not to the 
metrical 8:.rueture, will prevent the Bintf-song'. 


Tho first nineteen linos are chiefly descriptive of tho scenery around Grand-Prd and 
tho reading should be in harmony with tho n.aturc of the ..l.jccts. Thus the first two 
lines are quiet, and su^'sest an appropriate expression. The next four lines demand 

Introfiucflon to the stiidy ol tho whole poem. Tho rcnjaiiunir sections of thn flr«f «„,f 
Kue a„ account of the betrothal of Evan.,di,>r tnd (^u^.' "of the assemlE 
of the feasants ni the vilajre clninh to hear the royal decree of e^-atr ation • of » 
melaneholy e.ibarkut.on, mterrnptcd hy the ebbing of the tide ; of the death of ^'wo 
aehnen father on the very day of uejKirture, of hi. burial on the sca-bhore and of tho 
lass scene, when, witii the next ouure, ana or tiio 

r • I , '"^'i''. ,"^ ''''I *■'''' *'"-' *'"!'» 8*'l<-'<' ou*^^ of the harbor. 

Leaving: behind them the dead on the shore, and the village in ruins 
EvanrieUno. and her lover arc separated fr-m each other by being placed in difTerent 
vessels, lie sec.n.l part of the i»cm is occn,;ied with the narraUvl of er per^^tcnt 
search for throu;;h the Jiouthern and western States, In coni^uanv with /.•«/?"i 
Felican she visits St. Mau-. a settlement of Louisiana, where i^^;^7 CTJS„ ■, '£ 
found a and become a wealthy herdsman. They arrive just too late ofl,^ 
««Ort.i,whohasdemrted on a trading and hunting expedition to the 0/akMoun 
taum, whither he r. ^-I owe<l by his father and his betrothed 1,,^ er. At the "Miss o," 
on he we«tcrn .Ioik; of the mountains they are told that he lias been ere ami has 
w.thm a few days gone northward on a trapping expedition, from i.hi ch he s'to "eturn 
by the same way in an unin. At the " Mission " I'vawidiw. remains till the folloS 
«l> only to learn that GMi has taken up his abode on the "lakes of St Law? 
ren<-e, and when she seeks him in the depths of the Michigan fore8ts\lie finds •• tho 
hunter's lodge deserted and fallen to ruin." Year after "ear is «fnsun e^^^ i ,hc con 
tinued search Kmnvjdi.w, .till devoted to herlost loveV^P Jses ?om wuth nto o?d 
age, and takes up her abode as a "Sister of Mercv"hrrSvv?S citv 
punng a time of „est lencc, while she is visiting the almshouse slifrS S oUS 
n "the fonn of an old man," whom she finds lying at the t^i.t o^d^th on onro^^ 
^f,?l.P^ l^*'- T'.o recognitiou i« mutual, but theflnal jmrti t.rc^^mes al.nost 
ate y afterwtml Evawn-Une mnnnuring " Father, 1 thank tliee " as she nrcsRes " f ha 

tatSuct/j:!, f '''' '''^°'"-" ^''•^ °°"''^"«'°" «' '^"^ I^'" ^^ Su-^a S^e'utionof Iho 
Still stands the forest primeval ; but far away from its shadow 
Bide hy side m their nameless graves, tho lovers are sleepirg 

* * * * 4 

Still stands the forest luimcval ; but under the shade of its branchea 
Dwells another race, with other customs and language 
Only along the shore of the mournful and misty Atlan'tlo 
Linger a few Acadian pe.;8ant8, whose fathers from exile 
W.aiidorel back to thou- nt tive land to die in its bosom. 
In the fisherman's cot the wheel and the loom are stiU busv : 

A 1 u'^f '" "'"'.'■ ^''i''" N<''™a" <^^ap8 and thoir kirtles of Homc«uun. 
Atr by the evening fire repeat Evangeline'g etory, ^ ' 

While from its rocky caverns the deep-voictvl, neighboring ocean 
Bpeaks, and in oocents disconsolate answers tho wail of th« forest 


more forco and swelling tones From lin« t *^ 1. ,- ^. 

I'nrt Flint. 

The first ei^'htecn lines are sinmlv C „f u.„ „ i 
|.lcturli.i- of traoimotn- a,,r „,„.. i , "°"- '"" 'I'" lioMmptiuji l,a, il,„ fi.„.ij 

2. ....... .,0. ,. ,«.,.„.„; „„t3':;°„ .s'toi;::"?' r,' "'° ""'-• "- 

ir V n" Increisna wirmft, „^^ i •. ^•'^l"'-!,Hion, i.ut not so miitat vo, to " man " 

arising, and .'repubHcs" a^ fin,, et^ \^^^^^ "^-V-*" 

in harmony with principles. . ' ^^"'■' •^^P'-^ssion and variety 

Re^uMines 30-3S with warmth, and In line 38 contrast ..M.hcst" .n,. •< -. . 

erivinff the first a risintr, and the second a -■■iHn, • n • "' "poor" by 

buaiity," and "Ood's henedVtion"- hn/- rn,,. fi , A '^'^•*''*''^' '"i-htncss," "ethereal 

... .,.„,.. .„,..„ „ „,,,:'.::;; ;:ir..:*K:.:s''-;;r' "■- " '■■ "■" ""- 

line 70, it should ho read in Imitative stvl^ in,,, i ."^,>''***'"''"" '^ expressed, as in 

^■>...d he ... ...n ^^^^^^:s:^j^^^^zt:^'''''r' 

description of Evanjeline is res,m,ed and to line Z\ \ ""^'''^ *''° 

ofTu,ive, and full of warmth. Line 87 e^.^U^y'T.rnd h 3"':^; ""• * '*"•" '"-' ^''^'• 
81. on '<,^.inf' and "deepest devotion." expression, with en.pha- 

Lino 83 is exclamatory, ond, with en.phasls on "tracf " •• hand " «,„! - 
end with rising infioction. Lino 9:.: <• Gabriel" an^'onlv H ^■'-"•'^••," «l'o.:ld 

and expressive. Tl.^A the descri-.tion of r^v^ ^n J ^ ^ ''"'' emphasis, warm 
but in line 100 chan.o a.^in t:u:^ZJf''^Z^Z::^'' ::T^ '"^^''^^ 
of,.f,v and the blacksmith ^«6nvn,- : . Z^l^lZrtf ^ ^ '^'""'"''"' 
Wshi .:: . p;ayful tones and u-ambols of childh.- i. '' ""'''''"■« °^ ">« 



Lines 110 to 110 should be per\a<]od by this expression. Line 115 : read the simile 
boldly and fast, t\ma:—" Kn-gwi/t \ as-tho-/)io(>o/> | of-an-rar/fc," with emphasis and 
longer time on the italicised wordis. In the same stylo read line 110, Lines 118, 119 : 
glvo emphasis to "eajfer" and "wondrous," and an air of wondor to the three linea. 
Lino 122: read the description of Gabriel in expulsive and bolder tone, with emphasis 
on "He" and "valiant," and with less force on the first "face," and "morning"; 
and in lino 123 on "gladdened," also slightly on "thouj,'ht" and "action." 

Line 124 : emphasis on "she" and "woman" with falling iiillcction ; f l-n on " heart" 

\nd "hopes." Line 12.5: read "sunshine Eulalie" warmci .and .th formality; 

cUtn carphasise "that," and in the next lino emphasise from "loid" to "apples." 
Read thd last two lines with softer and tenderer expression; pause at "house," and 
give A-A II emphasis to "delight," "abundance," "love," and " ruddy faces of chil- 
dren," rncreasing in warmth on the last words. 


Ralph Waldo Emerson takes rank amongst the foremost thinkers 
and litMrateurH of America, in virtue rather of the quality than of the 
quantity of his work. Like Longfellow, Lowell, Holmes, and Whittier, 
he wrote both prose and verse, but, unlike them, the endurance of hia 
fame will depend most on his prose M'ritings. Ho was born at Boston 
in 1803, and graduated at Harvard at the age of eighteen. Ho shortly 
afterwards became a minister of the Unitarian Cliurch, but soon aban- 
doned pastoral work to devote himself to study and literature. For 
many years he published very little; but the circle of his influence 
gradually widened, and his essays, poems, and lectures were extensively 
read and warmly appreciated. From 1840 to 1844 he was associated 
with Margaret Fuller in the editorial conduct of the Dial, a magazine 
devoted chiefly to the elucidation of that transcendental philosophy 
with which Emerson has become so completely identified. In 1846 
appeared the first volume of his poems, and two years afterwards ho 
visited England and delivered there his celebrated lectures on "Mind 
and Manners in the Nineteenth Century." In 1850 was published his 
still more popular "Representative Men," and since that time have 
appeared, at long intervals, his "English Traits," "Society and Soli- 
tude," "Conduct of Life," and other pieces in prose and verse. He 
died in 1882, one of the few literary men who have lived to see a gene- 
ration largely moulded Ijy their own opinions. 

Polarity, or action and reaction, we meet in every part of 
nature — in darkness and light ; in heat and cold ; in the ebb 
aiivl flow of waters ; in male and female ; in the inspiration and 

1 This passagre is an extract, or rather I? made up of extracts, from the remarkable 
essay entitled " Compnsatlon," which is the third of the series known as "The 
Twenty Essays of Ralph Waldo fimerson." Partly as sounding the key-note of the 


end. If the south attracts, tlio north repels To emntv 
you must condense tliero An innviHl i i , /^ «"'Pt.y l't3re, 

1. Th, „i„s, „, Tl„,„ ^ M„.„ .,,,1 ™ '' !; '".""Jx^f "^ hero ,„.„„, „„|*2', "■"■ 

u: 1 -I? '■•■■lu i*ro DOCK and W 

Plod w. h n.orning and with night 
Mountain t|ill and o.ean deep ^ 
Irembhnjf balance (hily |<ee» 
In chari|rinif moon, in tidal wave 
Glows the feud of Want and Have 
Gauffe of more and less through smce 
tieotric sur and iKjncil plays. ' 

The lonely Earth amid the balls 
That hurry through the eternal halls 

bupplemental asteroid, 
Or com|)onsatory spark 
siioots across the neutral Dark 

iil^W i. ' """ "taiih the vine 

Though the frail ringlets thue dceeivo * 
None from its stock that ^■ine can r^v^ 
fear not. then, thou child in ir^ ' ''*'^- 
There s no god dare wrori;^ a worm 
Laurel crowns cleave to deserts ' 
And power to him who power exerts 
IJa-st not thy share ? O.Vwing^d feet 
A ' m'I'u'''^'' ^^""^ to meet T *' 

^/;:^,f that Nature made thv own. 

Will nye the hdls and swim the sea 
And. like thy shadow, follow thee 

;: Ever since I ,vag a boy," he says " l hav„ l!!?^ ^^^ ^^'^''^' '°"°* thee. ' 
sation: for it seemed to me. wKerv vo,yL"'*"h '^ to write a discourse on Comoen 

wou"idM° a"'r.'^'»'>' »"tut2t"A^h thistuufi'i' ■" *f""« ^'^h --y « 

would 1)0 a star in many dark hours an.i ni^b^i ™tn is sometimes revealed to us iV 
not suffer us to lose our wav » Th^fl^f crooked passages in our Journev that wm.M 

next are. To show that thorn ■'» n u^X^i ^ ^"°^ to he made to both mrties in tho 
2 NoV ' ^' **"" P«nK)8e of "the essJy °' «>"'P«"«''tion governing the c^iuTof thiJ^ 

?hfSi"f ''r^ r made up of a sue 

iiSi^^t sr r,t^he"rof ter-^' ^^t^^t^^ri^nj'-thf rbjS 

Coinpare their styles in other resnectsntT" "^'^^ t^^t of Macaulay (see pp! 2i.V2oo) 

whofh"' ,l*°tion, chamcter o, vS dart th^T'^''' '1' '^"^th of ientcnJis s 3 
Whether the uhrosn '•„^j„ "'_,_"" *'^V. the desire to Drofliin« ^n^t- j,A cu." 

,'!^fh««-the phrase "action and S?on" tJ^^"'' ^ P':^"<'« o"*^*. &c. Show 
cw/f.!"^ *". 'ts scientific sense^o make th« ^''r*-^"'^J'''t"t of thi term -'^ 
"^I;i*''!-P'^f'»« scientific meanin.. o? s™i nfh'"^"'"'^ ^^i the sentence perfecth^ 

inspiration." ''expiration," 'Cstole""WnV„^.^':.*''"V^:/''«"W be underStood, as 
The same remark holds good of The teit geneSly ' '•■^"trifugal," and "centripetal?" 

3 See below : " All things are double." * 






Whilst the world is thus duiil, so is every one of its parts. 
The nntiro system of things gets^ represented in every iwrliclo. 
Th<!ro is somewliat that resembles tlie ebb and flow of the sea, 
day and niglit, man and woman, in a single needle of the pine, 
in a kernel of corn, in each individual of every animal tribe. 
The reaction, so grand iu the eham^nts, is repeated Avitliin tliese 
small boundaries. For exami)le, in the animal kingdom the 
physiologist lias observed that no creatures are favorites, but a 
certain comi)ensation balances every gift and every defect. A 
surplusage given to one part is paid out of a reduction from 
another part of the same creature. If the head and neck are 
enlarged^ the trunk and extremities arc cut short." 

The theory of the mechanic forces u another example. "What 
wo gain in power is losil in time ; and the converse. The 
periodic or compensating errors of the planets are another 
instance. The influences of climate and soil in ])olitical 
history are another. The cold climate invigorates. The barren 
soil does not breed fevers, crocodiles, tigers, or seorijions.'' 

The same dualism underlies the nature and condition of man. 
Every excess causes a defect ; every defect an excess. Every 
sweet hath its sour ; every evil its good. Every faculty which 
is a receiver of pleasure has an equal penalty put on its abuse. 
It is to answer for its moderation with its life. Eor every grain 
of wit there is a grain of folly. Eor everything you have missed 
you have gained something else; and for everything you gain 
you lose yomcthing. If riches increase, they are increased tltat 
use them. If the gatherer gathers too much, Xiiture talces out 
of the man what she puts into his chest ; swells the estate, 
but kills the owner. Xature hates monopolies and exceptions. 
The waves of the sea do not more; speedily seek a level from 

B This intransitive uso of the verb "ret" is not ea^^ily Justifled by reference to the 
etyniolojry of the word, but, lilte many other arbitrary usages, it is too convenient to 
be given up. 

6 Cite instances to prove the truth of this statement. 

7 Explain what is meant by the " compensating errors of the planets." Give his- 
torical and geographical iastancos to prove the truth of the fatatciuents in the last 
three sentences. 


their loftiest t„.,i„g, „,„„ ,|,„ ^,,.i„^i„, „f ^ 
0|iual.z„ tho„.s,.,v., TI„.™ i, „hv„,s .„,„„ ,..,,,,,■,. : „ 
ta .CO ,,uu down ,!,„ „v,.,.,™vi„,. „,„ .,a,,„,, .,.„ ri „ 

Tins k,v wnu. .1,,. ,,„., „f ,;,,., ,„„, „,,^i„„^ .^ 

o u,l, or „,ot „. co,nbi„„ „„,,„t ,,. t,,,,,,., ,,„f„,„ „ ^^ 
nunago,! o,,..- y,, „„,„„, ,,;, ,„„,,. „,;,„"„,,,„„.. .j ™ ; 
no chock, to „ ,„.„ ovii .,,,„.„, tho chcd. cxi»t, „,„, will , t 

r eri«, ::, f ," '" '■""""" "■'" ^'•■''' ■""''"■^'- If y"« -ko 
w a U.n,l>c ,I,,m,«racy, the pre,.,,,,,, is rcsirte.l I,-, „„ „v„„l,„„,o 
The true hfe and ,ati,factio„, of „.,„ ,o,.,„ ,o ,.l„de th,. utitt 

ulL n '"''"'""""y "'"'" "" -.rietie, of ,.i,.,„„„u„,... 
Under all gover„„„.„tH the i„ll„«„.„ of char,u=ter re„„i,„ ,1 e 
-me._.„ Tnrke, and in Xew ,Cn„.„d „,„,t alike, 7Z „ 

must have h,.e„ a, f,,,„ „, „„,tu,„ „„„,,i ,„,,.„ ,,;,_,„ 

L,fe n,ve,t, it«,lf with inevilaUe ,,,„dition,, which the u„ 

" ^l^uow , th,t they do not toueh hi,u ; -1„,t the br,>.- i, on 

hia hps, and the con.lilions are in hi, .,,.,] " ,f , ° 

. *'' ^' ^-^ -^'-^^ ii he escapes 

■ Thl« noiitonco la Iho trai.slallon ol tlio l,a' '„ oiio ^i' i,., , ,, T. 

bunals for the prot'e^tion of Ji^^y i^ S ca ,^e ofT^« •"^"'"^'-■ncy of the rej^ular trf- 
WMterti communities. The cIT.ct o? A,^^ i / .Vi® Prevalence of JmicIi law in voiina- 
nationallife is «con in the com iti?n of%Tl e.?s n',"^^^^^^ «" stimu at^f 

^^.1 in Hor.nco toward the close of the Middle XS^^^ ""'''' ^^'^ ^'''''^'''' ^^r^ 

foAheZIiS^^iS'^^^'^J'^JJS XiJ'V^'H"!!''"''"'' ^irronnclinj^s account. 
^u.r.and hi.a.le.a„.. ^i^i^^^.^::^^:%^-^i:^^^^ 

Hients of jrrammar ar^ ,„ t..;, oLVx"„^- ii"*r'^> considered more njlita Ti,.. , ' ' iZT 
s ^.„t6nec tinted wicii bimiiax freedom, " — - •■•i-f&- 





thera in ono i)art, thry attack liim in another more vital part. 
If ho has escaped them in form, ami in apjn uice, it is ])e(anso 
ho ha<4 rosisteil his life, atid lle«l fnini liinn ami the retribu- 
tion is so miic;h death. So signal is the failun of idl attempts to 
make this separation of the good from the tax, that the experi- 
ment would not. bo tried, since to try it is to be mad, — but 
f<u- tlie cireumstanee, that wlien the disease began in the Avill, 
of rebellion and separation, tlu^ intellect is at once infected, so 
that the man ceases to see (lod whole in each object, but in able 
to see the sensual allurement of an object, and not to see tho 
sensual liurt; he sees the mermaid's head, but not tho dragon's 
tail ;'^ and thiidcs ho can cut oH" that which he would have, 
from that which ho wouM not Juivc. "How secret ort tliou 
who Iwellest in the highest heavens in silence, O thou only 
great (ioil, sjuinkling with an unwearied Providence certain 
l)onaI blindnesses upon such as have unbridled desires !"" 

The human soul is true to these .ts in the painting of 
fable," of history, of law, of lu-overbs, of conversation. It finds 
a tongue in literatuic unawares."^ Thus the (Ireeks called 
Jupiter, Supremo Mind ; but liaving traditionally ascribed to 
Inm many base actions, they involuntarily made amends to 
reason, ')y tying up th(> hands of so bad a god. lie is made as 
helpless a kin-- of England.^" I'rometheus" knows one secret 

12 Tho "mcj 1" of fable has the body of a > oman ami <he tall of a flttb. The 
word is mailt' ip of th« ' iii^loHuxoii mere, a lake, and moegih i muid. Thu idea of 
the "sea" us ih« men abo<lt' i;rew out of tho confusion in old EoKlish between 

mere, a lake, and the V mer, the -oa. 

15 St. Aiiuustine'd " Cou.i sions " Bk. J. 

14 The tem-hincr of fable on \hn \^n\ni is illuHtrate<l from rlussical mytholojry in the 
part of the text hnincdiivtoly followintr. Equally Ktrikiiig instances are to be found 
in (ihundti'ice in the animal fables (the German Thiirxn'ieii) which have been to ex- 
eeedin^fly j.opular in all a>;os. See the collection of fables usually credited to yflsop. 

in In another part of this essay, r.morson wys : 'This voi •« f fable has in it some- 
what divine. It caue from thout;ht above the V the writer. ' 

16 In what sense does Emerson I'oro spc;iK of flio Kin'.' of England as helpless? 

17 Prometh. us, accordins to ancient fable. niadi» himself (he of the humao 
ra-f l>v jitoiliiitj fire from hf^aven nnd ffn^hinsr it^ nse to ma". The rofprenre hi tkxc 
tpxt is to thf> crrcat drama f .T!-<-hv''Ui. wb'i ren'->'-<'nt« b'm n« in posse-^^lon if know 
leltre "hich it is pssentiat to t'le I'oty of .Injiif-er that tlu- latter sbonlrl cnin. For hi» 
defiance of the kinpr of hoaven the andncioiis fHend of hiimani^v i-t hnr'rd in* . Tar 
tarns, from which, accoriliigf to ono account, Jujiitcr hinisolf dclivored h> n when ho 

COMPENSATli }f. ^ 345 

which Jovo must bargain for; Min.Mva, another. IIo cannot 
got las own th.uulors ; Minorxa koops tli,. key of thorn. 
'.'Of ttll the gods, I „i,ly knew the keys 

1 Imt ope tlio Kolid .looiH within wIiomi vaults 

niA thuttilers ileep. " 

A rhiin confession of tho in-working of the All, nn.l of a.s moral 
.'i"»- Tho Indian mythology .-nds in the nnnio ethi.-s; an.l it 
Avo.Ua 8eem iinpo-ssii,!,, for any fahle to be invente.l an.l g.-t tiny 
curron.y which was not moral. Aurora forgot to ask youth for 
iHT lover, an.1 though Tithonn.s i.s imn.ortal, he is old. AchiUc^ 
13 iiot invulnerable ; the sacred waters did not wash the 
licel by which Thetis held him.- Siegfried, in the Nibdungen, 
IB not quite ..nmort^il, for a leaf fell on his back whilst he was 
bathing in the drag<,n's l>lood, and that spot which it covered is 
mortal. Ami «o it must be. There is a crack in evc-rything 
C.od has made. It would seei, there is always this vindictive 
circumstance stealing in at unawares, even into the wild poesy 
111 which the human fancy attempted to make bol.l holiday, and 
to shake Itself f,ec of the ,.ld law>-Jiis back-stroke, tlrfs kick 
of the gun, certifying that the law is fatal r" that in nature 
nothing cm bo given, all things are .sold. 

This is that ancientdoctrine of Nemesis." who keeps watch iu 

the H,K,t thus left^uInJmb e S was ^ t So!v llur'^'ir'^'' '"^''' '""'• ""'J ''iroS 
of Hector The "heel of Achilles ■•ara"vn)v,n or 'i!' *'"-" T'"'"''^ •'*■■'«' •^'•""'^r 
has imssed into a urovorh Tim a ..»„, . ■ '* '." '"'^ ^^'^ ^*«-'ak spot of nnv Kv^tmn 
is called the '' ten'Z of AehliL. "'^ "'"""'^ ''■°'" *'»' '>'«-'' »« "^e c^« ^f "{heTjf 

prlSf 'fll^fe.tSaiS %\e1S^sl;'?li;'L?°T;V «»!5? <« clefeateU by Sie^fric... 
fr e.1 t^o hU wife Krie.nhild as lu' n ar a" e Sor 't 't .^•'/"''yT '^ ''''^••"'" ^V •^i^K'- 
Krienihild, hin ^ Hajari tho l)!in« »« 1- iwtion l|,o „,fe of 0( rither. brother n# 
deed throu,.,. ... k„owlU,^VToiLnraT fi^^^^^^^^^^^ accon.'pSes U^' 

back or. which the leaf ac^idontailv kv L stS if " '"'""'"'•'^ «" the s?>ot on hi, 

thllqlf^" " *«'•* '" **>« Krcat epic piem the ^vn'^if- ^''^* I'lJ'"^ «' «hi''l' thi. ia 
the 13th century. " *'" *~'''"' ''"" Aibelungenlied," which dates from 

M In «i,at sense is tlm tenn "fatal " used here? 
name ^Lre i^c^ilij ,S„'.''" "' "*''^""-. - Thend. was of equity. The 







tho univorso, mmX lets no oflenco go unclmstiHcd. The Furios, 
thi!y said, arc tlu^ attciulants on juxtici^, aiul if tlio sun in hoaven 
Bh(Mil(l tnui8^'r(!sa liis imtli, tlioy wouM imniHli hinii Thn ixH-ts 
rflatdl tliat Htone walls, and iron swordn, and Ifathern tluni^m, 
had an occult sympathy with i\w wi'oni^'s of their owners; that 
tho l)(dt whi(!h Ajax ^,'avo Hector draj^^^'cd th(! Trojan hero over 
the field at tho wIuh-Ih of tlui car of Achilles, and tho sword 
which Itcctor «,mvc Ajax was that on whose point Ajax fell.i*' 
They recorded, tliat wheji the Thasians*'' erected a statne to 
Theayencs, a victor in the ^'aines, one of his rivals went to it hy 
ni^'iit, and endeavoured to throw it d(»wn hy repeated hlows, 
until at last ho moved it from its pedestal, and was crushed to 
death heneath its falL 

Still more wtriking is th<i expression of this fact in the pro. 
Verh^ of all n;itions, which aro always tho literature of reason 
or tho statements of an alisoluto truth, without qualification. 
Proverhs, like tho sa(;red hooks of each nation, ar(! the sanctuary 
of the Intuitions. That which the droning world, chained to 
appearances, will not allow the realist io say in his own words, 
it will suffer him to say in proverbs without contradiction. 
And this law of laws, which tho pul[)it, the .«<enate, and tho 
college deny, is hourly preached in all inarkets and workshops 
by flight)* of proVer])s, whose teaching is a3 true and as omni- 
present as that of birds and flies. 

All things are double, one against another — tit for tat ; an 
eye for an eye; a tootli for a tooth ; hlood for hlood ; measure 
for measure ; lovo for love. Give and it shall he given you. 
Tie that watereth shall he Watered himself. What will you 
have ? quoth God ; [)ay for it and take it. Nothing venture, 
nothing have. Thou shalt be paid exactly for what thou hast 
done, no more, no less, Who doth not work shall not eat. 
Harm watch, harm catch. Curses always reci il on the head of 

44 Ajax was one of tho Orecli heroes in the Trojan war, the most powerful aft«5r 
Achilles. Hector, son of Priam, was the most <li>itintruishe(l of the Trojan leaders. 
*3 The " Thoaians" are tho inhabitants of Tha^oq, an island in the .Egean Sea. 



cJf H Hluv... the other ...,.,1 /u^tens itn^lf n,.,.,....! y.Mir own. iJucl 
comiMol confo,, ,.]., he Hilviser. Th,. ,l,.vil is an« 

It 18 thus -a, beeuu«e it is thius in life. Our acti(,n i« 

ovennustor.-.l ..ud charact.ri/.ul ni, v. our will l.y th, U,y of 
"«t,,M. Wo aim at a petty ,.,..1 ,i„ite asi.h, from the ouhhc 
Kood, l.ut our act annn,..s itself l.y«lihlo inaKnetinn in a 
iine witli the jiolos of the worltl.''" 

All iufractiuns uf love and equity in our soeial n-iations aro 
.I)«e.hly punished. They are punislu-d hy AVhilst 1 .tand 
in snnple ndatiuns to my I have no displeasure in 
^nootiuK l.nn. M'e nn-ot as water meets water, or as t>vo cur- 
i-H.ts of an- mix, with p,.rfec-t diffusion an.l inti-rixnietratiun of 
i.ature Jiut as noon as ...ere is any departtn-e from simplicity, 
'"'.1 at halfness," or j^ood forme that is not Jod for 
In.n my nei.dd«>r feels the wn.n- h„ ,h,inks from me as far 
as 1 have shrunk fron. him; his eyes no lun^.r «eek mine; 
th. re ,s war hetweeii us; there is hate in him and fear in n... 

Ail the old ahuses in society, universal an.l j.articular, all un- 
just a.rumulatioiis of proj.erty and power, are aveng..,l in the 
Hume numner. is an instructor of «reat sagacity, and the 
J.orald of all revolution.s. (,ne thing he teaches; that there i.s 
;-'^ttenness- where he appears. He is a c.rrion crow ; and 
though ,.m sc n<.t well what he hovers for, there is <leath «on,e. 
wl.ere. Our prop.-rty is timid, our laws are timid, our cultivated 
classes are tinud. Fear for ..ges has hode.l, and mowed, and 
gibbered o ver government and j.roperty. That obscene bird is 

24 Another fon)i of this pro\-erb fs, that "curses liko f.>.i,.i.n„= i . 

o- Ti, 1 1 iL • » HIM!. '-u">*-»i iiKO cniikons, conio home to iT)n«f •• 

,:^^^^!:^''-^' ^"« ^---* '"^«>"«-o is nothing hut foil, ^nLin: is 
crly and southerly dirw-tion "The so <•« I. > , ""'J''"^"*' "«^^'"i' <>' «H«un,iM-r .a „orfh- 

the^jK^nts o„ thi ^^:^r;^:^^t:T^rz^^;^z^^^ 

itself in a tv.o.fold .nanner' -that i^ clpIeU-H it^eiT''' '"■• '" ""'"' "*"■''"• "'^'•«™*«" 
«Con,paro " Hamlet." i. 4: "Somethins i. rotten m the ,tat« of Pensi^rk.- 

' I 


not thorn for nothing,'. lie indicates great wrongs which must 

bo n^visi'd.''*^ i • u • 

Of the hko nature is that cxi^cctation of change winch m- 
stantly follows the suspension of our voluntary activity. The 
t.rr..r of cloudless noon, the en.erahl of Polycrates, the awe of 
prosperity, the instinct which leads every generous soul to im- 
pose on itself tasks of a nohle asceticism and vicarious virtue, 
are the tremblings of the balance of justice through the heart 

and mind of man.'* .. • , ^ 

Experienced men of the world know very well that it is best 
to pay scot and lot^^ as they go along, and that a man often pays 
, for a small frugality. The borrower runs in his own debt." 
Has a man gained anything who has received a hundred favors 
and rendered n.^ne ] |Ias he gained by borrowing, through in- 
dolence or cunning, his neighbor's ^Vares, or horses, or money 
There arises on the deed the instant acknowledgment of beneht 
on the one part, and of debt on the other ; that is, of superiority 
und inferiority. The transaction remains in the memory of him- 
self and his neighbor ; and every new transaction alters, according 
to its na.^aro, their relation to each other. He may soon como 
to see that he had better have broken his own bones than to 
have ridden in his neighbor's coach, and that " the highest price 
ho can pay for a thing is to ask for it." 

iiill liisiiif sss 

Jar's was foumi in the Htomu.h <.r a tUh and rcturiRHl tc. him. 
11 Tho litoiil mcaniiiirof "soot nm\ lot "is " oontrihution aiul share." The phrase 

" suhscriptioi) ami nicinhorshlp." 
aj What is the fliiure In this sontouce? 

which must 



man will cxton.l this lesson to all parts of life 

know that it is tho part of i,ru,l(.nce to fac 

pay every just deman.l on yonr time, your talenta 


ways pay ; for, first or last 



:o every claimant, and 

or your heart. «« 

Person. .....I . . ^"'^' ^'"" """^ ^'''^ ^'""^ '^"*»'« '^^^'^^ 

own 1 If":' "' ^•"^^^;^"^--^- ^'-' --t pay at last jour 
o^^n h b . If you are wise, you will drr-ad a prosperity which 

mly loads you with more. BeneHt is the end ^f niture."' 
fm. every benefit which you receive a tax is levied. He s J 
who confers the most benefits. He is base-and that is 1 el 

ase thin, in the universe-who receives favors and reiide,: 

Zm wl "f "' "" '^""^^ ""''''^ '--«^« ^" those 

from whom we receive them, or only seldom. the benefit 

we rece,ve be reiulered n,ain, line for line, deed for deed, 

n for cent to somebody. I^.vare of too much good staying 

- yonr hand. It will fast corrupt and worm worms. !>' 1 

away quickly in some sort."* ^ 

The league between virtue and nature engages- all things to 

zr :f tT 'T ''''''-' ^'' '-''^^' '-- -'"^-'" 

s^^ames of the world persecute and whip the traitor. He 
ha things are arranged for truth and benelit, but there is no den 

n the wide worhl to hide a rogue. Commit a crime, and the 

arth IS ma.le of glass.. Commit a crime, an<l it sei-ms as if 

oa of snow fell on the ground, such as reveals in the woods 

tho track of every partridge, and fox, and s.,uirrel, and mole. 

1 on cannot recall the spoken word, you canlu.t wipe out the 

foot-track, you cannot ,lraw up the ladder, so as to loavo no 

" Notice the chantfo of person and diacuns itn Icdtimucv. 
^ in what «enHo in " end " „«ed her. 7 Explain the sentence fully 
Of i^Z::S^:;^^%(^ il^^rHS^ «"^ «»>- »'- '« ^ correspond. With the id« 

We Ket back our nictc as we nieasnre • 

We cannot do wronff and feel rljrhf' 
Nor .-an wc jrive }«iin and feel pkasur'e. 

for justice aven^fes each »li|,'ht. 

" What i, the fltfure in this sentenet.. and in the reoetition «f it- gr-* » — 

t i 







1 N 


inlet or clow. Some (laiuning circumstance always transpires.'^ 
The laws and siibstanccH of natunj — water, snow, wind, gravi- 
tation— become piniultios to the thief. 

( )a the other hand, the law holds wHh equal sureness for all 
right action. Love, ami y<tu shall he loved. All love is niatlu- 
inatically just, as much us the two sides of an algebraic ecjuation. 
The good man has absolute good, which, lik«; lire, turns every- 
thing to its own nature, .so that you cannot do liim any harm ; 
but as the royal armies sent against Xapoleon,"'-* when he ap 
proached, cast down their colors and fron^ enemies became 
friends, so tlisastcrs of all kinds, as sickness, oil'encc, poverty, 
prove benefactors ; 

" Win.^s blow and Mators roll 

Strength to the hruvc, ami power, and deity, 

Yet in tlieniaelveB are nothing." 

The hisiory of ])ersecution is a history of endeavors to cheat 

nature, to ntake water run uj) hill, to twist a rojjc of sand.'" 

It makes no dill'iirence whether the a(*tors be many or one, a 

tyrant or a nud). A mob is a society of bodies Viduntarily 

bereaving thems(dves of reason, and traversing its Avork. The 

mob is man Vnluntarily descending to the nature! of the beast. 

Its fit hour of activity is night. Us actions are insane like its 

whole const itulion. It persecutes a principles ; it would whip 

a right ; it would tar and feather justice, l)y inflicting fire and 

outrage \ii)on the houses and persons of those who luivo these. 

It resembles the jirank of Im.vs, who run M'ith lire-engines to 

put out the ruddy aurora streaming to the stars. The inviolate 

spirit turns their spite against tlio wrongdoers. The martyr 

cannot be dishonored. l*'very lash inflictetl is a tongue of fame , 

every i)rison, a more illustrious abode ; every biu'netl lK)ok or 

house enlightens the worlil ; every suppressed or expunjied wonl 

3n "Tmnsjiirea" ih here used In Its correct sense, that of conihiir to li»flit. It U fre- 
quently, hut in)i)it)p«rl> , used as hynonyntous with the verh to hapiien. 

s» After his return from Ella. iJcserilio the hi«toritail episode here alluded to. 

40 It is wiid that Charlos V. of Gt'tmaiiv, iiftcr hln retirement fron» the Imperial 
throne, heeanie (irofoundly lm)iresiBed witji U>e ohsunlity »i his former at'emptsi to 
cocnx> men into thinltinjj alike ot> religious miUt«n», when he found that hn twuld not 
get two elockri to keep time with e«ch other. 


revcrl^Mtos thro„.,h the earth from ,i,le to ,id.. Hours of 
«.-.u,ty ,„„ ,:o„.si,k.r,aio„ „ro always arriviuR to co„,„,„„itie», „, 

„. Emerson. 


ulit. It ia fre- 

and the 

John Greenleaf Whittier, the " guaker poet" of Aincrioa 

Maud Mfillor, on n suiDiuor^s day, 
Rukc'd tho luortdows swcot with hay. 

V,m\h luT torn liat glowed the Wealth 
Of siniplo bfiiuty and rustic hculth. 

Rinsinu, sho wi'on,irht, Mnd in merry glee 
Th«^ niockhird echoed from liis troo. 

Ihit when 8|„> gl„nee.l to the far-ojl' town, 
AVhite from its hili-slojm looking down, 

turbulent«8 « W i«t'l for «^^^ ''•^' '» "«-•* •»"'!'il as,« anSer J<L ^.1^^^^^^^^^ '■^"'•*' ''^^^' '^r« '"'"'ally 

w 1^ the ca.s« in law.abillh^.MSn.nm.itiS "*'*''*' *" '*^''"^'" *^« *?""* "' *"« accused; 
1 " ^flllll^ \t(iii.,.t' ! ^i, . 

>_':Maud Mailer" i« "--lly daj.e,|,_amo„..t tho«e of Whittier'^ .v^„,« ..ronpoU 

tojrother iiiKlor tho rmMio of 

twrth-nlar ,i»so. ThoUKh slinnlJL'Ttvl".. iririlTi 'ri ^'"■'''""T «' »»"> title in this 

valuable moiuJ. *^ "^ "*'*'' " '" '"" "' l»«-"a"ty, and t«ach«H a mxxnd and 

I I 




Tho sweet song died, and ^v vague unrest 
Ami a nameless longing filled her breast. 

A wish, that she hardly dared to own, 
For soniething hetter than she had known." 

Tho Judge" rode slowly down the lane, 
Snif nothing his horse's ehestnut mane. 

Ilr drew his hriille in tho shade 

Of the ai)ple4rees, to greet the maid, 

And asked a draught from the spring that flowed 
Through the meadow, across the road. 

She stooped where tho cool spring ])Uhbled up, 
And filled for him her,8mall tin cup. 

And hlus])ed as she gave it, looking down 
On her feet so bare, and her tattered gown. 

"Thanks !" .said the Judge : "a sweeter draught 
From fairer hand was never quaifed." 

Ho spoke of tlie grass, and the flowers, and trees, 
Of the singing binh- and the humming bees ; 

Then talked of tho haying, and wondered whether 
The clou.l in tho west would bring foul weather. 

And ^fiuid forgot her brier-torn gown. 
And her graceful ankles, bare and brown. 

And listened, while a pleased surprise 
Looked irum her long-laslusd hazel eyes. 

At last, like one w!io for delay 
Seeks a vuin excuse, ho rode away. 






"^s Th!. vorjr ocnnion feeling ha-s been treated by many different poets, and l.i a great 

""l^u^Lrm^^'uiA-rx^ " in manv mrt:* o( tlio United States, is not confined to occu- 
l«^S^^aer j^iS.1 is bul is ^--^ ^.-lly to ordinary .na,.strat«. 

, and i.» ft great 


Maud Mailer looked nnd sighed : " 
That I tlu! .Iii(lg<.'s bride niiglit l>o ! 

Ah me 

He would dress me up in silks so fine, 
And i)raise and toast me at his wine. ' 

My father should wear a l.roadcloth coat 
My brother should sail a painted boat. 
I'd dress my mother so grand and gay 
Ai..l tiio baby sho.d.l have a new toy each day. 
And I'd feed the hungry and clothe the poor 
And all should bless me who left our ,loor." ' 
The Judge looked back as he climbed the hill 
And saw Maud Midler standing still : 
"A form mojo faii-, a face more sweet, 
:Ne'er hath it been my lot to meet, 

And her juodest answer and graceful uir 
Show her wiso and good as she is fair. 

VVouhl she were mine, and I to-day, 
Like her, a harvester of hay : 

No doubtful biilanc.3 of rights and wrongs, 
Nor weary lawyers with endless tongues'^ 
But low of cattle antl songs of birds, 
And health and quiet and loving woids." 
T>iit he thought of his sister, proud and cold, 
And his mother, vain of her rank and gold. ' 
So, closing his heart, the Judge rode on, 
And Maud was left in the field alone. 
But the lawyers smiled that afternoon. 
When he hummed in court an old love-tune ; 
And the yomig girl miised beside the well, 
Till the rain on the unraked . '..v.... f^ii 









J I 


I l 


He wedded a wife of ricliefifr dower, 
Who lived for fushion, as he f(»r power. 

Yet oft, ill his nmrhh? hearth's brij^dit glow, 
Ho watclied a picture come and go ; 

And sweet Maud Miilhsr's hazel eyes, 
Ltioked out in their innocent surprise. 

Oft, when the wine in his glass was red, 
He longed for the wayside well instead ; 

And closed his eyi!s on his garnished' rooms, 
To dnMini of meadows and clover blooms ; 

♦ And tlie proud num sighed with a secret pain,- 
" Ah, that I were frey again ! 

Free as when I rode that day 

Where the barefoot maiden raked the hay." 

She wedded a man nnlearneil ami i)oor, 
And many children played round htjr door. 

But care and sorrow, and childbirth pain. 
Left their traces on heart and brain. 

And oft, when the sumnu-r's sun shone hot 
On the new mown hay in the meailow lot, 

And she heard tli<! little, spring-brook fall 
Over the roadside, through the wall, 

In the shade of the apphvtreo at, "n 
She saw a rider draw his rein. 

And gazing down with timid grace, 
• She felt his [)leased eyes reail her face. 

Sometimes her narrow kitchen walls 
Stret«*hed away into stately halls :* 

4 On " ({arnished," se« Note 50, p. 208. 
6 Wliat i^ the figure of speech ? 








The woary wl.oel to n 8pi„et« tnnH.l 

liio taJlow caii.llo nn ixsimV burne,! : 

Ami for liim who snt by tho 

■Doziiiy ami <rruiiibli 

A ninnly form at 1 


cbimiM^y Iti.r^" 


o'er jupe and mu 



J^'y wuH <liifv inni J 

u-r ai(b. sb»f saw. 

<»V(3 was Jaw. 

Then .sho took ii|, h.T burd 


Alas f 

en of Jifo attain 

"niy, "Itiui-ht have be,..."" 

For rit-h 

'"• »iiai(k'n, alas for Jud 


ivpmcr and household dnid-'e \ 

<^J<»<1 pity them both ! and 


I'ity us all. 

I'o vainly th(t dmuns of youtl 

For of all siid words of ton; 
Tho saddest are tJR'si" 

» n.'call 

'xw or 

It mk, 


Ah, well ! f, 




or us all sonio sweet hope 1 

l)eoi)ly biiriod from Imman 

And in tJie hereafter an;,'(d> 
lioU tlie stuiie from its 


eyes j 

grave away."> 




Read tho fli-»t six lines in Kntt ,.«-.. • 
•'.neaciow. . ..... ^u^r.^::::^:^^;;^ """./-i., exprc.ion. Ta... at 

!'•'-!« to '.,. lowed/- expuWvofore//^., ',!'"' l'''''' "' """*'" ^-''^^ «>"•■ 

I^i"or:rauseat"I..t": then .Wo .o '''"''' '''''''''•^- '""""'»^ "-''««l-" 

'-wan... l,ntHad..c.ri., U \^^nus^:"7fZ "" ""^ "*-'^* ^^ ""- *'> -» 

"■ "'•» line la to lino 20 u calnior ov,.,- • • *"'"-'"' "'"' 1"*"«*-' "ft.i- it 

nairative. ^ '"""-' •-''"'■-'"" "•"'^^ '- a«""ned : the pa««ago in «i„.,„; 

6 On "spinet," sec Note 3, p. 97. 

' A lamp of elegant conHtruction! 
^_ « " TI»o rhininoy corner." Tl ■ 
oril'in ' '" "'*' '''"*''^''''' ""^ •**'"'^' * 

..2'sr"' """'°' •■■«■ ■ ^- • '- ™n... ^» o„, ^„ «,. ,.,.^ 

'» »h»t is the .IJiuuoii in rLc=. 1 . 


thu laat line 


f. • 



Lino 21 : ro.nn.o the war.nth. but not strongly. Lino. 22 and 23 : rca.1 «it>> app» 
rrUUo l.ut Kcntlo. «CKti,ulttti..n. «,n.o en,,>ha.i« to " Mushed." Ilea.. 23 
Lul -^4 «UI.«ed « Will. eH.,,hu8i>. on - IhanUH." " sweeter.' " u.rcr. and 
.' never .M.affea." lleu.l lincM 2D to 28 in a pleaHant, ton.-, k^ it't?. however, to 
line 2aawunderinK a.s if the " Judt'e" «orc. a. ho wuk. thinking o( HOU.e- 

^^^ZtS\ "forgot." an.l, in a ^lighU-r deKiee. "t'own" and " ankles." 
an.l let the rinintf infleetlon ..orvu.le and «.»1 the couplet. Head the next couplet ,n 
.ofter and wanner tone ; ..i.htly c n,phc..i.c and ,.rolonK , he thue of h^tenod. Lino 
L ■ rrad "ni -hed" with a .oft treu.or ; roa. M> I" with a High, and «.vo a ri«.n^ 
inflection to " n,e." Line 'M : read " I " with ....phaHlH a..d rising inflection ; .ncre«o 
the en.phasU, with tremor and (allinj,- inflection, on - bride." 

Head from lino 87 to line 42 with eM>ulsivo force and wannth, but not loud Give 
cmplm^iH to the wonl« .lescribing her higher condition and liberality. Rea«l llne« 43 
and 44 in lower pitch, but with inor.asod warmth, changing from the to the 
Mwellimr force, and emphasising with tremulous expreH.ioii " hm.gry/ '• |K,or. and 

. " Ue^'lincH 4.5 and 40 slower and more calmly, but increase the warmth on the sue- 
ceeding couplets to line f,0. Lot this expression especially mark the rea.ling o ines 47 
a.uU8 Lines49.r.O; ...use at " •nswer " and "air." and emphasise " wise, good 
and "fair." Line. 01 and .V': ivml from "would ' to "mine very warmly, with 
rising inflection ; read " her" similarly ; increase the force on " harvester of hay 
will, rising inflection, oathe entire couplet is exelamator.v. Head lines 03 and 54 with 
rising indccti.... pervading and ending the couplet, and an expression of dislike ad- to contempt on the latter line. Lines 65 and M : lot the falling inflection 
pervade this couplet, and the expression change to one of soft warmth and treu.or on 

the leading words. 

Lines 57 and 68.- road "alstcr" with emphasis, falling Inflection, and i^use ; and 
"proud and cold" in lower pitch and sterner tone; read "...other" like "sister." 
but deeper; emi.hasise "vain," and read the ren.ainder In deeper tone and with ex- 
pression of contempt. Read line CO in soft and tremulous tones, pausing at " field." 
and prolonging "alone." Lines 61 and 62 :• empha-siso "sn.ilcd" and "love." with 
rising inrtectiou on " love-tune." Head lines 03 and 04 a little higher, hut very soft In 

Lines 65. 00; emphasise ■♦wedded," "richest," and "fashion," with falling inflec- 
tion; give' some emphasis to "he," with rising inflection, and to "(wwer," with 
increased emphasis, in contrast with "fashion," and with falling Inflection. Lines 67 
to 70: the expression now changes to a dreamy tonderncss. Ihe voice grows softer, but 
slightly higher in tone. Head line 71 deeper, with emphasis on " wine" and "rod." 
and change on 72 to a higher and softer expression, with tremulous emphasis on 
"well," and t»rolonged quanttty. Lino 73; emphasise " closed " and "eyes"; rising 
inflection on " rooms." Read lino 74 with gre:\t war.nth on " meadowx " and " clover." 

Line 76 : read lower, with treiiinlous exprcRsion on " sighed " ; then pause, and em- 
phasise 'pain." Line 7fl : emphasise "free" and "again," with pause between, and 
falling inflection. Linos 77. 78: omphasiao "free" with rising inflection, and pan so ; 
then read the remainder in dee.wr tone, but with great warmth, with emphasis on 
"barefoot maiden." 

Lines 70 82 : rea<l with a sadder expression. Pause at " man," lino 79 ; o.uphasise 
slightly " unleftrticd" and "jioor," with falling inflections. 81 : give expression 
to the three nouns with rising inflection on "pain." Lino 82: read "heart" and 


" brain " similarly. Linen 83-87 refer to lin« m „n^ u ■ . 

on l.n„ «« .,.ow the relation hy .uil . t j L to IT" " ''"""" "'"'^ '""-' ^ '"'» 

'-. "riUer" to "rein" with incrll ;„:! ^^^^^^^ 

In lino 02 a.lva,u.e with swelling fon-o to the '!..? " "' '" '""" '""-♦'' »'"* 

Linen O.Jan.l IM : naJ tlio lli>t half of ca.h of tu. ^ i. 
cach.e..on.l half .oiino.,2. with a ,«.^\l.^, " . '•:"! ""^V""""^''^ »" """SI- «nd 
ane.M.-MO,.of.n.,„.st..nUinlin ^^^Ttrt : ':t^^^^ '''.- "- '-k""ow. with 
and "Krun.blinir- in i,.,iutivo tone, an.l e .1 '. « , """^T""'' '"'""""*f ""°'='"tf 

«r an.1 as : change the cxpre.iont;::;:^':^ .:.''::;:''' T', """•*""'• •'"'- 

voice to pure and n.oro 8«ellintf uuali.v Lrd ^32.. ^. r*""''' '-"^""^""f »^« 
line 08. '^ ' "" •' • "'"^ ''"P»'abi8in(f " „,anly - u„d the noun. i„ 

Linos 09. 100; begin in low nn.l .ml tone Intro,l„nn «k 
.l»h : en.,,ha«iso " n-i^hf and " I.e.,. ' w Uh H ? " ''"'^"'"°" *""' » --"-'ht 

on "heen." The rining inflection eV'e^:;;" ''''f '"'''•*'''''«'-''«- '^ 
doubt with greater ,K,H, Th L 2 . Ic /V. 'T"''""-*' ""-' '""""^ '"- 
sadder exprcKHion. Knd lines loi aLiTrSr'! "'""''' ^'' '^■"''^''^■'' ^*'h 
"«!«<• "n.aiden.-and ••Judge." " "■""'"•' ''"''^'♦°"' ^'•" •'"'l'h"i« o„ 

Line 103: giio fervid expression to the vrnver uui, .„ u . 
"both." and .'all" Line 10« : en.plJ'iV'^adle ' T'"""^'« "" "««<'." " P«t.v." 

Inflection to "well " ; cn,ph.u,iHo "all, 'and with Ie."f„rrr " *''''" ''"'"'f 

W)n.e emphasis to "angelH" with falliMT I. « .• . "'^"""«" : P«iwe, and give 

tion. End With in.pretJien:;! Ind dignllt^'""' "" '" " "'"^ " ^'^^ r-"*.' '"«- 


Francis Parkman, the greatest historinn nt r^. 1 , 

best of nicleri, write,; c.f,, T^ fb'"" ;„ ^""f '''' ""«' ""« o^ the 
in 1823. He graduated in H /v'a nf ♦/ ' "^'?"' ^^'a««"clm.ett8, 
afte^spendingiyearh ELprireLcla'^^ "^'^ "* twentv-ot.e. an.i 
of the United States aiid Znt «,Z *• ^"""'.7 "i""^'^'' "'« P'a"''^'8 
region. The literary .e It of J, h "vn l!^ '" *''" ^^"^y '^^'"''t«'" 
entitled "The Oregon Tral." 1 s c'?^ 'o.l.r" '": «'"^* ^ "'""-' 
acoonnt of the French an.l Spa„i..h attt nn L it ^^t n",*" '"'f' '^ ^"" 

wic. ana though labor'ng uiid:?^;;:^!:,::^^?^!;^^-!-^;;;-^;; 

' "The Olfl Regime In Tanndn " frnm,i, tus ■ . . 

n.rount of the harassing otCksmadPonhe^^^^^^^^ tT""^^ i^Mou, npms with an 

that of Montreal, l-v the Indin,^ of fh. n>rv« nn« .T^ «< ' ..nents partirnlarlv 

Onondagas. Tl.o narrati* e dat es fU irtvi an?t »? • "I "T^''^^^^ ^^''^ Mohawks and 

fn the text bap.M.,„.d i-^.!^iO -f^e H u^ "" Ifj^^^^^^^^ 

I!iv..,N.nnd Montreal. In of a%-so dn^r ,„'''%''''''' ?^ Q'>c>'<'<-. Three 

he Iroquois they eontinucd to increase u.>tn,.htr^'' ""j' r-rsistont assaults of 

Indian triln,. seem to have -on o to ^' e e "Vmi mtiln to ^ "'" •■""'•''••••"ted 

one blow. Notice of this intention v .given "he Onf.hnpT.!:!,'*'^''' ' '«*""''*'• "* 
nnannov tuk^ ^ ii i iu - .. . - «'»«-" '"Mie VUenec nuthnrilinu ).<■ n vf„i 

'" •"~''"^""='"^"""*f-'--1.2<^ strong. 800 beingencam^^^ 




CA V/i n ;ax liEi u v -iiooK VI. 


«liBability iio huii tluiio much towni '< effecting his ptirpone. Ho Hm 
not proilin <l u HyitUiiiiasic work uuvt>riug tlio wimlo giouud to l»« tiu- 
von .1. This plan would nut huvo no well ^^itL'^l the con«lition"» undoK 
which ho waa compelled tu laliur, esi^ecially ub the Hcheuic wuul have 
boon liable tt» poinuiheat intm mpti. u at overy jKniit. He Ii.ih, in 
produofd "n horicH of hint >ricul \\n latives," hu\\\o of mImi.! 
waoli other cUroaolotjiciilly, but wiiicU un (iiutually Kiippii u. 
\i\H niothod i.s the to|>ical no on a largo 8uai<!, ami hia ui lungen 
HubjcH'ts Hinl cventf* in in jmliciuua as hiM literary form is perfect 



lit of 


with the 
tharma of 

the "Coii.spiruoy of I'untiac" ho has given a luMcinatin^ iiccount of 
oiiP of the nn».-<t intore^titig epi.HtxU'H of Anu'iiciii colonization. In the 
" I'ionoors of Franco ia tlio New Worltl," he KketchoM the beginninga 
of Kroncli national life in Canada iimlcr ('hampluin, and he carries on 
the tlt'si riptivo narrative in the "Obi Uoginii! in Canada," and "Count 
Frontenac and Nt \v France." Ho has announ* cd Ids inteu ion to coni- 
pleto the acconi i of Froncli supremacy in Canada, by a volume on 
" NVolr'o and Montcalm," Avhich will bring the history down to tho 
taking of (^.leboc in 173!), In addition to thrso works \v' has given, in 
one separate volume, an account of tiie missionary lain 'lie Jesuits 

in North America ; and, in another, of tho events con 
discovery of the Missi^dppi. ParkmanV works combin 
almost perfect diction, pictures(iue <lesrription, ami hist 
He has spent many years in searchini? for his facts among tho archives 
of Franco, Caniwla, and the Unite! States, and he hasvisiteil again and 
attain tho localities connected wiih prominent mciilents in onler to 
ensure topographical correctness in his descriptions. Will» the sunie 
obje«!t he has spent much time in making himself acvpiainted witli tho 
customs, language, and polity of many Imlian tribe.-;, and especially of 
the famous " Five Natiune." 

Ill u (lay or two their scouts canio in witli tidiii-^s that two 
Iro(iU()i.s cfuiocs ■\V(n*(; t'oiniiiL,' (hiwii tho Raut.^ I)auluc lia<l 
tiino t<» f-'ct liis men in anihuslj ;M|ln||^f the lmf<lu's ni a point 
where ho tlioiight tho strangers likely to land. He judged 
aright. Thi; canoes, hearing live Iri)([nois, approached, and were 

St.. LauTcnco below Montreal, niid tho rcinniiiiiig 400 *nnio <lixtoiuv tip the (Htawn. 
Bonio rcnegiMlo llnroim, who also boeii tuken prisoners, ci)iiflrm«Ml tliis account, 
and t!io colonists si'riiicd to iiuvo rcuranlid their fato as alino^t seulvd, Tliu thruutciicil 
assault was, however, warded off liy tlio qnixotir hriivery o( tho littloltaud who b> 
tlieir exploit well earned tho titlo o( "lloruesot thel.ontj Saiit." In April, Daulao oiul 
16 other volinitoers sent out front Sloiitreal to waylay and harass tlio Ircupiois who, it 
was known, liuil wintered in lartfo nunihirs up the Ottawa. Ahoiit the first of Jlay 
they reached tho foot of t!ie lupid known as tho Lonjf 8niit, wliero tliey found and 
appronriatcd an old pnlisado fort, awd wliero they were somi afterwards joined liy a 
handof foity Huron and ftnu* Al^ronquin Indianswho ha«l followed tlienifrom 
Instead of repa.riiii; tho partially dila\iidat<Hl fort, tho allies spent their tinio in attend- 
\\\)i to their own hodily wants aiid in devotional ONcrcises. A different tourss niijrlit 
liave prolonged tho stiutrnle, bat could not havo produced in tho end any very dif- 
ferent ruuult. 

s The " Lonfr Rant"— usually " Long Saiilt"— is one of tho most famous of Canadian 
rapids. It lies about half-way between Alontreal and Ottawa, tlie obstruetiun it offers 
to tho navi|;atioii of tho Ottawa rivor beintf overeomo by moans of the Greuville 

THE UEhoiiS OF THE Loxa sAi'T. 

"'ot hy n vo]If.y fire,l with such imri„it.,tinn fl . 

-f tJH.,u ..s...,....l „.n .hot, fhuli. I r^'"'^'"^'""'*"'"^*' 

--'-.. to th..i. nnua h:"';/!"^'' ''^ 

ties still slnuK over the linJ T ' ''"''"^' '''"*'• "^"t- 


«ucl. oceaHions, to InUhlin, u I' ;^''7""" ^•'•^^'.'- "" 
iiei^'hhorin. forest ^^"'"' "'*" '" l''«3 

tl i,.,,t . "'7'-""'« "'""••" -i* --wth ,.,,.1 «„„„, „ 

■,,111, ui ,1 mail, Jeaviiiir soim» tw* -.f,. i i i 

«-ln.l, .l„,,o mark,,,,..,, w..,t ^Zil^J'rPV" '""'' "' 

11. 1 WIIUI tl,„ I„„,,|,„„ „.(« l||,o„ tl,..,„ „„.„■„ T, 

ll,n I,„li™,l., ; l,„t so l,ri,k -i,,,! ,1, 1 r ''l'"^'"i."W">l''t 

.^•,. a„.I ..t ,..t «,.;,- X :' : '■" •'"' ""■"■ """ "'"y 

oti,o,. ,.tt„ck, „„.l were .„«t™ off „ il,i,,l ,■,;;• ^'"^ '""' ""- 
TI„8 da.hc.l their .pirit., „„,I tl.ny «,„t ,'. .„„„„ ,„ „,„ ^„ 

k«l(.c.i,lu,y.Ut«r«,.«,,iK^,,li;;'',',S;;-,Jf'" '^"•'■«'<»"» J»ln«l ih.>„ „"„ SS 

I' I 




















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their aid five hundred of tlieir w 
the mouth of tlie Elicheliuu. Tl 
for this untowii 
combined attack on 

ftrriors wlio liad mustered 
H'se were the allies whom 


check, they were on their way to join for a 
(t)uebec, Three Rivers, and Montreal. It 

was maddeninj,' to see their grand project thwarted by a few 
French and Indians ensconced in a paltry redoubt, scarcily 
better tlian a cattle-i)eu ; but they were forced to digest the 
atiront as best they might. 

JVleanwlul(>, crouched behind trees and logs, they be.set the 
fort, harassing its defenders day and night with a sjjattering fire 
and a constant menace of attack. Thus five days passed. Hun- 
ger, thirst, and want of sleep wrought fatally on the strength 
of the French and their allies, Avho, pent up together in their 
narrow prison, fought' and prayed by turns. Deprived as they 
were of water, they could not swallow the crushed Indian corn, 
or " hominy," which was their only food. Sonu! of them, under 
cover of a brisk fire, ran down to the river and filled such small 
vessels as they had ; but this pittance only tantalized^ their 
thirst. They dug a hole in the fort, and were rewarded at last 
by a little muddy water oozing through the clay. 

Among the assailants were a number of Hurons," adopted by 
the Iro(iuois and fighting on their side. These renegades now 
shouted to their countrymen in the fort, telling them that a 
fresh army Avas close at hand ; that they would soon be attack- 
ed by seven or eight hundred warriors ; and that their only hope 
was in joining the Iroquois, who would receive them as friends. 
Annahotaha's followers,^ half dead with thirst and famine, lis- 
tened to their seducers, took the bait, and one, two, or three at 

B What is tho figure in this word ? 

6 The Huron Indians were related to the Iroquois, and were at best somewhat treach- 
erous allies of the French. Like their Inxjuois brethren, they had, when found by 
Jacciues Carticr, made some jirojrress in civilization, havin,!,' a reffular settlement at 
H(K'hcla<ra on Montreal Island. Cluunplain's fatal mistake' was ffrantinjr aid to tho 
Hurons in an expedition a^raint^t tlie Iroquois more than a quarter of a century beforo 
the time of the incident here narrated. 

■' F.tionne Annahotaha was one of the ablest and most noted chiefs of the small rem- 
nant of Hurons who still remained under nominal French protection at Quebec. At! 
the head of 30 braves he had followed Daulac up from Montreal and joined him in timo 
to take part in the first attack on the Iroquois canoes. 

mstered iicur 
BS whom,^ but 
to juin for a 
tfontioal. It 
ted hy a few 
ubt, scarcely 
to digest the 

icy beset the 
^pattering fire 
tissed. Him- 

the strength 
'ther in their 
rived as they 

Indian corn, 
■ them, under 
ed such small 
talizeiP their 
.'arded at last 

" adopted by 
negades now 
them that a 
in be attack- 
eir only hope 
m as friends. 
I famine, lis- 
o, or three at 

somewhat treaeh- 
, when founcl by 
lar settlement at 
intiiifT aid to the 
; a century beforo 

of the small rem- 
n at Quebec. At 
}ined him in tirnu 


a time, climbed the palisade and ran over to the enemy, annd 
the hootings and execrations of those whom th(..y d.-serted 
Their chief stood fina ; and when he saw his nephew, La- 
Mouche, join the other fugitives, he fired his pistol at him in 
rage. Tlie four Algon.piins," ^vho had no mercy to hope for 
stood fast, with the courage of despair. ' 

On the fifth day an uproar of uneartlilv Veils fron s-n-^i 
hundred savage tliroats, mingled with a clattering salute of 
musketry, told the In-enchmen tliat the expected reinforcement 
had come ; and soon, in the forest and on the clearing, a crowd 
of warriors mustered for the attack. Knowing from the Huron 
deserters the weaknes ; of their enemy, they had no doul,t of an 
easy victory. They advanced cautiously, as was usual with the 
Iroquois before their l,lood was up, screeching, h-ajung from 
side to aide," and firing as th.y came an ; but the French were 
at their posts, and every loophole .larted its tongU(. of fire '<> 
Besides muskets, they had heavy musketoons" of lar-^, calibre 
which, scattering scraps of lead and iron among the^thron-^ of 
savages, often maimerl several of them at one dischar-.e. The 
Iroquois, astonished at the persistent vigor of the defence fell 
back discom(ite<l. The lire of the French, who were themsHves 
completely under cover, had t.dd ui.on them with .leadly effect 
Three days more wore away in a series of futile attacks, made 
with little concert or vigor ; ami during all this time Daulac 
and his men, reeling with exhaustion, fought and praved as 
before, sure of a niartyr's reward. 

The uncertain, vacillating temper common to all Indians- now 

eas em Quebec, ^^cw Englan, '„,! o 1^1^' ^',"'' V^** ^v,th the tribou,,.,,. .vir.^; 
8pol<en of were a clilef nainw M\IJ..L -> iiio I'rovuices. The ^I.yon<iuin.s here 

Montreal with the IIur:,,"c.l'ic?if/Sr'ho?a"h'L^^^^^^^^^ '"■"'''' ^■''° '"^' "-'"""^ "" ^^""' 

FSSl;S,^S,rSm a? them!"* "" "^' '''''' °' '^^ ^"^"^"^ ^''^ *» V^'^^'^^ the 
10 What is the figure ? Kxplain fully. 
" Short muskets with wide bore 

'^r^^^i^'^i^^:'^^ "n-rt than as individuals, 

view. = b'tut persistence m followmg up any object he has ih 




be^an to declare itself. Some of the Iroquois-- v/ere for going 
liomo. Otliera revolted at the ihouglit, and declared that it 
would be an eternal disgrace to lose so many men at the hands 
of 80 paltry an enemy, and yet fail iv take re^'enge. It was re- 
solved to make a general assault, and volunteers were called for 
to lead the attack. After the custom on such occasions bun- 
dles of small sticks were thrown upon the ground, and those 
])i(!ked them np wlio dared, thus accepting the gige of battle, 
and enrolling themselves in the forlorn ho])e. Xd precaution 
Avas neglected. Larg(i and heavy shields four or five feet higji 
were made- by lashing together three split logs with the aid of 
crossbars. Covering themselves with these ma"telets,^* the chosen 
band advanced, followed by the motley throng of warriors. In 
spite of a brisk fire, they reached the ^iidisade, and crowdiiig 
below the range of shot, hewed furiously with their hatchets to 
cut their way through. The rest followed close, and swarmed 
like hornets around the little fort, hacking and tearing to get in. 
Daulac had crannnod a large musketoon with powder, and 
plugged up the muzzle. Lighting the fuse inserted in it, he 
tried to throw it over the barrier, to burst like a grenade^* amou'^ 
the crowd of savages Avithout ; but it struck the ragged top of 
one of the palisades, fell back among the rrenchmen and 
exploded, killing and woundirg several of them, and nearly 
blinding others. In the confusion that followed, the Iroquois 
got possession of the loopholes, and thrusting in guns, fired on 
those within, In a moment more they had torn a bre; u 
the palisade ; but, nerved with the energy of desperation, x, au- 
lac and his followers sprang to defend it. Another Iweach -w^s 
made, and then another. Daulac Avas struck dead, but the 
survivors kept up the fight. "With a sword or a hatchet in one 
hand and a knife in the other, they threw themselves against 
the throng of enemies, striking ami stabbing with the fury of 

i» Thi» word U the diminutive of " Mantle." the orlprlttal meaning: o( which U a cover- 
ing, A " mantelet" in military vocabulary (9 a iieMt-hoiigo, 

14 A small shell thrown by hand, ami »o called from Its reMmhIance to a pometrranftt* 


v/e.VQ for going 
leclared tliat it 
'11 at the haiuls 
ii}.je. It was re- 
were Oil] led for 
occasions l)nn- 
iun<l, and those 
gnjf(? of l)attle, 
Xd precaution 
r five feet liigli 
.vith the aid of 
ets,"' the chosen 
tf warriors. In 
and crowding 
heir hatcliets to 
J, and swarmed 
taring to get in. 
th powder, and 
serted in it, he 
^^renadei* among 
3 ragged top of 
^'renchnien and 
3ni, and nearly 
;1, tlie Iroquois 
1 guns, fired on 
orn a brei ti 
speration, j^-iu- 
hor Ijrcach ■\\ .is 
deud, hut the 
I hatdict in one 
ni selves against 
vith the fury of 

Iff of which is a cover- 
nee to a pomsffranata- 

TJ/i' imioK, Of THE ,.om SJ or 3„, 

- ..» time «... t.; J ' . ;" , ^^"7 /■ " »!'-■'< "f life. a„d, 
fourth, ,.,, .-„..t„„at :t.i ,' , : ''" "'""' ':'" "■" ''■■"■ The 

l«tee of this «,„ri„.,, ,, ;::;;.:' ^^-"^ "«■■«" »" t>.oi.. .now. 


thought no n,orc of Q,.cKc and Jr„ ? ' '^ 

their dashed courage f„, a day of .Z^^ '"""• ""'^ ""'^'' 

? '<: 




Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, the son of the Duke of Norfolk, 
was born in 1316. Part of his lite was spent in the performance of 
military duty on the Continent, where he became acquainted with the 
poetry of Italy, whicli made a deep impression upon him. After 
spending some turbulent years at home, he was belieaded on a charge 
of high treason in 1547, a few days before the death of Henry VIII. 
To him belongs the credit not merely of exercising a relining iniiu- 
ence on English poetry, but of introducing the blank verse iambic 
pentameter — so constantly used afterwards by tlie great dramatic ana 
epic poets — and the sonnet,^ wliich had just been brought to great 
perfection by the Italian poet, Petrarch. 

Sir Philip Sidney, bom in 1554, was the son of the sister of chat 
Earl of Leicester who was one of Queen Elizabeth's favorite courtiers. 
Under his uncle's patronage, but largely on account of his own dispo- 
sition and accomplishments, he stood for a tiihe in high favor with the 
Queen ; as the result, however, of a petty quarrel, he retired to Wilton, 

1 On the history and structure of the sonnet, as a form of veisiflcation, see Ap- 
pendix A. In spite of the constraint imposed by the recognised laws of its structure- 
perhaps because of that constraint— it has, from the time of its invention down to the 
present day, been a favorite with English poets, more than one of whom have, in 
iionnets, justified their use of this form of composition. Wordsworth does so in one 
beginning : 

Nuns fret not at their convent's narrow room : 
And in another beginning : 

Scorn not the sonnet ; critic, you have frowned. 
Keats follows his example in one beginning": 

If by dull rimes our English must be chained. 
Mr. Main, in his "Treasury -' English Sonnets," quotes from the pen of Richard 
Watsnn Gilder another which, on account of its comparative inaccessibility, is here 
given entire : 

What is a sonnet? 'Tis the pearly shell 

That murmurs of the far-off, nmrmuring sea; 

A precious jewel carved most curiously ; 

It is a little picture painted well. 

What is a sonnet ? 'Tis the tear that fell 

From a great poet's hidden ecstacy ; . 

A two-edged sword, a star, a song— ah nie ! 

Sometimes a heavy tolling funeral bell. 

This was the flame that shook with Dante's breath; 

The solemn organ whereon Milton played, 

And the clear glass where Shakespeare's shadow falls ; 

A sea this is— beware who ventureth ! 

For like a fjord the narrow floor is laid 

Deep as mid-ocean to the sheer mountain walls. 
Mr. Main also quotes, in the same excellent compilation, an extract from the " Defence 
of Uyme," by Daniel, whose opinion iSi contained in these sentences : "So that if our 
labours have wrought out a manumission from bonda;;e, and that wee go at libertv 
notwithstanding these ties, we are no longer the slaves of Ryme, but we make it a most 
excellent instrument to serve us. Nor is this ocrtaine liniit observed in sonnets any 
tyranicall bounding of the conciit, but rather a reducing it in (jiriim, and a just forme, 
neither too long for the shortest project, nor too short for the longest, being but 
only imploied.for the present pussion." The arrangement of the above collection is 

2 Sir Thomas Wyatt, the contemporary and friend of Surrey, shares with him the 
honor of introducing the sonnet into English, His sonnets are extremely interesting, 
and should be represented in any collection pretending to completeness. 

from the latter clrew 1 Sm. • '"^^^^"ently to the Globe t ^0?, P^^^; 
l.oet,cai ability. 1"°™=' ""» e^PMally his Bonnete J dlila "wg"!, 

TZ. 7^ —---——-Jll ' """"^ g"eving over 

• ' f^airjc, of his 1 




I own 


the misfortunes of the Stuart kings, he spent his time in studying and 
contributing to literature, seldom leaving his interesting retreat on the 
banks of tiio Esk. 

John Milton.— For biographical sketcli see page 235. 

William Cowper. — For biographical sketch see page 75. 

William Wordsworth.— J'or biographical sketch see page 285. 

James Henry Leigh Hunt was bom at Southgato in 1784, and died 
at London in 18J9. He conuiienced to write poetry at an early age, but 
sub:iequcntly turned his attention to journalism. In the London 
Exdininer, whicli was establislied l)y him and his brother in 18U8, he 
spoke disrespectfully of George IV., then Prince of Wales. ''■ For this 
offence he was imprisoned for two years, but he lost nothing l)y so 
absurdly harsh a sentence, for it made him at once well known and 
popular amongst literary man. He devoted his lite to the production 
of poems, esaays, and sketches, many of which are of inferior merit, 
though he has also written nmch that still pleases the lover of genuine 
poetry. His sonnets are amongst his best poems. 

The soote" season, that hiul and bloom furth brings, 
With green hath elad the hill and eke the vale, 
The nightingale with feathers new she sings ; 
The turtle to her make' hath told her tale. 
Summer is come, for every spray now springs, 
The hart has liung his old head on the pale ; 
The buck in brake his winter coat he flings ; 
The fishes flete* with new-repaired scale ; 
The adder all her slough away she slings ; 
The swift swallow pursueth the flies smale ;' 

B In the libel for which he was imprisoned Hunt described the Prince Regent, after- 
wards fleors,'e IV., us a " fat Adonis of t^tty." 

6 This form occurs in other old English writings for "sweet." Barnabe Barnes in 
one of his poems, dated 1593, has this couplet : 

Thou with thy notes harmonious, and sonjrs soote, 
AUur'd my sunne, to fier mine hart's soft roote. 

7 Used liei'o for "mate." This use of "make" is common in early Enarlish. It is 
used for " husband" in the following line from "The Deluge," an anonymous poem of 

And eft amended with a mayden, that make had never. 

"Make" in this sense is from the Anglo-Saxon mnca, a mtvte, whence the modern 
English " match," and probably " mate " by change of consonant. 

8 " Float." The form in the text is the older and more correct etymology of the two. 
The root is the Anglo-Saxon /»?ofrt»i, to float, whence the English word "Heet." In the 
first 'edition of Surrey's poems the form " flote" was here used. 

9 " Small," but pronounced here as spelt. It is from the Anglo-Saxan xmml, from 
which cornea the old English " smal," with inflected pluiul " smale," as in the text. 



The boe hor honoy non- si.. .„,.,. -' 

^V.ntor,, worn that was the ilow.iVu/,. 

^'' '^'"^ V" "'""'" ""^'^ J''--»^ tJ-'^s 
J^ach cunwlecajs. .n,l y.t n.y .sorrow «pnn^3." 

- Like as a ship that throu.^h th., ocoau wide 
By conduct of some star, doth , nuke her wu; 
Out of her course .^.th wander far astray -^ ' . 

So I whose star, tha, wont with Jun- h.'id.t ray" 
Mo to direct, with clouds is overcast, ^ 

1)0 .vander now in darkness and 

Throu,lUudden perils round ahoutme'^^^^^^ 
Yet hope I wel tiua, wduM. ^ 
My Helic(s the lodestar of niy life i' 
Will shine a^ain, and look on n.e It last. 

^^h lovely li,ht to clear n.y cloudy U^ 
Till then I wander careful.u comfortless 
In secret sorrow and sad pensiveness. ' 

— : _____^ Spenser. 

12 The refcrcce in this line is to fh„ , . '''"' ' 

"leiived from thP otpBi? ^ ,P' '-^es, an. Milton's i(iea of iVis • r .•' ' ".?'''^''' Perhaps, 

of "polestar" ami ''"■/"/^"-''"''""^'''^tof "h lix - Tl'V t ■ n, ? ^ f'^'.?'""? to this 
star i J one thit shots the' war'-^LT'.;'^' "^ l' .^^V'" »- " ..Sa'xo"' C^ '^■^I'T'?' 

What is the .J^t^^ '^]^^ >■-• t^n^-e s.:.t ai. 
Of "painstaking.-.."- '"" °^ «^'^-'» -"ore literal use of the word than the ordinary one 







a. Since Nature's works bo good, iiiul death doth serve 
As ^suture's work, wliy should we fear to die T*^ 
Since fear is vain but where it iiiiiy preserve, 
Wliy sliouM W(,' fear that wliich we cannot fly ? 
Ftiar is more pain than is this puin it fears,'" 
Disarming human minds of native? might; 
AVhile (Mich conceit an ugly iigun! bears 
AVhicli were not evil," well viewed in reason's light. 
Our owly I'ves, wliich dimmed with passions be, 
•And scarce discern the dawn of coming day, 
Let them be cleared, an<l now begin to sec 
Our life is but a step in dusty way. 
Then let us hold the bliss of peaceful mind ; 
Since this we feel, great loss we cannot find." 

4. Caro-Charmer Sleep, son of the sable Night,''' 
Brother to J)eath, jn silent darkness born,'^° 
lleli(;vo my languish, ami restore the light; 
With dark forgetting of my care return. 
And let the day be time enough to mourn 
The shipwreck of my ill-adventured youth : 

15 The scntiMinnt of these two lines is a favorite with Marcus Aiirclius Antoninus. See 
"Meilitation.s," ii. 17; \ I. 10,44; ix. 2S ; i. (5. Dniniiiionil, in his "Cypressc Grove," 
reiieats the thou;rht, and almost the precise lanjfiias'o : " if Dcatii hee pood, why should 
it bee feared ; and if it bee the worke of Nature, how should it not beo yood?" 

16 Cf. Sliakespcare's "Macbeth," i. 3: 

Present fears 
Are less than horrible iinanininss. 
Compare also Wordsworth's " Kcdesiasticiil Sonnets," i't. I. 7 : 

For all thinys are less dreadful than they seem, 
n " F-vil ■' is here pronounced as a monosyllable, a practice wliich may bo accounted 
for by its etyiiiolo;,'-y. It is from the Anglo-Saxon yfd, with the same meaninif, und 
appears in old English as "cuel." "euil," "iuel," and " ifel." The cognate Scandi- 
navian form was contracted into "ill," which is a doublet of "evil." Shakespeare 
uses it as a monosyllable in " Cymbcline," i. 1, and iv. 5 ; and also in " Macbeth," iv, 3. 

H Mr. Main says of th"s fine sonnet: "It ousrht to bo read in connection with the 
noble dialogue in the fifth book of the 'Arcadia,' where it occurs. The friends, .W«- 
unliiriis and Pyroclfx, on the eve of what seemed certain doom comfort each other in 
Rl)eculations on the conditi -ti of the sonl after death ; and Mimdontu, ' looking with a 
heaxenly joy ui)on him,' sings the 'song' to his compan'on." 

Ui This beautiful sonnet may bo compared with Spenser's beginning " Come Sleep, 
O Sloop ! ", nruimnnnd's '' Sleep, Silence, child "; Wordsworth's " Fond wonls Inve oft 
been spoken" and "A flock of sheep that leisurely pass by"; and Keats' "O soft em- 
balriier of the still midnight!" 

00 What 's the figure of speech? The fancy that sleep and death are brothers is a 
favorite one with poets. 

Let waking eyo8 suffice to wail tl.eir scorn, 

P '''""^^'"'^-'"-t of thoni,ht-. untruth. 
Cease, .Irean.s, the iuntfe..s of aayWesires, 
To ,uo, cl forth the ,,aH.sio.KS of the ,„om>w ; 
^ever h,.t risin,. 8un approve you liar.s. 
10 ac d more ^rief to ag-aavate ,„y sorrow : 
Still Jet me Hleo],, emhracing in vain, 
And never wake to M the day's .lisdain/^^ 



eath are brothers is a 

- Oh ow much more doth beauty beauteous seem 
i3y that sweet ornament which truth doth give ' 
The rose look, fair, but fairer it we deem 
For that sweet odour whi.:h doth in it live 
The canker-blooms- luive full „« deep a dye 
As the porfume.l tincture of the roses' 
Hang on such thorns, and play as wan'tonly 
Vr; :;^";'"-\^-«^th their maskM buds discloses ; 
TJ It for their only is their show, 
ihey live unwooed, and nnrespected" fade— 
Bic to themselves. Sweet roses do not so ; 
Of their sweet deaths are sweetest odours made • 
Ami so of you, beauteous and lovely youth • 
When that shall vade,^» by verse distils your truth. 

c. Dear wood, and you, sweet solitary place. 
Where from the vulgar I estranged live 
Contented more with what your shr^'^. 'me give 

23 Since, because, 

2< Not looked at, unnoticed. 

^< A Weakened form of "fnHo •• tu i ., 




1 ii 

!■ i 

Thau if I had what Tlictis '■"' doth embrace ; 

Whut snaky'' eye grown jeuLjus of iry peace, 

Now from your silent horrors would me drive 

When Sun, progressiajr in iiiH glorious race 

Beyond the Twius,'"' doth near our pole arrival 

What sweet deJi-,'ht a (luiet life aflords, 

And what it is to be of bond.i^'e free,'"' 

Far from the maddirtg worldiiij,''H hoarse discords,*" 

Swroet flowery place I first did learn of thee : 

Ahl if 1 were mine own, your dear resorts 

I would not change with ])rinces' stately courts. 


7. Lady, that in the prime of earliest youtli 

Wisely hast shunned the broad way and the green,"" 
And with tliose few art eminently seen 
That labour up the hill of heavenly truth. 
The better part with Mary" and with Ruth 
Chosen thou hast ; and they that overween, 
And at thy growing virtues fret their spleen, 
No anger find in thee but pity and ruth.'^ 
Thy care is fixed, and zealously attends 

M Thetis, an ocean-goddess ; hero, the ocean itself. 

ST The epithet "snaky" ia borrowed from the Second Book of Sydney's "Arcadia." 
»8 One of the " signs of the Zo<llac." 

V) Compare Wotton's lines in his " Character of a Happy Life " • 
Hiw happy U he horn and raiight 
That serveth not another's will. 
«o Compare Grey's " Elegy," 73 ; 

Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife ; 
••Maddin^'Ms here the present participle of the old English verb, "madde " or "mad- 

5?"wJniw •" '^k"'? °' V *? ^^ ^"^^ "^'x^ »°t "' " to make mad." In this sense it is used 
by Wychf in his translation of the Bible in the following passages : 

And manye of hem sciden, he hath a deuel, and niaddith. " John x. 20 : " Festus 
Acts^xW 2f S ''""'''• ^°"'' **'°" niaddest. * * And Poul seide, I madde not. 

81 Matt. vii. 13. 

83 Luke X. 42 ; Book of Ruth. 

SI 'Pity" and "ruth" are synonymous. This reiterative expression is as old as 
Chaucer. Spenser uses it in hi« " Faerie Queene," L (i, 12. In Marlowe and Nash's 

JJido occurs the ivxpression, "ruth and compassion.' Notice the identity of sound 
in the terminal words of lines 5 .ind 8. Show how this \ inlates the law of perfect 
rhyme. The difTerence in sense is held to justify the use of such forms. 


Sydney's "Arcadia." 

_, "71 

To lill tl.y „,lor„- , 1,„„,, „,„ |,„f li ,,.. 

A.Hl 1,„,,„ that r,.„„» not „1,„,„„,. .ci,,.,,.,. „.J ,„. 

P'«o, to l,li„, „t th„ „.i,|.h,„„ „f „i.,|,t '"""'■' 

HHst «,.i„ea thy ,.,„rana, Virgin wi^o J„.i ,,„,„» 

B. Mary ! I want a Jyre with other .strhvM 

^uch aid fro,u ll.avon uh .o„u3 J.avu f^i^ncl tlu-y drew 
An eloauenco s.arco .ivon to mortals, „:.v ' '' 


That, ore through a^o or woo I sh.d n.y ^in.s 

I may roconl thy worth with honour ,luo 

lu verse as musical as thou art tnio, 

And that imuun'talizes whon. it sin.'.s 

^ut thou hast little need. There is a IJo, k 

By seraphs writ with bean.s of heavenly ii.d.f 

On the eye. of God not rarely hHd< ' 

A chroni,de of actions just an.I hrij^ht •- ' 

TJuu-e all thy deeds, my f.ithful Harv,^ shine • 

And since thou own'st that praise. I Ipare thJo mine." 

». Two Voices are there ; one is of the 8oa 

One of the Mountains- ; eaclx a mighty Voice : 

son'ne?" *""''''" **" "'« ParabiT In Matt, xxv 1 l7^ I ' 

,^^^^ ^ **^- 1-" •« continued to the end of the 

8« Stopforil Brooke remarks tlint uriltnn i., ui 
and concent! ation the 8o,,„ot ,le mand. ,?, . " ^t ?""""*« "sketches with all fh„ 


Mini— ■« mm 



In both from age to ago thou didst rejoice, 
They wore thy chosen music, Liberty ! •"* 
There came a Tyrant, and with ]i(dy glee 
Thou fought'st against lam; hut hast vainly striven 
Thou from thy Alpine holds at length art driven*" 
Where not a torrent murmurs heard by thee. 
Of one deep bliss thine ear hath been bereft: 
Then cleave, O cleave to that which still is left"; 
For, high-souled Maid,*'^ what sorrow M-ould it be 
That Mountain floods should thunder as Ijefore, 
And Ocean bellow from his rocky shore, 
And neither awful Voice be heard by thee !*' 


10. Green little vaulter" in the sunny grass, 
Catching your heart uj) at the feel of June, 
Sole voice that's hoard amidst tlie lazy noon, 
When even the bees lag at the summoning brass;** 
And you, warm little houseket'iier,'"' who class 
With those who think the candles come too soon. 
Loving the fire, and Avith your tricksonie tune 
Nick the glad sihint moments as they pass ; 
Oh sweet and tuiy cousins, that belong 
One to the fields, the other to the hearth, 

39 Woi-ilsworth was at first in sympathy with tho revoUitionary movement in France, 
but ho was alienated by tlio exco^sos which were the result of the outbreak of popular 
fury. This did not prevont liim, however, from heiiijf a lover of "national indepen- 
dence and liberty," tn which he deilicated many of his shorter poems, including thia 
sonnet. It is entitled " Thoughts of a Briton on the subju-ration of Switzerland." 

<o The French under nonai)arto subju^'ated Switzerland in 1800. 

<i AUudiuir to Great Britain- the only country that successfully resisted Bonaparte. 

■«a Compare Milton's " L'Allcjrro " : 

The mountain nymph, sweet Liberty. 

n Wordsworth himself says of the above sonnet :—" This was composed while paein? 
to and fro bef,ween the hall of Colcorton, then rebuilding,', and the principal Farm-house 
of the estate, in which we lived fornine or ton months." 

** Tlie grasshojiper. 

■<^"' Bees, when svvanninq:, it is said, are caused to settle by beating on pans, &c. Com- 
pare Patniore's "Tamerton Church-Tower," iv. 3 : 

46 The cricket. 

Clnng thick as bees, when br.isen chimes 
Call down the hivelesi swarms. 


csisted Bonaparte. 

in pans, &c. Com* 


. . ; "^-'irts, and botli were sent on earfh 
I'-doo,. and ont, .„,„„,er and wintor, Mirth!" 

quires the effule qualitieforrolee t^h'''« ^r/"*'"'"^'^''^*"'^ °' cheerfulness -re- 

-/r ;;rt::: ;=:- -:t^-. en... e.h .. ... ,,.. 

L."c 8: emphasise '.noU.viI" and Vrel: ?• ''' '"""' "'"" '^ ^^- Pdin it feZ'' 

.ne 12 u-ith increased force and n slo"" 1 Tm ""P'"'*''''' " P'«-o"«." Reaa 

to the^ast two lines. """'"^ *"»'^' '^"^ ^^^ ^" «xpre..ion of cahnor di^rdty 

troph,c ,n char^.ter, end each with a Xht I « ' '^'""^ '^ '« ^^ being a,x>s. 

t-R d r'"°'* «*Pr^«'on. ''''* '^^'"^ '"«««"'"'• Close the sonnet S 

Phasi«e'' virtue •.sTii!h\h.7„T' T""*'' ^"'P^--'"«-'-veot odour'- Line • 
and^'deaths- i„ n^ Ss." "' ^'^-v " «'-„„,. Li„en.. emphasise ' rose: "no^: 




Thomas a' Kempis, whose real name was Thomas Hammerken, 
("Little Hammer",) was born about 1380 in Kempen iitar Cologne. 
His father was a hard-working peasant and his mother kept a school for 
little children. At the age ot tw elve he m ent to a school at Deventer, 
which hail been founded at tlie instance and was maintained under the 
intiueiice of Knysbroech, the famous Hemish mystic. In 1399 he en- 
tered a convent at Zwolle, in which he spent a long and quiet life, 
dying in 1471. The convent was poorly entlowed, and the monks eked 
out a living by copying manuscripts. Thomas a Kempis was a most 
assiduous copyist, but he was an author as well, most of his works 
being of a devotional character and having direct reference to monastic 
life. The one by which he is best knowi' is his "Imitation of Christ", 
which takes rank among the most popular books that have ever been 
produced. The aiithorship of the " Imitation" has been, and is still 
disputed, but the weight of evidence, both internal and external, is in 
favor of the prevailing view* that it was written by Thomas a Kempis 
at some period during his long abode in the convent of Mount St. Agnes, 
and probably frequently re-written by his own hand. 

" He that followeth me walketh not in darkness," saith the 
Lord.'' These are the words of Christ, by which we are taught 
to imitate His life and manners, if we would be truly enlight- 
ened, and he delivered from all blindness of hef\rt. Let, there- 
fore, our chief endeavour be to meditate upon the life of Jesus 

The doctrine of Christ cxceedcth all the doctrines of holy 
men; and he that hath the Spirit will find therein the hidden 

But it falleth out that many, albeit they often hear the Gospel 
of Christ, are yet but little alFccted, because they have not the 
Spirit of Christ. • . 

Whosoever, then, would fully and feelingly uiiderstand the 
words of Christ, must endeavor to conform his life wdiolly to 
the life of Christ.* 

1 The Imitatin Chnsti was written in Latin, hut there arc several Ensrlishtransla- 

ronnioV."' Tlie'apiioHsms in the above text are' taken from different parts of the 
s John viii. 12, « Rev. il. 17. * John vii. 17, 


li thou knewest ti- > oIp ^r,^^ i i 

trust'- ; ti;::f "• ™"'^' '" ^'^" "«-i-i»i.i.« *,„, a.d ^ 

cleii: "'" ™"''^ '" ^'"^« ""- ''»--. «"1 to di^b to hi.h 

.1 '' """"^ '" ""''''' '° "- '»«. -<l not to care to live 

It is vanity to mind only this present lif. a . 

provision for those thin<.s whie , ' ™'' ""' '" '"^'''^ 

'o" >v men are to come 

Ail men natunllv ,1 , ^ •'"^ •™""'=""''"'<'-' 

■^-vied,. wittt'tL'rof'G::^''^"' "" ^''"" """»'" 

me according to mv deeds f " °'^' ™''° ^"" J'-Jge 

th'm::°:iXsh:r::';r' *": 'r'""'""- ""°-'-o-'. 

the more l>„Iy • °" ^ J"''«'^'^' '"''-» «'y life be also 

artt:!;:rtr;r''i:th:irir'''''. "---'- 

tliee afraid. knowled-Te given thee nmke 

^ I- Cor. xiii. 2. 
• 11. Cor. V. 10. 

6 Eccles. i. 2. 

» L^ ke sii. i7, 4s. 

' II. Cor. Iv. 18. 



If thou thinkest that thou understandest and knowest much, 

yet know that there be nuvny things which thou knoAvest not. 

Affect not to he ovcvwise, hut rather acknowledge thine own 



Tlie highest and most profitahle lesson is the true knowledge 
and lowly esteem of ourselves. 

We are all frail," hut do thou esteem none more frail than 


Happy is he whom truth hy itself doth teach, not by figures 
and words that pass away, hut as it is in itself. 

AVhat availctli it to cavil and dispute nuich about dark and 
hidden tilings," for ignorance of which we shall not be reproved 
in the day of judgment 1 

It is a great -lly to negilect the things that are profitable 
and necessary, and to choose to dwell upon that which is curi- 
ous and hurtful. We have eyes and see not.'' 

He to whom all things are one, he .vho reduceth all things 
to one, and seeth all things in one, may enjoy a (piiet mind, 
and remain at peace in God. 

God, who art the truth, make me one with thee in ever- 
lasting love." 

The more a man is at one within himself, and becometh of 
single heart, so much the more and higher things doth he 
understand without labour ; for that he receivetli the light of 
wisdom from above.'* 

A pure, single, and stable spirit is not distracted, though it 
be employed in many works ; for that it doeth all for the honour 
of God, and being at rest Avithin seoketh not itself in anything 

it doth. 

All perfection in this life hath some imperfection mixed 
with it ; and no knoAvledge of ours is Avithout some darkness. 

10 Rom. xil. 10. U Gen. viii. 21. 12 Eccles. lii. 10, 11. " Matt. xiii. 13. 

li John xiv. 6 ; xvil 20—23. i5 Matt. xi. 25 ; Luke x. 21. 

in ever- 

Matt, xiii. 13. 


A humble knowledge of thynelf is a surer Avay to God than 
£ deep search after learniii" 

Yet learning is not to be bhimc.l, nor the mere knowledge 
of anytlnng Avliatsoever, for that is good in itself, and ordained 
by Ciod; but a good cons:cience and a virtuous life are always 
to be preferred before it.'*' 

Truly, at the day of ju<lgment we shall not be examine.l as 
to what wo have read, but as to what we have done ; not as to 
how well we have spoken, l;ut as to hoA<^ religiousjv we have 

How many men perish by reason of vain learning of this 
world, who take little care of the serving of God. 

And because they rather choose to be great than humble, 
therefore they become vain in their imaginations. i« 

He is truly great who hath great love. 

He is truly great that is little in himself, and that maketh 
no account of any height of honour. '» 

He is truly wise that accounteth all earthly things as dun< 
that he may win Christ.'''' 

And he is truly learned, that doeth the will of God and for- 
saketh his own will. 

We must not every saying or suggestion, but warily 
and patiently ponder things according to the will of God.^i 

It is great wisdom not to be rash in thy doings,^-' nor to 
stand stiffly in thine own conceits ; as also not to beLve every 
thing which thou hearest, nor immediately to relate again to 
others what thou hast heard or dost believe. ''' 

Consult Avith him that is wise and of sound judgment, and 
seek to be instructed by one better than thyself, "ratlier than to 
follow thine own inventions."' 


l« Cf. .-Shakespeare's "Henry VIII.," Act iii., Sc. ii. : 

" And I feci within me 
A peace above all caHhIy dii;iiities, 
A still and qniet oonscionce." 
" Cf. Matt. XXV. 31-46. is Rou). i. 21. 19 Matt, xvlii. 4 ; xxiii. 11 

so Phil, iii, 8. 21 I. John iv. \. 22 Prov. xix. 2. 23 Prov. xvii. 9. 

a Prov. xii. 16. 





uroud and covetous can never rest. Tlie Door and 


hum])ln in spirit dwell in the multitude of peace.'''' 

Tnu! ([uietness of heart is gotten by resisting our passions, 
not by obeying them. 

Glory not iu wealth if thou have it, nor in friends because 
they are powerful ; but in God who givetli all things, and who 
desireth to give thee Himself above all things. 

Esteem not thyself for the height of thy stature, nor for the 
beauty of thy person, which may be disfigured and destroyed 
by a little sickness. 

Esteem not thyself better than others, lest perhaps in the 
sight of God, who knoweth what is in man, thou be accounted 
worse than they. 

Be not proud of well doin? ; for the judgment of God is 
far diirerent from the judgmeii t of men, and that often ofFoid- 
etli Him which pleaseth them, ^ 

The humble enjoy continu d peace, but in the heart of the 
proud is envy, and frequent indignation. 

Flatter not the rich, neither do tliou' appear willingly before 
the great. 

We must have love towards all, but familiarity with all is 
not expedient. 

Who is so wise that he can fully know all things ? Be not, 
thecefo'^ too confident in thine own opinion, but be willing 
to hear i judgment of others. I have often heard that it 
is safer to hear and to take counsel than to give it.^^ 

Fly the tumult of the Avorld a. much as thou canst, for the 
treating of Avorldly affairs is a great hindrance, although it be 
done with a sincere intention ; for we are quickly defiled and 
enthralled by vanity."'^" 


25 Matt. V. 3. 

2C I. Samuel xvi. 7. 

21 Rom. xii. 16. 

28 This and the few followiiifr paiagraphs contain the lieynote of much of the " Imita- 
tion," ami also the explanation of the tendency of the m. sties to spend their time in 
complete seclusion. Thoujfh this tendency was not surprisin}^ in the state of the 
\\ Olid at the close of the Middle Ages, to accept this direction too literally would leaid 
to a false philosophy of life. 

our passions, 

heart of the 


We might enjoy much peace, if we would not busy ourselves 
with the words and deeds of other men. 

How can he abi.U, long in peace who thrustoth lumself into 
.the care, of otliers, who seeketh occasions abroad, who little or 
seldom conieth to himself ? 

Blessed are the singlc-liearted, for thoy shall enjoy much 
peace. "^ 

Why were some of tlie saints so perfect and so contem- 
plative ? Because they laboured to mortify themselves whollv 
to all earthly desires ; and therefore they could with their whofo 
heart fix themselves upon God, and be free for holy retirements^ 

We are too mucli led by our passions, and too solicitous for 
transitory things. If we would endeavor, like brave men, to 
stand in the battle, surely we should feel the assistance of 
God from Heaven. For He who givetli us occasion to fight, 
to he end we niay get the ^^ictory, is ready to succour those 
that tiglit, and that trust in His grace."" 

If we esteem our jjrogress in religious life to consist in some 
outward observances, our devotion will quickly be at an end. 

If every year we would root out one vice, we should soon 
become perfect mim. 

n we would do but a little violence to ourselves at the be- 
ginning, then should we be able to perform all things after- 
wards with ease and delight. 

It is a hard matter to" forego that to which we are accus- 
tomed, but ,t is harder to go against our own will. But if 
thou dost not overcome small and easy things, when wilt thou 
overcome harder things ? 

I ell 



i I 


history of Christianity it was considered enon.ltnh »/ character. During: the early 
and amusements ; but as ncrsecS becamo*'Lr. k>^^ ''*'''»"'*'" t^^tU<>.\^ 

corrunt, retirement, ut first f.wn dties to viWTJ „ '1"%'.''"'' T'*^*'' ''^"-^'''^ '"<"•« 
solitude, was widely re Jrted to This nrat-tc™' n '^f'^''^^'^'-^,'' »« '""'•e complete 
as in th. Eastern church, and eventuaUvcon^pt.f^^^^^^ '" *^'« Wck^rn 

regarded as a sufficient sef^ratJon from the world! '" "" '°'"'""' **" ^^ »^"«™"i^ 

M I. Cor. XV. 57 ; Hebrews si. IS. 






Resist thy inclination in the very beginning, and unlearn 
evil habits ; lest, perhaps, by little and little, they draw thco 
to greater difficulty.'*' 

It is good that we have sometimes some troubles and crosses ; 
for they often makts a man enter into himself, and consider that 
he is here in banishment, and ought not to place his trust in 
any worldly tiling."^ 

So long as we live in this world we cannot bo without tribu- 
lation and temptation. 

Nevertheless, temptations are often very profitable to us, 
though they be troulilesome and grievous ; for in them a man 
is humbled, purified, and instructed. 

There is no man that is altogetlier free from temptations 
whilst he liveth on t^rth ; for the joot thereof is in ourselves, 
who are born Avith inclination to evil. 

Many seek to fly temptations, and fall more grievously into 

By flight alone we cannot overcome, but by patience and true 
humility we become stronger than all oiir enemies. 

Often take counsel in temptations, and deal not roughly with 
him that is tempted ; but give him comfort, as thou wouldst 
wish to be done to, thyself. 

Some are kept from great temptations, and in small ones 
which do daily occur are often overcome ; to the end that, 
being humbled, they may never presume on themselves in 
great matters, while they are worsted in so small things. 

Turn thine eyes unto thyself, and beware thou judge not the 
deeds of other men."''* In judging of others a man laboreth in 

31 Compare with these remarks on the formation of character, Bacon's essay on 
"The Nature of Man." 

M Hosea v. 15 ; II. Cor. iv. 17. 

33 This is the testimony of some of the very "saints" before referred to. An active 
life is for many temperaments a better safejfuard tlian a solitary one. 

34 Matt. vii. 1. 

itliout tribu- 

laborcth in 

aeon's essay on 

1 to. An active 


vain, often e.-o.h, and easily sinneth f but in judging and ex- 
aniiuing himself, ho always laboreth fruitfully. 

Without charity the (.utward work pvoliteth nothiu'. ••^« but 
whatsoever is done of charity, bo it never so little a^d con- 
tempt.ldo in the sight of the .vorld, it becomes wholly fruitful 
For God weigheth more with how much love a man wr>rketh 
than how much he doeth. He doeth much that loveth much ^n 
He doeth much that doeth a thing well. He doeth well that 
rather serveth the common Aveal than his own will. 

Endeavor to be patient in bearing with the defects and in- 
firm.t,.es of others, of what sort soever they may be : for that 
thyself also hast many failings which must be borne with by 
others. '' 

If thou canst not make thyself such an one as tliou wouldest 
how canst thou expect to have another in all tilings to thv 
liking? ■^ 

We would willingly have others perfect, and yef we amend 
not our own faults. 

But now God hath thus ordered it, that we mav learn to bear 
one another's burdens f" for no man is without fault ; no man 
but hath his burden ; no man is sufficient of himself ; no man is 
wise enough of lumself ; but we ought to bear witli one another 
comfort one another, help, instruct, and admonish one another ^ 

Occasions of adversity best discover how great virtue or 
strength each one hath ; for occasions do not make a man frail 
out they show what he is." ' 

35 Eccles. iii. 16. 

36 I. Cor. xHI. 3. 
37 Cf Luke vli. 47. Compare Coleridge's <■ Ancient Mariner," Part vii.-^ 

He prayeth best who lovcth best 

AH things both great and small. 

88 Rom. XV. 1 ; I. Thess. v. 14 ; Gal. vi. 1. 39 Gal. vi. 2. 

« r. Thess. V. 14 ; I. Cor. xii. 25 ; II. Cor. i. 3-6. 

<i The aphorisms contained in the " Imif if inn «# nv, • i .. 
forma, well as mode of treatment of the S, ji^"'^' T^' \"^'"* «' "terary 
pared ^vith Jere.ny Taylor's " Rules and E.lE. '^Ti^^ . ^e flvantageously oo.Z 





Elizabeth Lloyd (M'h- Howell) b- a native ami resident of Phila- 
delphia. Her best known composition is tlie " Prayer of Patience," 
but Hho haa also written other noenis of merit, some of which were con- 
trihuted to "The Wheat Sheaf," ft colloctiou of proso and poetry pub- 
lished at Philadelphia in l8o2. 

J. I am old and Wind !^ 

Men point at mo as smitten by God's frown ; 
Aftticted and deserted of my kind, 
Yet am 1 not cast down. 

2. I am weak, yet strong : 

I murmur not that I no longer see f 
Poor, old, and helpless, I the more belong, 
Father Supreme, to Thee. 

8, O Merciful One ! 

When men are farthest, then art Thou most near ; 
When friends pass l)y, my weaknesses to shun, » 
Thy chariot I hear. 

4. Thy glorious face 

Is leaning towards me, and its holy light 
Shines in upon my lonely dwelling-place, — 
And there is no more night. 

B. On my bended knee, 

I recognize Thy purpose, clearly shown ; 
My vision Thou hast dimmed, that I may see 
Thyself— Thyself alone. 

1 Milton's cyosiffht beffan to fail in 1044. when ho was thiity-fivo yenrs of age, l)ut ho 
did not become totivlly blind till Ui63. Uls eyes remained i.erfectly clear and without 
any external disflfrnrenicnt wluvtever. In one of his poemfr-a sonnet to Cyriue Skinner 
—and ekowhcra in his writings, he attributes his failing sight to overwork as its im- 
mediate cause. 

9 See the gonnet " On His Blindness " and his seoond sonnet to Cyrioo Skinner. 






I Imve naught to fear; 
This (laikncaa is tlus Hhailow of Thy winjr ; 
Beneath it 1 am ahnost «acml,~Ij,Mo 

Can conio no evil thiu"- 


<>h, I seem to Kland 
Trembling, where foot of n.ortal ne'er liath boon 
Wrapped iii the ra.Iiance of Thy Hink..s,s hand * 

Which eye liatli never Bcen. 

Visions come and go, 

Shapes of resplen.lent beauty roun.l me throng • 
i?rom angel li^.s I seem to Iieur the (l,.w 

Of soft and holy son"." 

It is nothing now, — 
When Heaven is rip.-ning on my sightless eyes, 
When nirs from Paiadise refresh my brow. 

That eartli in darkness lies. 

In a purer clime, 
My being fills with rapture-waves of thought 
Roll ni npon my spirit— strains sublime 

Break over mo unsought. 

Give me now my lyre ! 
I feel the stirrings of a gift divine ; 
Within my bosom glows unearthly Hrc, 

Lit by no skill of mine.^ 

—Eli'mheth Llnyd Howdl 


ridge, U m,t a i.icti.resqiio l.ut a musieal poet^ or^a. I «-«». *^"'.' " '^'^ ''"'•'« "' ^'"'e' 

^Piiifc to Milton's own poetrv. an Fnfflfsh n»wi T * *?'^ *'^°''' ••'•"""ritv in fo.ui and 
recently recovered j.riluTt 'on o the KS^^^ *''«■". ^^^ 

ilcr the title of " »fllt.,n on his iX/^f Sll h/- rv ''J," '"' *""""" "' ^''*' worli», un- 
'ill'ouff^t'A^^mmBonthstam^nnhi^^^SA fi^L'"'""!??" •''"•«'"^' the'i" presence 

thame ha. ben so often mistaken for his ow^^^^ author that her troatment of.uch a 



^W.'^*^^^ ONE OF ANOTHER." 

Tffi lliWltt III III hi '•"• near Biaiitfoi''!, OlttAiio, in lM-2.'3, aiul received 
his eaity ' education li, l|i« lit»tivc plaoo. After Hpomling h«iino tiiuo 
ii) an SKHiili iiiy in Nt;\v York lie tyok a uiiivnivity course in Victoria 
Ocilt^e, Cobourg, of \vlii<;li, on tlic retirenitMit -f tur Rev. Dr. HyorHon in 
J|J(I50, he lif amo President. Since that time ho ha« liUed continuously 
tll# w(>i»i8iou8 of Presidentand Fi /feasor of Mental and Moral Philosophy, 
and hiy^ confer- '. gj-eat hcnefit on l Iio institution by in's eHorts to extend 
its sphevi' sii <R)f»ratioiiS and to secuie for it ^ permanent and ad<'(itiato 
endowment. IJr, Nelle^ lias been a teacher ther than a lUtf^mti'ur, 
but Huch produetujns hh have appeared from Iuh pen show him to bo 
master of a vigorous and cH'ective style. 

EilucMlcd nuni uuJ luicducr.ttid aro mombcvs oiio of another. 
The men Avlio toil with tlio Ixaiii and the ni(;n Avho toil with 
the hand aro in co-pnrtnership, hound togetlnn- hy the closest 
ties of reciprocal help and ()l)lij,'ation. This is sometimes for- 
gotten by men of culture, especially })y men of narrow or un- 
generous types of culture. They have a knowledj^e that puf- 
fetli up, hut not the charity that l)uildeth up. They become 
infected with the spirit of haughty exclusiveness, the coldness 
and the pride of a spurious refinement. They aro of finer clay 
than the common humanity.* They are of the head and have 
no need of the feet.'^ Young men fresh from college aro some- 
times tainted with this disease, and venture even to look scorn- 
fully ui)on the homely garb and homely ways of the very father 
and mother by whose tender love and sore self-denial they 
have secured tiio slight elevation from which they aifect to look 
down upon the rock whence they were hewn. And in other 
walks and phases of intellectualism the same miserable vanity 
may be detected. But liis' enlightennrent has not advanced 
very far who has not yet learned tliat without the mechanic 
and the farmer there could bo no scholarship or philosojhy. 

1 What figure in thia whole sentence ? What figure In the word clay ? 

2 See I. Corinthians, xii., 21. 

a This use of the possessive as nn antecedent is not uncommon : the adjective force 
of the word, hcnewsr, is lost in that of the pronoun. In this construction the i)osses- 
sive is quite empl ' tic. There is no necessity for regarding his as equivalent to o/ him. 



I!v,',''r,,::: ■;';;;:'''"■""""'■• ""■ "^•'"''"'- •""»" ■'-*' """'••'"- 

"" ''" '""' '""- ■■ '""1 if 'l-ro w,. ,. „„ ,„ill,., ,1 ,,,,„ J, 

nt .ill u-l. ■. ■ ■ , ' "'""'"P. H, iiicl,.,.,!, „i,jr Htho arsliii, 

;7:,"' "•"-"' -".v,,,w:;;,,„;;:';;,/;,;:;;:j:'r^^^ 

i>'.ui,. «,.,„H Will, .,,.,, it i, ^, ,,„,,„,,„ ;,;™ ■ 

,..,„.„.,. ..„ „ by tl.o r„,,„ l,a„„. of ,„n. Tl,„ ; , I ; 
; '"' "f tl.o „„„,„„„ ,u„l „„l,.|t,„..,l I „Mitv 1...10W. 

'"■'■ il"^ »<h«la,» ox.,„pti„„ fr„,„ ,„„„„„| t„il is , „„,. 
'"'7' «""'l-ti""-rurchas..a by >l„, vi„„,.i„„s ,In„l!. ' ' | 
"-'"' P"v;'rty of .„a„y ,.o„o,.„ti„„., of „,„„. This is a t , h o 

•lont ..nou,h „„ .,..|l..tiou,l,„. th„ po„ot,,,ti,„„.„s f":,, ; 

only ,livi„„ roli,.io„ ,vl,i„|, „„t ;,,,,,,. , ;^™ ,„ spirit of ,,.,u,oH, „,„ »,„. ■.":'::' 

any o.a,,„,.„s to .„„. ,,„, ,,„,„,.,,,,„ ^|,„ „ ^^ 

nt. 1, ;t oft<.„ ,,.,. on t|,e „fc,ti„„, jho ,,l,ilos„ ,1,,,,. ,„„, -.^ 
deod a,sc„v.,. I,H „.,li,„aio,„ to t,,„ J ,,„ „,; 

ttt".;: ' r: '",'" "" "- ^^'""'^ -^ '•"•■■'"-■ - 

... Mvc, a,„l t.,uk.,. sy,„patl,y ,vl,i,.l, ,,,.,.„!» ifadf to tl o 
■■0 a.„„„. at s,.l, „ttai„,„o„ts, t.,o„ I ,„......,, ;;;,,:' 

It »J ' "'"'"'■'"•'1. «t It-aM l„ ...oXrn 2^° 1!„ ,i" "1" "."' ». •™i'llti".ial vnrb. 

J «.im oT-ow. g Substitute thn noun tnr «l,i„i, .• .•<. . .^. 

- 'V =ta: 

Indicate the fljfure 




any timo a man whose .hands are hardened by toil, whose feet 
are ludcn with the thick clay of tlie held, and whose air and 
gait betoken the severities of his hoiuciy lot, then, with a c^nick 
and tender cordiality, lay your soft white hand in his," letting 
him feel how mindful you are 6f him as a brother in the com- 
mon work of human advancement, — as a bntther, too, tlirongh 
whoso vicarious exclusion you have founil adnussiou within the 
temple of science and letters.'" 

Conversely, the man who toils with tlie hand is dependent 
on the man who toils with tlie bniin. Sometinuis tin; hanly 
workman of the shop or held looks askance Avith an envious or 
jealous eye upim tlie scholar and niiia of science. lie is thought 
to bo a kind of geiitleuiiui, an idler or a drone, a superfluity, if 
not a burden, \\\Mn\ the great body politic. lUit ever ineinor 
able are the words of Bacon, that the end of science is *' the 
relief of man's estate."" The relief of man's estate in the shop, 
in the fitdd, in the home, in the street, in the hospital, in the 
senate-chamlKU'.''^ It is the poor man, the comniou laborer, that" 
is most reliev(Hl and comforted by the discoveries of science. 
The rich man by means of his wealth cnn always command 
the advantages of life, but if ever there is to be an uplifting of 
the toiling multitudes, a mitigation of their hardships, it must 
come largely from the applications of science. Xo one should 
so sing the praises of science as the man of toil. The collier, 
descending into the damps'* of the mine with his s-afety-lamp'* in 

B Show from tho context if " hand " is the otily word to he BuppHcd after "his." 

10 Express In plain laiicuage the nicanlnu: from "throu(rh"to "letters." A tcninle 
jyas doiiicato i to soino pod who was Bupposod alwavu to be present In it; oso who 
were ha\^ " to grain admittance to tho temple," enjoyed tho favnr of the ^od and there- 
by rccoiN od an immortality ;— a sort of npotheoslu took place, This, however, is hardly 
|;he meaning ot tho expression in tho text. 

11 Tho tifate, or condition, from Latin HtattiH, 
ja Remark the example of aparithmc«i.'i. 

;s On tho construction of this relative clause boo Abbot's "How to Tare," 1(>9-1(I2. 

x*Th3 poisonous ^ascs of minoj arc known by tho names "firedamp," "choke 

i» The safety lamii was invented by tho celebrated chomlst Sir Iluniphrv Davy, in 
1816. Tho essential foatiua of tf'olainp in a coverlni^ of fine wire ^aiize, which, on ac- 
count of the heat-conduotlnff proportyoi iron, jwvonts tho flame of tho lamp from 
ijfnitin^ the highly cxpiasire tnistUrc o; air and firvtiaiiip oftcii fouru! lii m'lrsS.?. 


his hand, should si,.g tlie praises of science. Tlie fanner hav 
ng la.d asKle old-fashioned in.plen.ents of husba Z ;'l 
•l^ng snugly on his cultivator, or reaper, or n.ower should 

now the ,nola„cl,oly " S„„g „f the S rt - It ' ■' "''' 
oliino doin.r i,, „„ ],„,,, ,, ° , ""' "'"' '>"' "«'"■,« nul- 

ling ..h„ p,;.:;:/::;':,^ "" °' "-^ ^"""^^ *'^-'' «"»•"'• 

ana ■.e,-o„::» :;t 112 :::::.::'' -;::, "r^' 

fruit '' Vn J ;»'"'' *^^^ ^^''^^''"g eorn, tlie mellow 

8.n.pso„ Of Edinburgh, at '[ho 4SX: oU^Su n°.„S''S^- '" ^^^'''l^". 

18l5rit"btSl;«"i"^« «'"■'*•' «- -•**- in 18.8 by the poetlTho^as Hood (1798- 

With I'.velids heary and red, 

A wonian sat iti unwonmnly rairs. 

^'>''"«' her neetlle and threJl." 

."•Oommont Unon thrtnr>«II/v,»,ti;t.. -» it._ . „ -- 

ai«o upon the extension of the n,c tapho/hahe"^t" o^lb" «e^ connection, and 




the man of action. His suggestions of higher truth and hotter 
methods sliine afar upon the darkened sky and teach the prac- 
tical statesman how " to take occxsion by the hand, and mako 
the hounds of freedom Avider yet." " We are all your pupils," 
said the prime minister of the British Cahinet to Adam Smith, 
the Avhole cabinet rising to do him reverence, " we arc all your 
pupils, Mr. Smith. "^ Let the laboring people, then, every- 
Avhere, bo thankful for men of thought, and let them rejoice in 
all things done for the endowment of universities and schools of 
science. Let them feel that science is remote only as the sun is 
remote, and that, like" the rays of tlie sun, it is full of light, and 
•warmth, and power. Like the light of the sun, it travels swiftly 
and beneficently to the abodes of the people. Like the light of 
the sun, it lies not sleeping upon the summit of the hills," nor 
plays idly upon the high mountain peaks ; but it pours its golden 
flood down along the valleys, out upon the plains, abroad upon 
sea and shore, carrying everywhere to earth the beatitudes'" of 
heaven, making the tiniest insect flutter with new pulsations of 

joy,^* and verifying to the world the saying, that, — 

" Not a lily-muffled hum of summer bee 
But finds some coupling with the spinning stars. "25 

Like the light of the sun, it gilds not alone the dome of the 
rich man's palace, but penetrates into the half-darkened window 
of the poor man's cottage, solacing him upon his bed of pain, 
and making poor and rich alike to exclaim, " Truly the light is 
sweet, and a pleasant thing it is for the eyes to behold the sun." 
The diflerent departments of learning, and the various facul- 
ties of a university, are members one of another. Members one 
of another, too, are all specialists in science or literature. Re- 
ciprocally, they feed and are fed ; reciprocally, they borrow and 

20 See Green's Short History of the Eny:lisli People, chap, x., sec. ill., " Adam Smith." 

21 Point out and name the figures in the rest of the paiajj:raph. 

22 That is (in the application of the fig:ure) science does not benefit the rich and the 
learned alone. 

23 Ileniark on the use of "beatitudes" in this connection. 

21 Is the expression " malting— joy " literal or metaiihorical ? Show which it should 
be. Conunent in the same way upon " Truly— sun," six lines below. 


I'uii: m:::: siEi.c:V:c:U. vOmiiicim uii liiy-UlUuifii us a puciiCa: cpUnct. 


ii., " Adam Smith." 

lit the rich and the 

'ciiCa: trpiLiici, 

- 389 

for a,-.,.„„„,. ■J::z^^L^^i:^:,:z:^- - -« 

I<n.g,Ioms a,„l provinces =« AT,,., . t , " '™'''" '"'" 

• anim.-,)., ,„„1 each ,' n ,■ f ' *'""' ""' '''"'"■''' P'""'' "« 

ha,l bor;<„ve, T,:t ; " "'■■''/"T.."'"' '" '■^•''"^ ^"•■" " 

iso i,ul„fi„itelv, ru LrLtol, ■'■■"' /"°"''''" '""' ^P™'"'" 

>-- losing v,,or;:„Tb;,z^^^^^^ 

fed,, .nindof its own Z,o "?"''"'"'"■ " "''"^ 
groat l,a,.n,ony of ti,e Ivo w th T """* "™"""""^ ''- 

" broken liJs " of tit T ""'•™^'^" foliage, and its 

iiJo"ts o' "le rainbow spread over ftll r Tl, . i.- 
tmlnious trees still '■ clap their liand, •"' TT , ! ■ '"'" 

praise of tl.eir Creator I T n , ,""* '''™* '" ""'^"" '1'° 

liLated science, of •;;■, ^n!^^' T 'T "' "'' '' 
gronn.l and the defe„co of d v i "'"''"S''"™ "' ""'"•o the 
,:>OH..l,ti Wl,.f "" "^ '»'»■• i"'l'e world of 

«:wics:,it^:ra;'«';.tt""r^! '^'«' *'-"»- ol 

plication to co„;tte""ittt tin" '. '"'"'""" "P" 

or tlncliness and of nm^ , ' . f ''""' *'"'""' '"'^''''''b 

ti.ic>^-"ess. hi,:' Liii:::,:''' ;r::r'-;-^^^^^^ 
oabie;...hen::;,j;:: ™::;~^^^ 

astronomer ol.ennsf 1 f /"''^ ^ celestnj clmriot on M-hich 

science, ri^'e ^^^ ^^"'^T' 'V '""'' "" '■'™ "^ 
..ifioent discoveries contributf n ' '" "■"' ^'^ "'"'' "'"«- 

which ,.ive rise to hir f 7 '"™"'"''^^ "'"^ «'Sgostio„s, 

2' What is the rhetorical figure ? 






chapter in Herscliel or Proctor, ^^ scarcely can determine whether 
he is borne aloft upon the wings of imagination or of science, and 
must feel assured that the dreams of the jioet are destined to 
brighten and expand forever Avith our uvcr enlarging concep- 
tions of the universe. The ideals of the poet will he succes- 
sively transcended and enriched hy the realities of God, and re- 
ciprocally again, as TyndalP'' teaches, there will always he '' the 
scientific uses of the imagination." 

2« Sir John Hersehel, (1792-1871), a most eminent astronomer: lie wrote 
boolis on astronomy, and was tiie first to popularize that Hubjeet. 

Mr. Tl. A. I»roetor is a prominent astronomer of the present day ; he has written a 
number of books on astronomy and science generally, all of an exceedingly interesting 
character, *■ 

29 Professor Tyndall, the " poet of science," is one of the most enthusiastic scientific 
men of the day ; his numerous works are all written in a clear, iucid manner, and 
many of thoui display strong powers of imagination. 



"Washington Irving was boi-n at New York, April 3, 1783. After 
passing through tlie ordinary schools of the day he entered upon the 
study of law ; but altliougli he was ultimately admitted to the bar, he 
never practised, — anything like set, systematic work being altogether 
distasteful to him. His constant companions were Goldsmith and John- 
son, the novelists of the eighteenth century, Swift, Addison, Shakes- 
peare, Spenser, and Chaucer, traces of whose influence are everywheie 
visible throughout his works. While he was thus laying the foundation 
of that charm of style so characteristic of his writings, his love of nature 
was cherished by frequent rambles among the noble scenery intheneigh- 
boriiood of New York, and his keen powers of observation found an 
ample field in the oddities of the descendants of the early Dutch settlers, 
and in the al)surditiea of the political and social life around him. In 1802 
Irving began his literery career with the Old Sty;, Papers, a series 
of humorous contributions to a paper started by his brother. Ill-health, 
however, forced him in 1804 to go abroad for two years. Failing after 
his; return to receive a government appointment, he joined a friend in 
editing Safmnfiundi. In 1810 he became a partner in business with 
two of his brothers, receiving a share of the profits, but doing little or 
nothing of the work, one of the brothers being unwilling that he should 
engage in anything that interfered with his tastes or pursuits. For the 
greater part of the two following years Irving was editor of a magazine 
in Philadelphia ; the regular lal)or that this demanded, however, ho 
found quite uncongenial to his disposition. 

In 1815 Irving again went to Europe, this time, as it proved, for sev- 
enteen years. Not till the bankruptcy of his business firm in 1818, and 
his failure to obtain diplomatic employment, did he finally decide to 

: he wrote several 


solve. He auw visih.,] t...; ' ^^*\*'"' '"'^t product of this new re- 

In 182y, whilelivm^i .tZ,l 1 \ • ? '? ''^'^'■^'■>' '"^■" «^' ^'c time 
■he received from the Udto SH?" ' '-'^^'''" "^ *''" Alhanil>ra iu Spih 
Secretary of Legation at £ do^^S'T'T'* *l" ^l^P?»^'"e,/t of 
years, retunuug°to Auierk^r a Miv feo^'^'^'aM" ^'^ ^^"'^^ ^^"' ^'^'^'^ 
passed ia his ,Tative laml D ,■ „.f tl/if n • I'f "^''t t^" y^ars he 
works; projected, and in narV " A^l ^Z'^'^ ''° produced several 

Mexico, i^iviag it'.:^tuX\:;^^';t"^^'it ''' *•" ^'^"'i"-* ^^ 

same tlienie ; made ton .« ; .. , . ; i • . • '^^^"'^^ ^^'^s engaged oa tlie 

Mississippi /and a «e era led ;:"' •^"i"," *"•'"«' «»« to the\tst of ti e 
acou.ta&^ /its o'f ^.Si^ Hi:^;.^;^! a cent's" '^"^ M *"'"-'^ ^'^ """ 
bank of his loved Ilu.lsoa nearTan-ttou t^ ^, oa the east 
tares ia .S/eepy //o//o,.^--H4s theieso t o^ theadven- 

lioaie of a family of orphan iiiecesflndnf ^'•"■'"'^^"•' adn.irers, and the 
was nominated for mro" of New Yn, 1 ""f^ ^'■''*'''''"- ^" ^^'^^ he 
offered a seat i« t' e CaWn^f.f \vT .1' ^»'' ««"" afterward he was 
honors he decliaed : hfs s^ns.t ve ra^u;?. ."."^ ?"?'' '^ *'"'^« P^-^'^^^^d 
bitter personal politioa of fl . * • f.'"'''"'' ^'O'" '"mgling in the 

United Estates LClIr 'to* tL'^Wt o''sn '^^^ *« 1«;^« '^e wi: 
l>e returned to spend his remnin.n , 7 : P'^'"" ^" *''« ^^"er year 


tcS^'n^iSr^^^^ a serial in- 

castigatethe age." It was very no. n^^ l .i i' ?'"T' *''« t«^». aad • 
of New York, a burlesque hist^o?v o thl t* ''^^^^'^ ""^y ^ year. JJistory 
found ia manuscript in^t fe c ainLr o n! *f*^P"^P^'•^'"g ^o have been 
gentlenmn who \Z late y d a " ea.el Thi • f '"•'^k^'-bo^kcr. an old 
work, abounding ia rich luimo? «ni „«. i /' Ivvmg^^ most original 
of the descendants of .tl4 old Du clf .^H "'''* •"'^ ^* *'^« ^^P«»«« 
keen satire on the custom of societv I'l' T'^^""'^ «^**^" ^'^^^ 
Sketch-Book (1810) comnletP, in i«on ^,f' "^ "^ governments. 77<« 

taining somJ of Jis'^bSlt ! t'lo^C^t^^r^ ^'r''^ ^'^^^'^ -"' 
otherwise. Bracebriihip Hnll n 8oo\ • ", ' P*^''«t'«. descriptive, and 

(1829), written maLl^lTsevn^^^^ nottrstoW ' fl^'X "^^^'l-^^ofGrenJla 
picture of the war, and one somewV-^f ^''^'v^'"*'?''^'^^^^ 
inuch of the material havS^^^^^^^ «f tl^e times, so 

Voya^ of the eor«p«n;o« VS S/ 1^ historians. " 

beautiful Spaaish '•Sketch-Eook ' f i l^30),^/Aamim (1832), "a 

gant and Jinished style " S a,/7« 1'"^'*' ^"'"^ ^" *'"' ">"«* ^le- 
sketches. including T^r or, }TprnfZf7,l\^^^^^^^^ tales and 

(1836), principally an account oTt^f '" r^' ""T'^ ^^ 18'*^«- ^-^^'^ 
of the Coluinfca River ryolmJaob Zo^^^ '/ ' f ^T>^ "* ^^^ '"«"th 
of Captain BonneriUe (IHV) fm S {\ '^ /"*' *''''^''e''- ^'fmntures 

while exploring the RocI I' Vj'^'^f ."P°" t'^e journal of a U. 3. officer 
Hoost (1855). .;i,:nlS:?¥. ?I°""<^^'".« ^"^ the Far West. wZj, 
" " """ ■' "' "" ^oncriDutioas to the "Knickerbock 




I \ 

Magazine" iii 1839. Life oj Goldsmith (1849), a charming biography, 
being an enlargement ot a former sketch, and containing the resullH of 
the researches of other biographers of tioklsmith. Mahomet and h!a Sue- 
cestiors (IS'M), a popular historical work containing notliing ongnial— 
the least valaal)le of the author's historical woi ks. Life, of Wa.shiiifjton 
(1855— 1859), tlie Avork of many anxious years, a "noble capital for his 
literary column." It is Irving's most elaborate production- a labor of 
love, in preparing which the author lived in constant fear that death or 
failing powers would prevent him from completing it. 

Irvin-'isuotdistinetively an American writer : his own good sense, his 
readiness to see an<l appreciate what is good in others, his long resi- 
dence abroad, his familiar intercourse with the great men of other 
countries, his delight in the scenes of ancient grandeur and in the gor- 
geous legends of chivalry as well as his love for the natural scenery ot his 
native land— all combined to make him cosmopolitan rather ihan Ameri- 
can nnd to render him incapable of narrowing his mmci to one country, 
or V . y or sect. Apart from his historical works, his aim was to enter- 
taiJ not to instruct or reform, mankind ; hence he is said to have no 
moral purpose in his writings. But he is everywhere pure and healthy 
in tone— the man himself was pure ; he does not attempt to analyze 
human character and human motive, or to examine the workings ot the 
human heart ; but he excels in delineation of character as well as in 
the description of natural scenery and of incident ; he is objective, not 
Ribiective. His kindly nature did not allow his humor to hurt any- 
body • though childless and wifeless he could enter heartily intothe sports 
of children, and dwell with tenderness on scenes of domestic happiness. 
No writer, not even Goldsmith, more clearly shows the man in his Avnt- 
incrs. Irving was deeply sensible to the beauties of nature, ami his 
descriptions, minute in their detail, bring the scenes vividly before 
ns because they are vividly before him. He had a keen sense of 
the ridiculous and the odd in tha eociety around him ; he enjoyed it and 
makes us enjoy it in consequence. His-humor is hearty ; it la never, as is 
sometimes the case with Goldsmith, the sparkle on the surface of a 
tear : the smile in his reader's eye is but the reflection from his own. 
His satire is always good-natured ; he never indulges m invective never 
purposely wounds or holds up to ridicule ; he is amused at the follies ot 
people rather than disgusted at them. His pathos is as natural and true 
L it is tender ; for he draws upon the memory of Ins own sorrow-the 
death of the lady to whom he was engaged to be married, andnvhose 
name he never afterwards uttered, even in presence of lus closest friemb 
No truer pathos exists than is found in The Broken Heart, Ihe \\ idow 
and her Son, The Pride of the Village, and The A\ ite 

As a historian Irving does not rank high ; he had not the patience 
necessary for the careful laborious researcli that history demands ; but 
he is alvvays interesting, and in the main animated and graceful. He 
chose only those themes that were congenial to him. either through 
personal sympathy or through the charm they had for him on account 
of something heroic or chivalrous in them. , • -i. x i „„„ 

Irving, though not original in style, never consciously '«>^tatef ^"J 
other writer; but the student of Goldsmith and Addison will readilv 
perceive whei'ice the inspiration came. Tlie leading characteristics of 
lis style are ease, grace, simplicity, purity, clearness, and finish, 
ni^ siyie Hie ^ ^ ^ fe ^^ :.„;„„f f„„H,r nnnat.rnctions. inaccurate exprea- 
Iiis nice uioic iuu nil" fj iv.jvi V J 


fiions, and unmelodious combinations Hi^ ««<.Ar.«« r.t t » 

[The following^ Tale was found among tlie papers of the late 
Die(hnclx Knickerbocker,^ an oM gentleman of New York, wlio 
was very curious in tlie Dutch' liistory of the province, and tlie 
manners of the descendants from its primitive^ settlers. His 
historical researches, however, did not lie so mucli amon^^ books 
as among men ; for the former are lamentably scanty "on his 
favorite topics, whereas he found the old burghers, and still 
more the.r wives, rich in that legendary lore so invaluable to 
true history.' Whenever, therefore, he happened upon a genu- 
ine Dutch family, snugly shut up in its low-roofed farmhouse 
under a spreading sycamore, he looked upon it as a little clasped 
volume of black letter/ and studied it with the zeal of a book- 

history ?J^J"oVSr""o2tS"^^^^^^^^^ 

teristic protest against the mS i,? wK ferv ^.t^ ''"r ^'"-' *'*''''' l""-^ i'' * 'h^^'^e- 
of theearly Dutch colonists t^s^^liZZ'Sxckli >Jhw"*'' "'^"«*'' '^ descendants 

that Kave trreat oflfence to these ,ieoplo who seem t> havj h"^ "" ^^T^ Yo'-k."-abook 
its rich humor. Ir^ ii.ff indicates in his own uav f h» il^ f ^^'-'" ""*•'''' *» appreciate 
the hook, with an an.using rXl^ te to itrDcnul'ar^tv Z*^";'/!!*'*''^"'''' ""'' P"^'««« "' 
that it is absurd in anyoni to be a'n'iy fJlS a &i^^ """' "'"^ "'"""'*=' 

describing his^wn chapter and fLt^s!"'' ^°°^ '"°'*''' ^^''^ '''« ''"^^or is here 
flrst?oexSorfnmm'il^ Hudson, an Englishman in the service of the Dutch was the 

hi. sUtcn, I. °' '"' "•"»''™. «n<l »' lil> orniotj to be preciie In 




The result of all these researches was a history of the pro- 
vince (luring the reigii of the Diitch governors,^ which he jmb- 
lished some years since. There have been various opinions os 
to the literary character of his work, and, to tell the triitli, it is 
not a whit^ better than it should be. Its (tliief merit is its scru- 
pulous accuracy, which iuleed was a little questioned on its 
first appearance, but has since been completely established ; anil 
it is now admitted into all historical collections as a book of un- 
questionable autliority. 

The old gentleman died shortly after the publication of his 
work, and now that he is dead and gone, it cannot do much 
harm to his memory to say, that his time miglithave oeen much 
better em])loy(;d in weightier labors. He, however, was to 
ride his hobby his own Nviiy" ; and though it did now and then 
kick up the dust a little in the eyes of his neighbors, and 
grieve the spirit of some friends, for whom he felt the truest 
deference anil aifoction ; yet his errors and follies are reme - 
bered " more in sorrow than in anger," and it begins to be sus- 
pected that he never intended to injure or offend. But however 
his memory may be appreciated by critics, it is still held dear 
by many folk whose good opinion is well worth having, partic- 
ularly Ijy certain biscuit-bakers, who have gone so far as to im- 
print iiis likeness on their new-year cakes, and have thus given 
him a chance for immortality, almost equal. to the being stamped'" 
on a Waterloo medal, or a Queen Anne's farthing,"] 

slsted chiefly of leirenils, tales, &c., thoroughly believed by the readers. Develop the 
comparison in tlie text. 

I These wore Wouter Van Twiller, Peter Kieft, and Peter Stuyve8ant(uj/=t), whose 
rule is so graphically described iti the " History of New Yorl«." 

8 " Xot a whit " contains a tautology : not itself is a compound of na (negative), and 
whit, a thing. 

9 Remark here tliat the author intimates he will write as he pleases. Explain the 
metaphors in this connection. 

10 For this construction see Mason's Grammar, sec. 20O-1, and note; 470 and note. 

II The " Slietch Boole " was written in England, but first published in New York. 

, - aii' VAN WINKLE. 395 


By Wodeti, God of Saxons, 

Truth H a, tluii- that ever I will Jteon ^ 

Unto thylk(.i2 day in which I can creep into 

My sepulchre -CartwrighL 

fro.,, chiefly the .-eoitatioi, of old ^l.'.t wo t* ' C 1?^-^^ t«,l<on ,|„wn by 
leirendH l.y .Jifferent „er«o„., a„.l^W to ^e rekh ir rom Sc^^ •■.•^'"""' 

of those ...r^.ht be >..:ule the four.datio,. of an eL'elu; 1 1 rv '"'" **'"* '"'"" 

In the charaotcrist.o note at the end of Kip Van Winkle IrvinLr ln,ii„„t *. 
Of his 8tory-the le^ of the f^n.peror i^ei e iJk Ii,i, l.i vV *" '"'''^t^s *h" ""Jfiri ^ 
lege..d the oM emperor had not .licll but at e , le i l 1^^ i^^^^^^^^ Aceonlinj. to this * 
oharnied sleep in an underLMound "as le of tl... Kv^,. o.. '»"' '<'"if''f''. «as in a 

parted, in order to rosto.o then, m.oj .n ,x> Tl^e a.tenda t klu hf",^'"'''r '"'•' •^'^• 
One Peter Klaus, a vj-la-er, while wa.uierinLr in f lw> , ^/ . • ''*'^'''^ have been seen. 
of men in anti(,ue ffarb ; a er bei.. " co .rteous onf. m"^'!"."' "!''' "'*'' '' "»""'«•• 
home only to fi.ld tlmt he had becM ab.x' t twe, • u rs Otl er ^sfn^"' '"^ '''''''^'"^ 
resen.blinjf this are current amonj. the Oer.nan peatinlrV *°""*' ""^'^ °'" ''^^^ 

land Zw^ wo^V^^k^ a viy X ea^lh ';V'Ue Ou^^^ "\ *'"^""'" ^-'^^■ 

from time to time on various erramU \L f, . *i!"''^,".«' I'^'-'-V hand, and who returns 

Ho,.«'s '. Kiln.en; "; th famous Ke,„'?f V f .'-^'a '{'.[^'/'"''^ "^ ""-' ^Z^'"'"''"^' «^'*"*.v = 
believed in by the \VeUh (see (/reenc's ''^ V]Z" '*"d„^^'M'e,sistently 

I.) In the ..Pass^n, ofAUur^! Tlnnltn^^^lJ';^ SS^Su/S •' ^'"• 
I peris'h by this people which I made - *" ■''"^'""'^ ^^^ •— 

. m , ^if^r.m sware that I should come awiin 

■ To rule once more." ^ 

Sir Bedivero cries, as Arthur moves away in the black boat •- 
He passes to be Kinu' ninon-r the dead 
And aftor hialinK of liis grievous wound. 
He con. OS a;; ..." 

htSl^ He^Jl^.*Ser;?u';!^TTh.f%rSn'^ '^ ^'^^f'" '' ^'^ ^''^" ^'""^'^ ' "^^ 
roundings;!,, theiMctureof tholVfi?rV,?f k" °^Ju'!*' ^'•'a'-acter and domestic sur- 

in theastouniiSK'?withiV h slf^^^^^^^^^^ T^''^ landlo.d and frem.enters, and 
reader alu.ost as"n,uch"as .Tdi^ the he.'o hi' ^'''f - cl^r'^''^'"' ^';'"'"=• *^^* ''"'^^^ t^^^ 
inn with its old style .i<n. to t o iM,l-o?Jv K^ir.-," v'^l^^JlT' *'"^ «""- ''"SV ^•'•t'-'h 
ing " Union" attached' to it fm.nth; barn-Iike. slipshod ' hotel " withthe dverlast- 
Vedder, to the lean busfl?n.' vn ,^n t- . '"*' .f*T"''"'v^»''''-"^'''''''^ Dutchman, Nicholas 
With its\nave discu4 o„f of^^-on^^^^^^^^^ l^^tXlTTr' " ' ^"^ "•"'» ^^o sleepy villau^e 
8peech..,iakinff in he warL^o WpI™^ *° the clamor of public 

tics of both its earlv a.uJ later davstfpLrn>,f.«^ ' inhabitants and cha.-acteris- 

i..a{rnifice..t scenerv of the KaatskHk an, th . ,' " »"',''"" ?/ ^'^^^ ' ""^"^' *"'l the 
insepa,-ablyu,.itedthatweS,ot "^fce ve „VtK^^ thei.- feet, a.e so 

spot than that to which the anther ha^ tra,?sfen2i i ^-""^ l> to any other 





Whoevor has mado a voyage? up tlio lIudHon, must remember 
tho Kuiit.-ikill mountains.'' Thcyuro a (lisim(!mb«ro(l branch of 
the great Ai>pala(;hiaii family, and aro seen away to tho west of 
the river, swelling up to a nobh) lioight, and lording it" i^ver tho 
suiTouuding country. Every change of Kcason, every change of 
Aveatlicr, inili^ed every hour of the day produces some change in 
the magical hues and .shupes of these moiuitains ; and they aro 
regarded by all the good wives,'* far and near, as perfect barom- 
eters. When the AVi.'ather is fair and settled, they aro clothed in 
blue and purple, an<l print their bold outlines on the clear even- 
ing sky ; but sometimes, when the rest of the landscai)0 is 
cloudless, they will gatlier a hoo'tl of gray vapors about their 
suuunits, which, in tho last rays of the setting sun, will glow 
and light up like a crown of glory. 

At tlie foot of these fairy mountains, the voyager may have 
descried tho light smoke curling up from a village, whoso 
shingle roofs gleam among the trecss, just where tiie blue tints of 
the upland melt away into tho fresh green of tjie nearer landscape. 
It is a little village of great anti(iuity, having been founded by 
some of tho Dutch colonists, in the early times of the province, 
just about tho beginning of the government of the (j-od Peter 
Stuyvosant (may he rest in ])eacc !) and there were some of tho 
houses of tho original settlers standing within a few years, built 
of small yellow bricks brought from Holland, having latticed 
■windows and gable fronts, surmounted with weathercocks. 

In that same village, and in one of these very houses (which, 
to tell tho precise truth, was sadly time-worn and weather- 

is Remark how the author shows his sense of form and syniir.otry. The Kaatskills 
are in various ways, to act a prominent part in tlio story ; they are, theretoro brought 
prominently forward and their in,a-e 8ta,ni>cd, as it were, on the imnd from the beRin- 
1,° The requirements of the story would brni- us to the village at the foot 
of 'the mountain; hence the villa-e is next introduced ; and thus each .tep in the 
Dio.'ress follows naturallv the preccdinjr one. In iiassin-r from one paiagrraph or 
rjea to another it will be -observed that abruptness in the transitions is often avoided 
by makin° the'cloMni,' expression or idea of the one para^-raph supsrest the opening 
of the next Trace throughout the piece these evidences of artistic skill. 

14 Give the force of " lording." On this use of it see Mason's Gram., sec. 372. note. 

15 Show if the tenor of the expression, "and they-barometers" is in accord with 
Show ; tf^^^i^^t"^ ^„„t^^t Comv^^te also " great antiquity " and "just-peace M 

tha^ of the 

below. What object haa mt; auuioi in vie 

ijiagi^f inij^ these '? 



boat..,,), thero liv-o,! ,„„„, y,,„, ,^ ,^,,i,^ ' 

P»t.r St,,yvc.,,mt, „,.d uc„„„.pa„ic.,l l,i,„ t„ tl,„ si,™ „/,.,„ 

olurauor of l„s „„„o,tor,. I have ofeorvcd that h„ w,,<, „ 
B.mP'» «oo. .n„t,„«. „„.„, ,,„ wa. .noroov,... a kh„l ,,,.:. 
and an ob„d,„„t h,,„,,.kod h„shand. I„d„„d, to the latt ,■ ',- 
cu,„.ta„co „.,,ht h„ owing that ,„,..k„o., of sp'int .hi a , 
h^,«such„,„v„,.alp„,„„anty; tar tho.o n.ou „™ „,o.4 : 
b" ob,e,,u,o„H an,l conciliati,,. al„,„,l, who a,„ „„d,... ti„. dil! 
c.Pl";e of ., ,.„w.. at ho,.,o. Th.i,. to„„,er., donhtlcs,, a ' .t 

wo.Kl fo, t„:.d,„,g tho v,rm„, of paticnco and lons.s„in.,i„. A 

Certai,, it i,, that ho was a groat tavorito among all th,- good 
wives of tl>o vUlage, who, as usual with the a,„i,ndo sex ■■ tol 
h,s part ,n all fa,„ilj. .luabbles, and never failed, when v r 
they ta ked those .natters over iu their evening gosdpi ,., " t , Tv 
a£th^lam^o,UJameV^^ l^^^l -^ 2'^_ 

set with sharp stones or Iron teeth "^°' * ruUbin- out of grain by moans of a Rledge 

m:dilr StSia Xtll^l^^iJ!^^^:^^'^' the name of the .od that 
ed in old p'avs as a violent, storniinff character iM.^n".. "° ^-^^f'^quently represent- 
woman. What is the force of ^An'^/in thrfollowhLI llT' ''P^''"'* '" ^ ^■^°'«"t' «'--'>Jdin« 

M •u'JLl,^" "°* *^^ author use the word " woman " here 7 

a» Gossip" IS a compound of the Anir <8nv J«li /-i j . 
lativein God." that, i., a ,nJnL- ,„ K.!^.'I?:_^*.'f- S">d,God, and s/6. a relativr-a "r-. 
meaning. " "'' ' ""H""" , "ic nioueii. usage showa a degradation in 


CANAbtA^! nKAnEti.-BOoK VI. 

ij I 

il , 
1 1 'il 

^1 ^ 

Ingn, too, wouM .shout with joy wheixiver ho npi.ioaclu'a. ll(i 
ansistotl at th.'ii' nport-i, nmd.! their phiythin^^'s, tiiu;^ht thiMu to 
lly kitos ivii.l shoot imirhhis mid tohl thorn lou;^' nlorio^* of ^hostfi, 
witoho.s, ami IndiimH. Whouovor ho went «h»l^'iiig ai><»ut tho 
villug«s ho wiLs Hurrouiuhid hy ft troop of thorn huiiK'ing on his 
Bkirts, ohuuhoriuj,' on his buck, and phiying a thousand tricks on 
him witli impunity; and not a dog would hark at liini through- 
out tho noighhorliood. 

Tlio groat error in Hip's (;oin[>08iti()n was an insuporahlo nvor- 
Bion to" all kinda of prolitabh) labor. «' It (sould not bo from the 
want of assiduity or poraovoranco ; for ho wouM sit on a wot 
rock, with a rod as long and heavy as a Tartar's'* lancn, and Hsh 
all day without a inurjnur, oven tliougli lui should not bo en- 
couraged ])y a Hinglo nibble. Ilo would carry a fowling-piece 
on his slioulder for hours togothor, trudging through woods and 
fiwanips, and ni» hill and down dale, to shoot a few squirrels or 
wild pigeons, lie would never refuse to assist a neigh bar even 
in tho roughest toil, and was a foremost man at nil country frolics 
for husking Indian corn, or building stone fences. Tho women 
of tho village, too, used to (unploy him to run their errands, and 
to do such iittle Oild jobs as their less obliging husbands would 
not do for them ;— in a word, Kip was ready to attend to any-- 
body's business but his own ; but as to doing family duty, and 
keeping his farm in order, he found it impossible. 

In fact,'"' he declared it was of no use to work on his farm ; it 

2ri It la tisually stated that "aversion" should be followed by "from, not "to since 
it is derived frolri the IMlu w.rto (e^rms), to turn ; but " ftvers.oti contains also tl.o 
Latin preiwsition n («H 'ron. ; hence "aversion f rom " is tautological, while "avxr 
Bion to ■■ i's contradictory. Rut in mwg tlie won ts donvat.on is not presen to ho 
ini d • we think merely of tho object towards which our dislike is directed, not of the 
physical a<t inii>lied by the derivation; hence "aversion to" seems to be the more 
natural expression. 

24 KxprcBs more briefly the Idea In the preceding sentence. What efTect does the 
author wish to pro<hice bV this wording ? Is it consistent with the tenor of the j.iece 
Remark that this first sentence contains the general statement. \V hat is the chaiactui 
of the rest of tho viaragraph ? 

S5 The Tartars, or more properly Tatars, Inhabit Asia, out«ide of China proper, and 
north of tho Nan-Shan, Kuen-lun, Hindu Kush, an.l Elburz mmintains. They also co.b 
qnercd and settled southern Russia in Etiroi-e.: the Turks atHlHunparians arc also of 
Tartar origin. The famous Cossacks, tho lancers in tho Russian army, arc also Tartars. 

sfi How much of the following paragraph is in " indirect narration "? Change it to 
"direct narration." 



Wft« tho mo«t postiloii) iiffi 

•Pito A l,i,„. J,i, ,„,„.'' *V " '""' "■""''' «" "'""K i» 

"''i";"".. ..>v,„ „,;„: ,:;::„ ;;:;:i,r r "■; ■" •"•"'• '""' 

WHS Jittlc ,uore left tin.. . "''•'^ ''J ".-ns until thorn 

ho,>.I. ''•"'^'^ conditioned farm in th,3 noigl.Lor- 

»««, pro,„i3„a to in >o' Jl , ,"" '?"""" '" '-^ ""•„ Ii"k„. 
«a»ki„V whi.,, ,',„ J ' : ;" ",/""-:- -t..„r ,a„i. 

of fooii.sirUn.:!';:; ,';:::™:' -':»"" -^ th.„„ ,.,,,,,3, „„„,„,^_ 
<"■ foubi. a„,> w : J ::r"" ''"«"' '''"• '-^'"'-sih 

p"""'!. If kft to i,i,„ L ; , ;"; " "°"">- """■ -'"k f-"' .. 

,P-fect oonteutmon /■,,::;: ' ''r'" "■"»"'»l "^-^ "way i„ 

h« ear. about hi, id en.., J , ' -'•'■'"■'llj- ,linnin« i„ 
•»■"«!..« „n i,i, farail, ^ ' '"'"''''''"'«. ""J the ruin i,. was 

household eIo(,uence RJn . T f ^'"'^"'^" ^^ *°^rent of 



I. r 



i i- 


a habit. Ho shrugged his sliouUlers, shook his head, cast up his 
eyes, but said nothing. ' This, however, always provoked a fres.x 
volley from his wife, so that he was faiu to draw oil h.s forces, 
and take to the outside of the housc-tlie only side wlnca, lu 
truth, l)elongs to a henpecked husband. 

Rip's sole donxestic adherent was his dog Wolf, who was as 
much henpecke.1 as his master ; for Dame Van Winkle reg.^ded 
them as companions in idleness, and even looked upon ^^ olf 
with an evil eye, as the cause of his master's gonig so often 
astray. True it is, in all points of spirit befittmg an honorable 
do., he was as courageous an animal as ever scoured the woods ; 
-^ut what courage can withstand the ever-dunng and all-be- 
setting terrors of a wonmn's tongue 1 The moment Wolf entered 
the house, his crest fell,' his tail drooped to the ground, or curled 
between his legs, he sneaked about with a gallows a.. ^sUng 
manv a sidelong glance at Dame Van Winkle, and at the least 
Zlh of a b^mstick or ladle, 1 would fly to the door with 

velninf precipitation.''^ 

'^ Times "V.W wo,.e and worse with Kip Van W.ukle as years 
of matrimony mllrf on : a itrt ten.pev never n,eUows age, 
and a sharp tongue is the only edge tool that grows keorjer 
constant L" For a long while he used '». -"f ^ « 
when driven from homo, hy a hnd of perpetual 
elnb of the sages, philosophers, and other idle personages of the 
X!e, wuieh held its sessions on a henel> heiore a small mn 
Te ;;ted by a ruhieund portrait of his Majesty George the 
S"' H-e they used to sit in the shade thro u^ijUong lazy 

^T^'«w :»'■»""" "i— - ""'"'■'^ '" "^'""-"'""' '"""'■' ""■" 

.„d ..p,olou„d Jteu».o.,. '»">°' °». ,.„ „„„„,„, ,|ih ,to, of th. .nine. 

s< Compare tH» i««"'l'''™,,rrfd,^,lSv'Be.i!rle<l Villas..." ,S,.o th« cntiiul «■ 


d tlVesohool-master j" f-W.nnth's ' Ueser e« n^ 

•e of %a V!^',' ,f Vwmcter. so attractive a nibject to 

r n^Z.:^;-" ^f 6:^vernor Wouter Van^ S^:'ei;;:n^r. ^"^^^s. a subject to 
hnniorous satirization of the i:^^^^:;.^^. t J)utu.^cna^^^^.^.j^ ^ ^^^^.^^ ^^^ ^^^^y 
Irving in bis eariitsr wiiungs. mc i«.:«!- 

cr nn honorable 

a * 

the author hoa hitherto 

S/P i'AJf WINKLE. 40, 

sumntei-'s day, talking ii,tk.,«ly« „ver vilJagc «ossip. or tolli.,. 
en,lk,« sleepy stone, about „„thi„.. But it would have bee^ 
worth auy .,tate.„„au', money to have heard the profound di,- 
cu.s„o,,,, that sometin,e., took place, when by ehanee an old news- 
paper ell ,nto their hands fron. son.e passing traveller. How 

IJe.uok \an Bunin.el, the schoohnaster, a dapper learned little 
>nan who was not to he daunted hy the n.osfliganti I t^ 
the tettonary; and how sagely they would ddiberate npon 
pub he events some months after they had taken place 

Nicl'ri."'v iT "' "'''•'■""'""' """ ""•""'"'"'^ eo„t;ollcd by 
N ch„ ,„ Veddcr, a patnareh of the village, and ]„ndlor,l of the 

mn at the door of he took his seat from n.ornin.. till 

".gl.t, just raov„,g sufficiently to avoid the sun and keep itl ih„ 

.hade of a largo tree ; so that the neighbors eouhl tell the hour 

by Ins n,„ve,„ents ,vs accurately as by a su.wlial. It is true he 

w.« rarely heard to speak, but smoked his pipe incessantly. 

H s ajh„,.„tvM,owever (for every great has his atlher- 

ent,), perfec y understood hint, and knew how to gather his 

op,n,ons. VV hen anything that was read or related displca d 

send fo h .short, frequent, and angry pulls, but when ple.ased 
he would nd,ae the s„.oke slowly and tranquilly, and em^t 
m light and placid clouds ; and sometimes taking the pipe from 
h..s mouth, and letting the fragrant vapor curl about hi no^e 
would gravely nod his head ill token of ,..r(eet approbation ~ ' 
!• mm even this stronghold the unlucky Kip was at leiuHh 
ro«te,l by his termagant wife, who would suddenly bivak in no- 
on the tramiuillity of the assemi,h,ge and call th; mcml^rs all 
to naught; nor was that august personage, Xieholas Vedder 
lnmseU^saeredfa,n^the daring tongue of this terrible virago, 

l.rSlu'S.' "cSlrt'e",;:.'::? J^ J^"-' '"-T^h^eTi^^h. e«<«.^. 

— -J .. ..,._-tr •„■! saiirc. 





who charged him outright with encouraging luu- husband in 
habits of idk-ncss. 

roor Rip was at last reduced ahuost to despair ; and his only 
alternative, to escape from the labor of the farm and clamor 
of his wife, was to take gun in hand and stroll away into the 
woods. Here he would sometimes seat himself at the foot of 
a tree, and share the contents of his wallet with Wolf, with 
whom ho sympath^' ed as a fellow-sufferer in persecution. " Poor 
Wolf," he would say, " thy mistress leads thee a dog's life of 
it ; but never mind, my lad, whilst I live thou shalt never want 
a friend to stand Ijy thee !" Wolf would wag his tail, look 
wistfully in his master's face, and if dogs can feel pity, I verily 
believe he reciprocated the sentiment'^ with all his heart. 

In"" a long ramble of ithe kind on a fine autumnal day, Hip 
had unconsciously scrambled to one of the highest parts of the 
Kaatskill mountains. He was after his favourite sport of 
squirrel-shooting, and the still solitudes had echoed and re- 
echoed with the reports of his gun. Panting and fatigued, he 
threw himself, late in the afternoon, on a green knoll, covered 
with mountain herbage, that crowned the brow of a precipice. 
From an opening between the trees he could overlook all the 
lower country for many a mile of rich woodland. He saw at a 
distance the lordly Hudson, far, far below him, moving on its 
silent but majestic course, with the reflection of a purple cloud, 
or the sail of a lagging bark, here and there sleeping on its 
glassy bosom, and at last losing itself in the blue highlands. 

On the other side he looked down into a deei> mountain glen, 
wihl, lonely, and shaggy, the bottom filled with fragments from 
the impending clilFs. and scarcely lighted by tliC reflected rays 
of the. setting sun. For some time Rip lay musing on the 
scene ; evening was gradually advancing ; the mountains began 
to throw their long blue shadows over the valleys ; he saw that 

39 Give the full explanation of this phrase. 

39 Account for the chanced tone of this and the following,' parairraph. Cmiparo 
with tlie opening pai-aKraph. Compare this \ iew from the mountain with Ihat des- 
cribed in Scott's Lady of the Lake, canto I. (See critical remarks on Irvinir's style.) 


husband in 

and his only 

and clamor 
ray into the 
t the foot of 

Wolf, with 
ition. " Poor 
dog's life of 
It never want 
lis tail, look 
pity, I verily 
; heart, 
nal day, Hip 
it parts of the 
rite sport of 
dioed and re- 
l fatigued, he 
noil, covered 
f a precipice, 
irlook all the 

He saw at a 
iioving on its 
purple cloud, 
ecping on its 
lountain glen, 
'aginents from 
reflected rays 
msing on the 
untains began 

: he saw that 

rasrrapli. Crniparo 
tain with that des- 
on Irvinir's style.) 

Viii— Winkln " 



it would be dark long before he could each the village a 
heaved a heavy sigh when f.e thought of encountenng 'the ter, 
rors of Dame Van Winkle. 

As« he was,about to descend, he heard a voice from a .listance 
1-IIoonjg, ^' Kip y,, Winkle ! Kip Van Winkle !" uX^ 
round, but could see nothing but a crow winging its so t , 
y^i across the mountain. He thought his fan^^ lac 
deceived Inm, and turned again to descend,^ when he heard he 
ume cry rn.g through the stUl evening air <^ Kip Van AH klc 
.P Van WinKle !"-at the same timoVolf bristL h / a k 
-^g^vn^aWgrowl, skulked to his master's side, loo, h': 
f aifully down the ^l.n. Kip now felt a vague . ppvehen! 
sum steahng over him ; he looked anxiously i„ tL sam I 
t.on,an< perceived a strange figure slowly toiling up the 1 
an^bemhng under the weight of something h/carlied ^1^ 
back. He was surprised to see any human being in this lonely 
ami unfrequented place; but supposing it to be some one f 
to yillf i' «"'°"^ m need of his assistance, he hastened down 

larityof the strangers appearance,. He was -i slmvf .. 

H.,.lresswasof tho„„ti,,„„ l.„tch f,.l,:o„_,. d.,.,, j,.,.k, t 
»tmp,«l r„u,ul t .„ ,™i,t, several pairs of l„.eocl,o«,« t ,e , ^ 
O-.0 of an,,.k volu,„e, Jeooratea with rows of ,.at„,^s dowlu e 
»„a buttons at the knees. lie bore on his shon de ' I 

*\ Is this act characteristic of Rij, ? 

" J>rki,i Is a .ii,„i„„tl,e of the Dntch jurk, a frocli 

N£&tr?S'cir. oTss,5i;.'¥ri ""r™H"- > "■= - "'•-'v «- 

simple savftjres were amazed and^Zfnl^^^VL'^L^J.'^?":;^ ^"•««''h«« wo'.ld cover, the 
=uc ur ineuii,^ uf New y'>rk. '"' '" ^"" ^'^'^ck a cover the whole future 





Kip to ai)i)roiich and assist liim witli the load. Tliougli rather 
shy and distrustful of this new acquaintance, Rip complied with 
his visual alacrity ; and, mutually relieving each other," they 
clamhered up a luirruw gully, appHrcntly the dry bed of a moun- 
tain torrent. As they ascended. Rip every now and then heard 
long rolling peals, like distarit thunder, that seemed to issue out 
of r deep rayino, or rather cleft, between lofty rocks, toward 
which their rugged path conducted. He paused for an instant, 
but supposing it to be the muttering of one of those transient 
thunder-showers which often take phice in mountain-heights, 
he proceeded. Passing*' through the ravine, they came to a 
hollow, like a small amphitheatre, surrounded by perpendicular 
precipices, over the brinks of which impending trees shot their 
branches, so that you duly caught glimpses of the azure sky and 
the bright ev'ening cloud. During the whole time Rip and his 
companion had labored i>n in silence, for though the former 
marvelled greatly what could be the object of carrying a keg of 
liquor up this wihl mountain, yet there was something strange 
and incomprehensible about the unknown that inspired awe 
and che' ked familiarity. 

0.1 entering the amphitheatre,''^ new objects of wonder pre- 
sented themselves. On a level spot in tin centre was a com- 
pa-y of odd-looking personages playing at nine-pins." They 
were dressed in a ([uaint, outlandish fashion ; some wore short 
doublets,^ others jerkins, with long knives in their belts, and 

« Examine the correctness of this phrase ; also " so that-cloud " further down. 

45 Compare the description of the hollow here with that of the Trosachs in Scott's 
Lady of the Lake, canto L 

40 Amphitheatre-Gr. amphi around, and theatron seeing.-P theatre with seats on 
all aides -the usual theatre was i.i the form of a semicucle. The term is here applied 
to ft little vale surrounded by hills. 

47 So in the losend of Peter Klaus; but nvinpr here takes liberties with the Knights 
of Barl).arossa ; he makes them Dutchmen, but in his own way. 

48 Ouaint-a very dis-uised form of the Latin co;;m7»w. " In French the word took 
the sense of trim, ^waC fine, &c. ; in English it meant /«mo««, r.marUabk, cun.m, 
stranje, Sic."—Skeal. , ^ , . , , „ „ 

Doublet-" Fr. double, double ; Lat. drio, two ; and plus, related fo plenuK, full. 
OrlSaHy a thicJcly wadded jacket for defence •, afterwards a close-fitting coat extend- 
iiiil dowii to the middle. 

Though rather 
) complied -with 
h other," tlicy 
Led ot a nioun- 
uiul then lieard 
aed to issue out 
rocks, towai'd 
L for an instant, 
those transient 
hey came to a 
y perpendicular 
trees shot their 
le azure sky and 
me Rip and his 
iigli the former 
irrying a keg of 
niething strange 
it inspired awe 

of wonder pre- 

itre was a com- 

le-pins/'' They 

some Avore short 

their helts, and 

id " further down. 
lie Trosachs in Scott's 

theatre with seats on 
e term is here applied 

ties with the Knighta 

French the word toolc 
, remarkable, curiuug, 

slated to plenm, full." 
ose-iltting coot extend- 


most of them liad enormous breeches, of similar style with«' 
that of the guide's. Their visages, too, were peculiar : one had 
a arge head, broad face, and small piggish eyes ; the face of an- 
other seemed to consist entirely of nose, and was surmounted 
by a white sugar-loaf hat, set off with a little red cock's tail 
They all had beards, of various sliapes and colors. There was 
one Avho seemed to be the commander. Ho was a stout old 
gentleman,«> with a weather-beaten countenance ; he wore a 
laced doublet, broad belt and -hanger, higb-<-,rowned hat and 
feather, red stockings, and high-heeled shoes, with roses in 
them. The whole group reminded Eip of the figures in an old 
llemish painting in the parlor of Dominie Van S|,aick,^Uhe 
village parson, and which'^^ had been brought over from Holland 
at the tmu; of the settlement. 

What seemed particularly odd to Rip was, that tliough these 
folks Avere evidently amusing themselves, yet they maintained 
the gravest faces,^'' the most mysterious silonc.s and were, witli- 
al, the most melancholy party of pleasure he ha<l ever witnessed 
Nothing interrupted the stillness of the scene but the noise of 
the balls, which, whenever they were rolled, echoed along the 
mountains like rumblhig jjcals of thunder. 

As Rip and liis companion approached them, they suddenly 
desisted from their play, and stared at him with such fixed, 
statue-like gaze, and such strange, uncouth, lack-lustre counten- 
ances, that his heart turned within him, and his knees smote 
together. His companion now emptied the contents of the ke«r 
into large flagons, and made signs to him to wait upon theconi^ 

■<» What proposition should follow '< similar '" 9 wi.ot :„ , 

order of an ad^-ctivo and its modifvh,,, p£^^^ ' ^^'"** '^ commonly tho relative 

last clSe.'"'''"" "''' ""' ''"'''■ '"' '"*'-°'i"«i"g this Dutch name ? See Introduction. 
-'"i In "and which" the "and" imnlies a r)recpdin'r " wVii,.ii " • .,««„ • 

«* W^hy is the party so crave ? C.t fhe "ha'nf^ter of K^-hnla- \'-jj - 

speech is there in " nielancholy poVtyof pleasure " ? '"• " "" "^''^ "*' 

wiiBHwiiiiiiniiiMii <mmm}iiim 



pany. lie obeyed with fear and tri'inbling ; they (lUnfTcd the 
\U\\\ov in profound Hilonco, and then returned to their j-anio. ^ 

By degr(H'9 Rip's awo and apprehension Ku1>sided. lie even 
ventured, whc'U no eye was fixed upon him, to taste tlie bever- 
age, which lie found had niueli of tlie flavor of excellent Hol- 
lands. He was naturally a thirsty soul, and was soon tempted 
to repeat the draught. One taste provoked another; and he 
reiterated his visits to the flagon bo often, that at length his 
senses were overpowered, his eyes swam in his head, his head 
gradually declined, and he fell into a deep sleep.*' 

On waking, ho found himself on the green knoll whence ho 
liad first seen the old man of the glen. He rubbed his eyes — 
it was " bright sunny morning. The birds Avere hopping and 
twittering among the l)uslies, and the eagle Avas Avheeling aloft, 
and breasting the pure mountain breeze. " Surely," thought 
Rip, *' I have not slept hero all night," He recalled the occur- 
rences before he fell asleep. The strange man with the keg of 
liquor — the mountain ravine — the Avild retreat among the rocks 
— the woe-begono party at nine-pins — the flagon — " Oh ! that 
flagon ! that wicked flagon 1" thought Rip ; " what excuse shall 
I make to Dame Van Winkle '/" 

He looked round for his gun, but in place of the clean Avell- 
oiled fowling-piece, lie found an old firelock lying by him, the 
barrel encrusted with rust, th'e lock falling olf, and the stock 
worm-eaten. Ho now susi)ected that the grave roysters of the 
mountain had put a trick upon him, and, having dosed him with 
liquor, had robbed him of his gun. Wolf, too, had disappeared, 
but he might have strayed away after a scpiirrel or iiartridge. 
He whistled after him, and shouted his name, but all in vain ; 
the echoes repeated his whistle and shout, but no dog was to bo 


He determined Lo revisit the scene of the last evening's gam- 
bol, and, if he met with any of the party, to demand his dog 

M Why does the author remove Hip from his supernatural company in this parti- 
cular manner? What is the peculiarity in words 8Uch as "twittering," four lines 


tlioy (innfTcd the 

st evenin'''s sam- 


ti"." With ,: ; ' V ; ::;"";r '' ' ""•;' ""- - •>'-«• 

«t..nJ. Ho again callod anil w, i 'tl Ut ^ i;!,';:":'''' '°,^ 

"t the poor man's ,,or|,l„..itiea What ,va, to iT „, Z 
..real o'lt t S^tt it''"" ,','" ^'", ""^' """ ''"■» '^ ■- 

».vtui.iarpnos«i iu«^ crows ax well asothir featuV^r''"^ '"" '"""""'"•" Irvintf 




As he approached the village ho met a uuinher of people, but 
none whom he knew, w'hich somewhat surprised him, for he ha^l 
thought himsidf acipiaiuted Avith every one in the country 
round. Their dres.s, too, was of a dillerent fashion from that 
to which ho was accustomed. They all started at liim with 
#,qual marks c f .surprise, and, whenever they cast their eyes 
upon him, invariably stroked their chins. The constant recur- 
rence of this gesture induced Ki]), involuntaiily, to do the same 
when, to liis astonishment, he found his heard had grown a 

foot long 1^^ 

He had now entered the skirts of the village. A troop of 
strange children ran at his heels, hooting after him, and point- 
ing at his grey heard. The dogs, too, not one of whom he re- 
cognized for an old luupiaintance, harked at him as he passed ; 
the very viUage was altered ; it was larger and more populous. 
There were rows of houses Avhich he liad never seen befora, 
and those which Ijad been his familia! haunts had disappeared. 
Strange names were over the doors — strange \ices at the win- 
(^ows— everything was strange. His mind now misgave him ; 
he be<mn to doubt whether both he and the world around him 
were not bewitched. Surely^* this was his native village which 
he had left but the day before. There stood tlie Kaatskill 
mountains — there ran the silver Hudson at a distance — ^there 
was every hill and dale precisely as it had always been. Rip 
was sorely perplexed. " That flagon last night," thought he 
" has addled'^'' my poor head sadly ! " 

It was with some difficulty tliat he found his way to his own 
house, which he approached with silent awe, expecting every 
moment to hear the shrill voice of Dame Van Winkle. He 
found the house gone to decay — the roof fallen in, the windows 

67 Barbarossa's beard has grown through the marble table " whereon ho rests his 

58 Why beiriii the sentence vdth this word ? Change the rest of the paragraph to the 
direct narrative form. 

59 Addled— from the Ang. Sax. ddl, a disease ; " the original meaning is inflam- 



, a".I ai.parontly al,an,I,„„,l. Tho cfes„l,.t,., , "^ ^' "■"• 

.100,. was ,,ainto,l. "T 1 1 ";' ''"W-™'". -^ "vor tho 

I..»tea,l „ the -cat t If ' ''^ •^°"""'"" l>'"littlo." 

peaoof,,! pipe; ,„, „,„,. thU ™ j , X , '^ '""■'^' " 
The ,.0,1 coat was ch,..,.,ea f.,r onlnf n /, ""'^■norphosecl. 

Lew ia the hand inste: „f „ ^ . '";,::T T"' " """'' ™^ 
ters, General A?ash,noton ' " '"'°" "'""'"=■ 

^!.an«od T . ^'^ ^'^^ "^ "- l-'P'e --nod 

wa-, a busy, bustl,„g, disputatious tone about 

■V ■————_ 



it, inHt(!ii(l of the uci-iistonicd i»lilc'gni un«l triiuiuillity. 
llc! looked in vain for i\w i^age Nicholas Yedder, with hi.s broivl 
face, dotd)l(i chin, iiiul fair long pipe, uttering"^ clouds of tobacco 
Buioko instead of idlo Biujcchesjor Van liunnnel, tho school- 
master, doling forth tho contents of an ancient newspaper. In 
place of tiiese, a lean, bilious-looking fellow,"^ witli Jus pockets 
full of liand-bills, Avas liaranguing vehemently ai)out rights of 
citizens — elections — mendu^rs of congress — lilx'rty — Hunker's 
Hill — heroes of seventy-six — and (.ther words, whicli were a 
perfect IJabylonish jiirgon"" to the bewildered Van Winkle. 

Tiio ai)pearance of Kip, with his hinggri/zled l)eard, liis rusty 
fowling i)iec(\ his uncouth dross, and an army of wonuni and 
children at his heels, soon attracted tho attention of the tavern 
l)()liticians, Th(\y croMled round lam, eycijig liim from head 
to foot with great curiosity. The orator bustled up to him, 
and, drawing iiim partly aside, inquired " on which side he 
voted 1" Kip stared in vacant stupidity. Another sliort but 
busy little fellow pulled him l)y the arm, and, rising on tiptoe, 
inquired in Ids ear, " Whether he was a Federal or a Demo- 
crat ?"" Rip was ecpially at a loss to comprehend the question ; 
when a knowing self-important^' old gentleman, in a sharp 
cocked hat, made his way througli the crowd, putting them to 
the right and left with his elbows as he passed, and planting 
himself before Van Winkle, with one arm akimbo,^'' the other 

01 Comment on this use of «« utter." Is its sense the same in construction with smoke 
OS viMh speecheg > What is the figure? Cf. "to utter'counterfeit money," and other 
variations in the use of the word. 

fi2 Irvinsjas heai-tily despised this typical Yanlcoe Jonathan as he was amused at tha 
phleijinatic Dutchman. He lamented the displacement of the old inn by the modern 
comfortless village " hotel " ; and ward and taveni politics with their hypocritical and 
pseudo-patriotic cant and disgraceful personalities he utterly loathed. 

63 The reference is to Genesis xi., 1-9. The derivation of jargon is uncertain ; it 
early came into the Eii{jlish latijiruatje from the French. 

<w These are the names of the two political parties in the United States in the early 
part of the century ; the former claimed more authority for the central jcovernment 
over the separate States tlian the latter was wlllinir to ^rant. 

65 The self-importance of those in ofHce has always bsen a favorite subject of satire 
tvith writers, . 

««. Akimbo, or akimbow : ' a compound of the English on, corropted Into a. as In 
aboard, and tho Celtic cam, crooked.—the ho or hoiv being the repetition in Engligh of 
earn.' Skcat, 

3 subject of satire 


brow, d.„,a„d»,i Ai :f , ' '?"""■'' ' '""'°''' ""''""'^ "f 

assured him that ho „,„„„t no ha'm ,„t ' T ""'" "™'''^ 
search of soran of l,i. ■ , , ' ""-'"''^ <■"""' "'"" in 

tavern, ''" "^'=''''^""' '>'''" — ' '» keep about the 

"M'cll; who „,.„ thoy?_„„,„e them i" 

dead and gone these eighteen years- Thl ^ '' 

" Where's Brom futchcr ?" 
" Oh, he went off to the armv in fi,« i, • • 
some say he was killed . H 7 ^^^'^"""^g of tlie war ; 

J iic was Killed a*-, the storming of Stonv Pninf«3 ^n 

--"» ^^JK vi , cnap. 4. - •■' ^^'"■'-it-rBocKeisKiatory of 





" Whcro's Vim I'limfiicll, the Hclioolinnater ?" 

" II(( went oir to tin? wars too, was a great militia gcnoruV, 
and irt now in CongrcsH." 

Rip's heart (lii!(l away at hearing of tlu'so sad chango3 in his 
home and friends, and liniling liimsc If thus alone in the worhl. 
Every answer puzzhd him too, ])y treating of BU(!h enormous 
lapsies of time, and of matters Aviiicli lie couM not understand : 
war — congress — Stony Point ; — he had noconrago to ask after 
any more friends, hut cried out in despair '* Does nohody liere 
know Kip Van Wiidde?" 

*'0h. Kip Van Wiukk) !" exchiimed two or tliree, " Oli, to bo 
Bure ! that's Kip Van Winkh) yonder, leaning against the tree." 

Rip looked, and ])ehehl a i)reciso counterpart of himself as he 
went n]) the mountain ; apparently as lazy, and certainly as 
ragged.'' Tlie poor fellow was now completely confounded, 
lie (h)ubted his own identity, and whether ho was himself or 
another man. In the midst of his bewilderment, the man in 
the cocked hat demanded Avho he was, and what was his name. 

"God knows," exclaimed he, at his wit's end ; " I'm not my- 
self — I'm somebody else — that's \\\q yonder — no — that's some- 
body els got into my shoes — I Avas myself last night, but I fell 
asleep on the mountain, and they've; changed my gun, and every- 
thing's changed, and I am changed, and I can't tell what's my 
name, or who I am !" 

The bystanders began now t^ look at each other, nod, wink 
significantly, and tap their linger^ against their foreheads. There 
was a whisper, also, about securing the gun, and koepuig the 
old felloAV from doing mischi(!f, at the v-ry suggestion of which 
the self-important man in the rocked hat retired A^ th some pre- 
cipitation. At this critical moment a fresh <■ miely woman 
pressed through the throng to jvl a peep at the grey-bearded 
man. She had a chu1)by child in her arm.s Avhich, frightened 
at his looks, began to cry. " Hush, Kii/' cried she, " hush you 

11 Shew 1! vcunsr BIp Sfi^^'o ei^rly promise of this. 

ilitia goncray, 

IlilllKCH ill hisi 
in the woiKl. 
K'li ciionuoua 

uiulerstaml : 
3 to nnk after 

noboily licro 

<•, " Oil, to bo 
nst the tree." 
himself as he 
I ccrtiviuly as 
• confounded, 
'as Inniself or 
:,, tho man in 
rt'ashis name. 
" I'm not my- 
— that's some- 
-ht, but 1 fell 
un, and overy- 
ull what's my 

( ", nod, wink 
eheads. There 
d keeping the 
?tion of which 
vith some pre- 
.imely woman 
3 groy- bearded 
ch, frightened 
lie, ** hush you 

little foci, tlio old man won't" hurt v<.,. " T. 

tlio tone of her voice,;. ,,n aw, \ ' """^" '*^ ^''" *'»'''^J. 

his mind. ' "''"'"'"^'•' '^ ^'•""' '^f "H,ollectiun« in 

"And your father's mime?" 
"Ah, j)oor man. Kip v,„i •^Vinl-in „. i- 
twenty years since he went wav f , ^"' "'""'' ^'"* ^^'^ 

'-ver has been heard7 i^ '", "" "''^ ^''^ «''"' -^» 
^•'•"'^-^-J'^^therhe lit /if"' '"" ^'^"^^ ^'-- -'thout. 

Indians, nobody cant f;"' 7' '^^^^^ ^-^^y h tho 

iiig voice :'* ' ^"^ ^'^ I'»t it with a falteiv 

" Wliere's your mother ?" 
"Oh, she too had died Imf ^ i l ,. 

The .,„,.. ,,,::'::,'.,:;:;;:,!;';'• "; ""^ '-"---■ 

cried 1,0—" youn>» Kin \'„, «•■ 'i "'" y'""' '"t'ler!" 

All stood amazed, until an ol,l M-onrm f 
among the crowd, put her hand to I, Z^ ";:'"^-•^ ^-- 
It into his face for a moment. lain.., ?/ ' '^ ^'""■'"^' ""'^^^ 
Kip Van Winkle-^it is Imnself - ' ' "" '"""^'^^ ' '^ ^« 
neighbor ---Why, where hm v . \ ^'"'''' '°'"""' "^'^ 

years?" '''' "^"^^ ^*''*^" tJiese twenty long 

present tense of th!fvo "h W/ • """^ •? * ''""""^"t of th. Old F„r.Ii ^^^ ~ 

<"{,' dropped out. ''*'""• ''""''«'"'«'-^-«ore,co.upoKf''l/^ '/r ^^ ^he 

'•• Why faUeriny '"» 

"'e '^ew England traders. 





their ton-ues in their Qhock« : and the solf-iniportant man in 
the cocked hat, who, when the alarm was ov.>r, had returned to 
the fiehl, screwed down the corners of liis mouth, and shook his 
head— upon which tlierc was a general shaking of the head 
throughout the assemblage.''" 

It was determined, however, to take the opinion of old Teter 
Vanderdonk, who was seen slowly advancing up the road. lie 
was a descendant of the historian of that name, who wrote one 
of the earliest accounts of the province.'^ Peter was the most 
ancient inhabitant of the village, and well versed ni all the 
won.lerful events and traditions of the neighborhood, lie re- 
collected Rip at once, and corroborated his story in the most 
satisfactory manner. He assured the company that it was a 
fact, hand.-d down from his ancestor the historian, that the 
Kaa'tskill mountains had always been haunted by strange beings. 
That it was affirmed that the great Ilendrick Hudson, the first 
discoverer of the river and country, kept a kind of vigil there 
every twenty years with his crew of the Half-moon ; being per- 
mitted in this way to revisit the scenes of his enterprise, and 
keep a guardian eye up«n the river, and the groat city called by 
his nan^e. That his father had once seen them in their old 
Dutch dresses playing at nine-pins in a hoUow of the mountain ; 
and that he himself had heard, one summer afternoon, the sound 
of their balls, like distant peals of thunder. 

To make a long story short, the company broke up, and re- 
turned to the more important concerns of the election. Rip's 
daughter took him home to live with her ; she had a snug, well- 
furnished liouse, and a stout cheery farmer for her husband, 
whom Rip recollected for one of the urchins that used to climb 
upon his back. As to Rip's son and heir, who was the ditto of 
himself, seen leaning against the tree, he was employed to work 
on tli.j farm ; but evinced an hereditary disposition to attend to 
anything else but his business. 

"TRcfcr in the precedinj,- part of the story to a sUtenient in a similar strain. 
71 A sportive reference to the " History of New Yorl<." 

■tant man in 

I returned to 

,n(l shook his 

of the head 

of old Peter 
10 road. He 
ho wrote one 
vas the most 
ed in all the 
ood. lie re- 
in the most 
,hat it was a 
■ian, that the 
.range beings, 
son, the first 
)f vigil there 
I ; being per- 
iiterprisi', and 
city callcil by 
1 in their old 
lie mountain ; 
>on, the sound 

e up, and re- 
'ction. Eip's 
1 a snug, weli- 
her husband, 
used to climb 
as the ditto of 
)loyed to work 
>n to attend to 

ilar strain. 


Kip now resiimed his old Avalk^i -m,! Tv.k-* i 

CS r^i t;i::;r :;;:-:. r7«'-«- 

pl»co onco more on tl,„ bend. .t. 11^! , ' "'^' ,''" '""'' '"» 

the ol,I ti„,08 " I,„f„r„ tJ>e «-,r '■ I, , * " "'""""'" °' 

could get into the re,.,, r , i / " """" '""" '"'f"«' '"> 

torpor. „o„ ti,;. , , !™ 'i;: r;.' '"'"^' '"■"■■« '- 

tl.0 conntry l,„.l tln-own o,r the ^e ./;;";""'! "'"T""" 
i-t..d of hen,,, a ..hjoet of U^l mly^'l^mjT 
was now a free citizen of the Unite,! St,ftes Hi, . ?' ' ''" 
no iK,iitician ; the cl,a„...s „f ,HU;[,T ■ ' ' •■■ '™ 

i."pressio„ „„ hi,,, . ,„ r ^ ""''"'•'■' """'" '"" ""k 

do ' which he i,: ;„; 1 irirrr'-'''^ ■" "-^"""-^ - 



'^'f Why should this be ? " ~ 

TO Might another explanation of this ho nffn.^., c.. ... . , 

" ' '■^"^ "^riy part uf the story. 




his head, and that this was one point on wliicli ho always ro- 
mained ilighty. The old Dutch iniiahitants, however, almost 
universally gave it full credit. Even to this day they never 
hear a thunder-storm of a summer afternoon i',bo\it the Kaatskill 
hut they say Ilendrick Hudson' and his crew are at their game 
of nintipins ; and it is a common wish of all henpecked husbands 
in the neighborhood, when life hangs heavy on their hands, 
that they might have a quieting draught out of Rip Van Winkle's 

Note— The foregoing tale, one would Buspect, had been suggested to Mr. 
Knifkerbocker by a little German superstition about the Emperor Fred- 
erick rZer Itothbari, and the Kypphauser mountain; the subjomed note, 
however, wliich he had appended to the tale, shows that it is an absolute 
fact, narrated with his usual fidelity :— 

" The stow of Rip Van Wiiikle may seem incredible to many, bnt never- 
theless I Rive it my full belief, for I know the vicinity of our old Dutch 
settlements to hive been very subject to marvellous eyen^.s and appear- 
ances. Indeed, I have heard many stranger stones than this m the villages 
along the Hudson, all of which were too well authenticated to admit of ft 
doubt I have even talked with Rip Van Witikle myself, who, when I last 
saw him, was a very venerabln old man, and so perfectly rational and con- 
Kistout on every other point, thiit I think no conscientious j.erson could re- 
fuss, to take this into the burgiiin; uay, I have seen a certificate on the sub- 
ject taken before a country justice, and signed with a cross, in the justice s 
own handwriting. »o The story, therefore, is beyond the poss^il^yof 

PosTScniPT.— The following are travelling notes from a memorandum- 
book of Mr. Knickerbocker :— 

" The Kaatsberg, or Catskill Mountains, have always been a region full 
of fable The Indians considered them the abode of spirits, who influenced 
the weather, spreading sunshine or clouds over the landscape, and sending 
good or bad hunting seasons. They were ruled by an old "q'law spirit, 
said to be their mother. . She dwelt on the highest peak of the Catskills, 
and had charge of the doors of day and night, to open and shut them at the 
proper hour. She hung up the new mocms in the skies, and cut up the o d 
ones into stirs. In times of drought, if i)roperly propitiated she would 
spin li-ht summer clouds out of cobwebs and morning dew, and sendthem 
off from tlie crest of the mountain, flake after flake, like flakes of carded 
cotton, to float i.i the air, until, dir.solved by the heat of the sun, they 
would fall in gent' - showers, causing the grass to spring, the fruits to ripen, 
and the cH>rn to grow an i.uh onjiour. If displeased however f « ^vouUi 
brew up clouds black as ink, silting m the midst of them like a bottle-bel- 
lied spider in the midst of its web ; and when these clouds broke, woe be- 
tide the valleys! 

" In old times, say the Indian traditions, there was a kind of Manitou or 
Spirit, who kentaboutthe wildest rer-esses of the Catskill Mountains, and 
took a mischievous jdeasure in wrecking all kinds of evils nnd vexations up- 
on the red men. Sometimes ho woidd assume the form of a bear, a pan- 


80 This igiionwice in officials is Batirized in more than one of Irvinjf's works. 

ilways ro- 
iT, almost 
hoy never 

heir game 

ur hands, 
I Winkle's 

Bsted to Mr. 
peror Fred- 
joined note, 
an absolute 

, but never- 
r old Dutch 
and appear- 
t)ie villages 
admit of a 
when I last 
lal and con- 
jn could re- 
on the sub- 
the justice's 
Dssibility of 

D. K." 

repfion full 
o influenced 
ind sending 
luaw spirit, 
10 Catskills, 
them at the 
it up the old 
1, she would 
d send them 
:e3 of carded 
le sun, they 
nits to ripen, 
I*, she would 
a bottle-bel- 
ike, woe be- 

: Manitou or 
untaius, and 
beiir, a pan- 




ther.oradeer, lead the bewildered hunter a w«nr^ ni,n vu 

forests and am(mg ragged rocks, and then JnTfm^ff^'''l*^'"?"«'^ *^"gl«d 

leaving him aghast on tlie brink of a beLthnj^Sinf > ^'^^ * -^""^ ^° ' >^o' 

"The favorite abode of this Manito^ 'Tirn ,K^"' *"""'• 
or chff on tl.e loneliest part of the niountains Id fvL if* '% * ^""^^^ ^"^^ 
which clamber about it, and the wild flower; whir hTl'*' ^".^^^ring vines 
bourhood, is known by the name of the Gar, n. }l I ^t.V""'' "^ ''« ^^'^W^^- 
is a small lake, the haunt of the „S?y bS " with' ^'"" "i^ *°°* »* ^^ 
in the sun on the leaves of the no ml li La i • 'i v ^^'^ter-snakes basking 
Place was held in TreS awe W f i t i • '^''"?'» 1'° on the surface. Th if 
tunter would not P^rsJe hi^ Xe wiShrSs'n^^'^^^"^^ .*^'^' *h« •'"'^-t 
however, a hunter who hnd iS^is wav r Jn trn"*"!^ .,^"^^« "P"^" ^ time 
where he beheld a number of gm.r Is pTacef n K ^'\ J''" 9^''''*''> ^'^^^^ 
of these he seized and made off with Vnttn f notches of trees. One 

it fall among the rocks, when a great J^^^^^^ ^^treat he lot 

Ijresent day, being the ^^^ni^^^iL^fZi^Xi^^^^^^ 

Show what characteri^ticsof Irving's style are illustrated in Kip Van Winkle." 

ItSetr^"^ '^ ^ ""^""^ "'"°" ""' ''' ^^^"-^ '°^-«^ ^y «^e German poet, 

Der a!te Barbai 
Ini unterird'sci 


■!or Kaiser Friedrich, 
-xilosse hiilt er verzaubert sich. 

Li hat im bohlosz verborgen zun, Schlaf sich hingesetzt. 

Er hat hinabgenommen des Reiches Herrlichkeit 
^ Und wud einst wiederkommen mit ihr zu seiner 'Zeit. 

S S^^??"'?^ .'«fc elfenbeinern, worauf der Kaiser sitzt 

Der risch ist mannelsteinern, worauf sein Haupt er stutzt. 

Sein Bart ist nicht von Flachse. er ist von J'euersfflntb 
Ist durch den Tisoh gewachsen, worauf aein E ^rdit. 

Er nickt als wie im Traume, sein Aug' halb offen zwinkt • 
Und je nach langem Raume er einem Knaben wLkr ' 

Er spricht im 8chlaf zum Knaben Geb' bir. ,.«v» o ui 

Uud sieh Ob noch die Raben fiTegen L d^^^^^^ ° ^^^^«' 

Un wenn die alten Raben noch fliegen immerdar 

So muaz lohauch noch schlafen verzaubert hundert Jahr. 




(Many valuable remarks on this subject ma>/ be fowid in /?«.-«'. j?» » • 
Abbot and Seeley'. EnuUsk Lessons for L'njtpeoX) ""'^ '" 

appeal to the en.otioi.s in laMjfua^^e thut isSf the off nJi^'^'T " l"-°<*"<-'^'l l-y an 
an-v^o of business, of reas,„>ing, ami o the mU -!•,.« iP'l*^,v^ eMK,uoii. The Ian-;,^ .nateria.iy from that of a> uSa'sio S sta o H.^^'^^^^^ ,'" '--^"i-'affe <iif- 
cateJ by the charactar of the lanRua 'e' C/,!^ ib uu.;r.-'l- '^'^V*"' *'"^ ""'"' '« i'"li- 
a.e :^-a„ orde,- cf words and coufbinatio- s o^wo n "d ff, 1^ ,'.? f " „r'«.^'"""' ''"F""^' 
Ude; numerous ellipses; the very fre(uicritLMi.i.,mm,f^f^ ""'f'-' '" o'l^inaiy 

expressions ; archaic fonns and exprJiso,; sift ^^^^^^^^^ '^";' "' ""'.'^o^tive 

ous words and eon.binations ; wimfe'er p.oduces tividi ' '' """' '""^' = '''^'■'"°'"- 
usS^r^lll^fSSrtllSif ,;^ SS^'X;::^;!::' l-tll-twcen which and .hat is 
duo for the most pal-t. at least, to n.erhan e I ca ,' cs 1 m. '"■"V,"' ''I'l'-'^'^'ce beiny 
regularity ..f (low which seen.s in a ^Jai^ 4 natu^^^^^ f""^ i"toa 

ess conscious effort ; tho e.notiou is Shy st vine a, ? ""f Tl-"* "^ '"^ """•« or 
mg itsoli by its own violence." Wit tin ' r< " -V.^^ from "destroy- 

marked, and the rocurrenc. of ce hi' pccuIiSes ' ^ „"'f 'Il^S 'if ''"''1 '%''""''« 
and unaccented 8ylIaI)les,-be(omcs kVn ite a d roLm?a^ n "T^ """* of accented 
to It. Hence vers- i. th. highest or n.ost clabomte fonn H n *'''"' "''''"'' '^ "W"^''* 
does not imply tliat all"is poetry elaborate foini tiiat poetry can take. This 

dS^]Z SK"'''"^ '^" ''' "'"'""^ ^'-- °' -try : Epic, Lyric. Dramatic. 

^'^^i'S^'^!:i.:''S'iZ^,^llJ;^Zt^^^^ ,>octry theEpi<, has a 

speak.; but if the actors are reprcsente] as Ine -in,/, ^ '".''' ^^'1\ * '" ^""'0'- alone 
thee;.ic approacbcs the dr.inuitic. iVe cp c i ' iS^-clt c aO ^ ""'" I'^^''^^^^. 

Tiiereare several specias of tlie epic, uJre or Ic^sT'^inct ^ '*' compositions. 

h.l^;aJ^^te;:s^£;-iSJ^\3%J;t^!:;i^^ Ji^izrl rf ''''\t''^ '"^^-* 

some great prin.nple of action in li c tr cIml. if r, *<;''' ".'?«•. " ^vo. ks out 

from the c lusa to the effo t. in the iLd it i\ Vh ^ • - ^'l" ^"-'"""'i"Kr to the <-i,d- 
in the ^neil, it is tho wrath of J^n.o , uAiin ^b . *'''''*'\'^ '"'^ of Achilfcs » ; 
Nibelungou T..ed, ib is tho aw uTc-tHennl^^ c. aL^H, l^^V '" ^ T''!>" ^'"'^ ''"J*' 
1.1 the Great Epic tho. supernatural ol" a feadhr lace ''^.^.-'•atihcation of revenge, 
with the sabjoct,_ba statelv in charxcter Of tbt I ' i mcaMire nuist accor.I 
a limited nu nber :-!,. tl,e G eek, H .- ,c;-<, I K 1 nnf oT °^ '''^" Z'"^'^' '^'''^ » '>"* ' 
^noid; in the Itnlian J)ante's Divit n ( v,f.. i ""/' '^'l^'scv .: m the Lat^i, Virgil's 

Por.,,..^uese, Can.oens'ln,,'ad ; in Vennan^^^ ^^^ 

^^t^X:;;^S:^^,S^^^;;^ the .ipernntu,^ •; nd- 

posit.on. The measure i.T much move fre, am ithl m '".'^'Vl"''"- '^'•'•"""'^ a l^adi.i;^ 

Zr:' r1' °' *"= '^'''' * ' - ^-' eSS?sif'&:;;,;:- J^^^'* ■^'-- ^-«^ 

{ii iHiip^i a:^^v^;<S'Sa;u"S.:;s^jr^^:-^5!'^;,f-' ^•^'^^•-- the 

S a wS^I]^^?---'^,erbu.,Ta1es. B;^.^^.rki^ Ta£s:7J>nJ^LXT;:£ 

aver is necessary to comnWno^ ^. V.?"J:.L!.''r_7t '"t^"rt"ctory matter, loav in- what- 

" "■■•■ ' ^'^ ''■■'-■ n'atisorca m the narrative proceeds. , 



Lack of ornament is essential In a true liallaii : tho iiiturest depends upon incident s^nd 
natural siniplicitv or style. I'urc.y's " Itclicmes" is a eollcoiion of old l,alla(iK • exuin- 
plu.s of modern iKillad-;. with nioro or les^ oinaniunr, are I'lucti's Marston Moor, Jlaeaid- 
ay'rf Battle of;l)y, Sehiller'a l)i\er, Toiiiiy^on's Lord of Jiurleiuh, Lonu ellow'a 
Wreelvof the Hosperus, 

(5) !'he Pu/itMHtl or /<l;jl. In a narrative poem, but eonfains a great deal of descrip- 
tion of eitlier nature or life ; m its mo.Ht eliaracteristio form ic approaches the ballad tii 
tiniplicit.y of lan-nayro and structure, as in Tennyson's Dora, ar.d Longfellow's Kvan- 
gelitie. Some varieiius of tlie ld.\ 1 contain little i arrative, .such as Cowper's Task 
Milton's L'Allegro, &e. Tennyson's Idyls of the Kin;f are tales than idyls. ' 

There arc other species of tlie Kpic, such as tlie Ilistorital I'oeni ; llii' Mixed Epic — 
Byron's Ohilde Harold, for example, in which description, rerteetion, short nanatiye, 
&u., arc combined. 

IL Lyrio I'oETiiY.— As tho name iinidies, this class of poetrv wa-* originally intended 
to be sung to tlio accompaniment of instruinentul nuisic. " Hence it is desi>;ntd to 
exproH4 in shor„ form strong feeling and emotion of various kinds; hence too it is usu- 
ally written in groupi of lines termed utinza^, the varieties cf which areas numerous 
as those of music itself, depending, indeed, on tiie will of the writer. But the great 
body of lyric poiitr.\ is contained in a cotnparatively few jircvailing types of stanza. 

A very great deal of this species c' jioetry cannot well be clatsiiied ; the following 
varieties, however, are distinctly marked : 

(1) The Soii'f,—not limited as to subject, including chtireh psalmody. 

(2) The Oti'% —tlio highest forifi of lyric poetry, expressing the most intense feeling, 
in tho most elahoiMt;o form both of language and ver^i(k■ation. Milton's Hymn on the 
Nativity, VVor Isworth's Intimations of immortality, IJyron's Isles of Greece," and Gray's 
Bard are familiar exan.ples. 

(3) The, ft'/c.'/?/,— expressive of regret for the dead, and contaicing reflections such as 
deith naturally suggests. Such are Milton's Lycidas, and Giav's Kk'gy in a ((untrv 
Ciuircbyard. Cowpur's "On the lleceipt of My Mothers i'icture "" n ay also be 
classed as an elegy, 

(4) The. S<>iine.t,~-Tn\H contains the expression of a single Ihonirht ; and as the length 
of the sonnet is limited there i.i no room for diffuseness. Peihaps no form of poetical 
composition renuires s;ieh c )ncontiation of thouglit, and piecision and tcrsencBS of 
language as does the soiinet. Sec page 424. 

III. DiiAMATic PoKTiiY,— reprosonts complete scenes or e- '«odcp in human life, ex- 
tending over a grcahur or less period of time, with tlie actors concerned in liini s|)eak- 
ing and acting in their own proper persons. 'Jhe whole is so arranged as to be suited 
for presentation on tlio stage. 

Dramatic poetry falls into two broad classes, Trngcdv ai.d Comedy ; the former often 
has a mixture of comedy, the latter varies from a tiauic cast to the most aht-urd tra\ esty. 

Tragedy deals with tho deepest feelings and passions of our nattuc. It reprctci.vs a 
man or woman under tho iiiflucnce of an oveipowering passion following blindly what 
the jiassion dictates regardless of consequences; or "it represents tlie fatal results of 
some defect of character in a person called npon to act an important jiart." Shake- 
speare's Macboth, Otliello, Romeo and Jiiliet, King Lear, Hamlet, and Julius Ca;sar, 
illustrate these various subjects of tragedy. 

As our indignation is aroused at tlie guilt of the criminal, and our pifv at tho sight 
of tho sulTerings of the woe-stricUen ; and as we deem death the only lifting ] unish- 
ment for the former, and tho only refuge from sorrow for the latter, therefore tr&^-edies 
are usually made to end in death scenes. 

Comedy, on tho other hand, lias a haptiy emling, though intense passion is often 
enough displayed, and intense tragic sufTering, as ni the '• Winter's Tale " : even death 
may be introduced, as in Cymbelino, but only as an incident of the action, not as the 
development of tho plot. There are many varieties of comedy; but its subjects are 
the follies, weaknesses, and vices of man, the rei)resentation of which is calculated to 
excite laughier or riiliculc, except w hero the coiiseiiucnces arc of too grave a diaracter 
to admit of laughter. 

A plav is usually written in five acts: in the flrst and second the plot is detaile<l and 
developed in the third the full development or rihunx is riiuhed and the interest is at 
its higho-t : in (he fourth the plot begins to unfold ; il:e fifth contains the final result, 
often termed 1) fiteiiieiit, if happy, atid ('((tn.-itra/ he. if urdiai)pv. 

In the construction of a )ilay certain " unities ' it is said mu-t be observed: the 
" uaitii of time," which reipiircs the space of linic over whiih the action of a play 
extjii Is not to be greater than that diirinir which an interc^stcd .s|ieetator mi<'ht 
naturally besupposod able to l.jok on ; the " unity vj place," which rtquires that the 


upon incident, i^nd 
<)!(( lulliuiH ; exuni- 
itoii .M()(ir, Maciiul- 
Icigli, Long cllow's 

uat deal of descrip- 
aches the Imllud in 
Longfellow's Kvan- 
us Cowpei's Task, 
er fliaii idyls. 
; flu- Mixed E)iie, — 
an, shoi't naimtive, 

originally intended 
•e it is dehiuned to 
lience too it is UiU- 
ch are iis iiunieroua 
ler. Hut the great 
types of !-tanza. 
itied ; the following 


iinst intcHFe feeling:, 
ItdTi's Hymn on the 
f Greece, and Gray's 

p reflections such as 

K;egy in a ttiintry 

tiiro" nay also l7e 

it ; and as the lerigth 
no form of poetical 
on and terseness of 

in hnnian life, ex- 
rntd in htm sjicak- 
iiged as to be suited 

ly ; the former often 
iiost absurd tra\esty. 
irc. It repre.^^ci.vs a 
lowinsr blindly what 
3 tlie fatal results of 
I'tant )iart." Shake- 
t, and Julius Ca;sar, 

our jiity at the sight 

only fitting i unish- 

r, theiefore tra^i-edies 

Jnsc ]iass)on is often 
s 'I'ale " : even death 
he action, not as the 
hut its subjects are 
hich is (aloulated to 
too grave a diaraeter 

■ plot is detailed and 
and the interest is at 
tains the final result, 

i-t be observed : the 
the action of a play 
ed .>.peotator mijjrht 
ich requires that the 


places represented in a rlav shmil.J nnf i,„ t 

}K.ssiblyw-HitJV.rpersons7l^«/^;'SweM. the'n/^y,^^^^ *''^' *.h° spectators could not 
the actions reP-esented in the iWa> t, f,. ,l f " " [unUy nt activn," reciuirin- a I 


bu}:\he5^:;^„:^,:ti5^h:iS'il.sS^r"^^t^'v^^ ^?'»'"- '» ->.-.p 

I "S *h;;'^e-«vliablo groups. ''""^^ "' ^'^^ '*«'. thus eiifferinfe. from the p. 4: 

Fronuhe abov'e iii.Kiol'^^'w'^ .'l 'te'nS' "•^""'• 


(3) Not more th:t,, t«< nna..,.; foH ""'YT'"'*'"' s.vHables; 
naSrJ^n^vS iorS""'""^ ^^^ "- lK>sitfon''o7 ^he accent,-this should always he 





The number of feet in a line to^'ctlier with tlic land of foot employed is termed the 
meln; or weamrc of tlie line ; and ilie iiulicutii.a of this is called Maimtn;;. 

The of feet in a line doi)orida uyon the will ct thcwriter ; but tbcro arc 
seldom moio than six, or loss than three, 
poiiaintf lines, is commonly observed. 

A uniformity of lenyth, especially in corres- 

Mo.'«oMKTER— A line conoisting of one foot. 






two foot. 
three feet, 
four feet, 
five feet, 
six feet, 
seven feet. 

If the foot employed is an Iambus, and the lino consists of one foot, the measure 
would L called iav/iWo monomeier ■ if of two Icet lumbiC dimeter ; if of four feet 
Iambic tetrameter, etc. , . ,. 

In like manner the full measure may be described by prenxing to the word indicat- 
Intr the number ../ feet in a line, the adjective form of ihe word expressive t.fe.-,'^ kind 
ot foot c< alHcd in the line. 1-or convenicmo a formula is often used to indicate the 
meas re th s lie measure of Cooper's "To My Mother h I'icture ' may be called 5^jt 
measure-that is, it consists of liveaxt or Iambic feet ;-,^ repre.ontiiiif au unaccented, 
and a aii accented syllable. 

KTts/AS —\ .stanza in verse is a group of lines, the number of which is at the will 
of ilie writer. There are, however, many established types of stanza common to a.l 

""a noem nu'rbe written without division into stanzas, but if written in stanzas uni- 
formity is usually observed throuKhout. Stanzas of irreu^ular lenKth are some imes 
met will. ; these inav better be called ,ectUns :-as in the " \ ision of bir Launial, and 

" A^anza U 'Hui^'l^^u 'verse, especially in church psalmody, though a verse is 

^'■Th^^^meriZ fi]« consists of nine lines, the first elRht having 5x« measure, and 
fhP last eia •' the ihvmlng lines are 1, a ; -l. 4, .% 7 ; 0, 8, 9- three rhymes in al). 

tKw) i a com lete poen>, not a stanza ; but the arransem.r.t of its rhymes, and 
the char^tercf itssubdivi^ons a.e tho.^e of a stanza. It couMsts of fourteen lines, 
usuaUVs^ffrouped as t.. idea and ihymc tlu.t the first ciRht lines form two st^anzas of 
fl>riines each >5ua<ra</0.and the remaining six two other sUnzas of three hues 


the quatrains; m the t^.'.^f*;^^'^^^^'^,:::^^^^^^^^ 

^Z^^^.^r^:^'^^^^^^-^^^^^ - much freedom in the 
quatrains as they do in the te-ccts. inncrimtrp and date back as far iis A.D. 

quentb' u^lopted, and that was perfected by Petrarch (I.J04-13/ 4). 

RnTMK,an ornament of ver^o, is the r^^J^^^'S^^^t^^:'!:;^ :^ 
stated interva's. In Emrlish -^ ^""'^VZ H^ff^rPn So '^iV a >d rn«'<m( rhyme, but 

same initial consonantal sound, as : , , . .^ 

" Ahovo their head" each hrondsword ftright, 
Was brandishing like E>eam of light. 

(Bee albO almost ovcrj Uue -.n 


lough a verse ia 

b intervals of the. 

Alliteration niav ho m * *23 

'■'' "'"tie of Noseljy.''^ » ""^s, there ujay 
"•■■•■... nnd ,„,.„,, , " °°"«- 

J^«* Is't ,K)ssible ^ <■" tw o 01 uiore speakers : 

I^o«i Chord -In o.ntr^il , ^ ^ ' *'"''''' ^ '"^'-^'-'i' thee last' " 
•neasur.. butrrj-a fLnf'"?' ''""* 2 and 4 rlivmi,,,, . , '*'"^ ' 

Tb„„a,o,.,.,.._No re„.ularit;n;7/.f "-"""' ""■'- «^ ' K,; /^L?" •^' ^^« 


UoVoJona foot, Bo.uoUmcH cutting tl.o third loot. 
ItiorlHH.y-Stanza, a,. of two uouplut. ; 4xa:a n«ca.sure, in . a:« foot 

of tou ini.iul ; ^--" j;'";^;^";;^'^;',':,,„e «tan.a. first (our line, rhyminff alter- 
"''''fu^t.rhXrtt'a'^cIuStr^.aml"^^!?; coisura found in .ou.o lu.u- a.t«r 

The «|m'iiirnl»a Mplrli.-8Unzai of Irregular length; Cxa, measure, with an 
occasional initial «x foot ,„oa»ure.-aU 

To n HloH-c.-SiX-line '*»''" ^^•."^..r.'f^^^^^^ o. having Uoublo rhyme; 

K"i'^.::r:;:^xL'r«i:u^^rfc:a ^ipUon-nlaW... a.;^uKho«t; io..e. 
tiu.t'S liiJJun. (a«« stanza 4, lines 2, 6, 0.) 

. TH . „ i«v»» rnr .V That. Elifht-line stanza : lines 1, 3, 7, 4xa moamiro; 

A "'"""o 8 ^" nea'»;e wth extra Hflial.le ; line 5. '2:r.x measure ; lines 1 and 3 
fh^onU r?^, ni ?li"B; the other., excepting 7. having an .deniity of tor.num- 
Sn^inHttiniof the ;Vvaw. in line 5; no correB,.ond.n« rhyn.e to hn 7. 

., m..tiwitv Introductory Rtanza^ 7 linen each; first six lines mm 

"''Ter.r"riUui"r£(ai;xrdriS7tbree rh, .ues-Une. 1. and 8; i, 4, and 5 ; 

^ "tW^K^: 1- 1 „ i„ i,„.l,n -12 4 5 Sx(t measure : 8, 5, 5xa measure ; 7, ixa 
uS^l^, ,r ni^^tli;.esltl;r7 8. forn.l„.'th.-ee couplet. ; a and 5 
rhi minV. Ca)8ura in Bxu, and 4;m Uim ., always in Wu. 

A-or«.-Tlia initial foot of line 2, consUts of only one (accented) syllable; 
occasional double rliyniea are also met with. 

The l*l.'« of Oreeee.-Six-llne stanza, ixa measure ; first (our hnes rhymmg 
alternately ; last two a coupl»;t. Al'.'toiation connnon. 

intimnllon, of Imn.orf nlity.-Stan/as irrc.nilar in l^^.^^^.J^^^t^v^o'S 
ate ; m mcas'.;re th.ouRhout. raryln- from 2xa to »•'';,; «'^.'"'^^^,^'.'*^ ^,00^- 
linei. one 3x«, two 4a;.t, three 5m. one ^\xa ; no r^^"!*"*^ ."' [''/^ ""^ ' ? '^^^^ 
sional line with no corresponding rhymes ; occasional double rhj me and miuaie 

rhyme. .,. 

Vi»lon of Mir I.niinfal.-atanzas of irrepular lcnfft.h; general 4:51 meawrc, w .h 
*"*"" "man vi:rrt feet ■ occasional 3m lines; nX initial feet are connnon, with 

^ome "x lines or Srt Cs ; "hyme is generally in couplets, with many alternate 

and other rhymes. . 

Franaoline.-Not In stanzas; Gnxx measure In general cfTect, comparatn'ely few 

"K"aa;x lines ; frequent ax and xa feet ; blank verse; cujsura regular u. each 

Iflnud Itlii Her.- Stanza in couplets ; ixa measure with many xxx (eet, and also ax 

initial feet. 


Evic Clans. . .^ r^f »f J 

niillnf1« x-Jacnuei Cartior, Marston Moor, Battle of Naseby, The Diver. Maud 

SaUer is S roperh' a ballad; it has too much orna>nent, too uuich reflfo. on 
too little Incident ■simi)licitv in stru.ture and in expression, as well as In 
mere V IcXlary . is a necessity for the pure ballad, l^his ix,e,n would be better 
classed as a Pastoral. 
Pn:«lorn! or Idyl:— Evangeline. 

Tnie:— Sir Launfal. 

'^'^Oiic:-Hymn on the Nativity, The Isles of Greece, Intimations o( Immortality. 
Ele$(v :— On My Mother's Picture. ^ 

Sons:— Th3 Cane Bottomed Chair, A Man's a Man (or a' That, 
Monnri :-(See Collection of Sonnets.) 

Oth«'r l.yri.r^:-A Lost Chord, To a Mouse, My Mind to Me a Kingdom is, The 
Two Armie?. 

mdacticClaHK. . cj . ,j -j.j,„„«f„n„5«. 

MoriaJiDy, Tne (^uestiuHin^ fipsni, xi — i — , 


fcnoial ; xa foot 

iiuvsure, with an 

ur linos rhyminsf 

X feet, and also ax 

ns of Imniovtalitjr. 

a Kingdom is, The 


Fljnires of speech nre fornix «» 

««•» jlor>.— A more or lean ov»„« i i * 

AlOitrrntioH Tho 

AlluKion.-An exnr^«u. *, ^ (-onunon ornament 

atun-, Hdeneret?e\'r ^IJ? *V'|"'' Bon.ethinj, well kno.n i. k- . 
whi( 1. .alls to nind iloin"..,. • ''^ '*'>f'""=* «' those ,»i,,m,vy " f»'«tory, liter- 

will WHmvwT-' P„ T,^ "' ''''"'tetllanjrnajre- " r th„f ^ • , 

^ " ■•i«k;s sSrf SoT^^^ir '• -" - "- 0' * -. 

T tl.' ' 'J \, " "'-^ return 
, ' '°""^ thee-What ? "-Page 02. 

'1==ll=;??:«:- '■■■--■-■•• 

Hash him r^ieS-^'i^'rS"'''^''^'*^ 

A.yade.«„. T.,e absence of connectives 
-rk;" ■ • -A ^^^ ''^'■^' the love, 
The, tlie protection of a Mh^. » p. ., 

s., — Fa^'c o3. 



t'ninrhrpNiM. -The carr>'lii!i o' a flKuratlvo oxprouion beyond bounds; atUohioirto 

wordtt a lut-aiiiti^ nut proixirly tlifii-M. 

'• And Nhod th« bloml of Htuo'ft \i no. "-Stanza ft, jwgo 268. 
" l-'col tbe vanity of u lioartof clay."— I'aifa SIKJ. 
" Tho biiart outstrotcht's its eajfi r palms." Page 316, 

Climax.— A nmilar ascent in enipliasis of Kuccesaive sontoncos. 

•' Tboii caii»t sa\ (! mo I 

Tlioii oujIdHt ! thou viUHt .'" - I'age CO. 
Ecphoncalti.— A passionato exclamation. 

" ye tjod* ! ye iimln I " -rage 05. 

"O, 1 could weep 

My spirit from my eyes I"— Pajje 57. 
KllipnlN.- The omission of words, gem rally for emphasis. See par. 5, pajro C6. 
Kpannl«-( dt — Tho repetition after a parenthetical phrase, &c., of a word formerly 
used, for the sajiu of resuniiriK the narrative ; or it ii thosumminir up of previous 
Bttttomenis by tho wor<l all, mich, etc. 

" Thou bant ajfo 

eoerythin;/ that I liave not."— Pago 60. 

" What, shall onu of us 

»hall tve now," etc.— Pajjo 54. 

Kplgrnin.— A short, pointed, or witty expression. 

" While bonor'Sjleft us 

Wu have soinethini,', nothimj, having all but that."— Pago 64. 
Kpiphorn.— The repetition of a phrase, etc., at the end of succcaaivo sentences. 

" Shouiil sing the praises of science."— i'age a8fl. 
Kplaswiixlu.— The emphatic repetition of words or phrases. 

" Vou wi-un;/ mi- every way ; yua wroHj me, Brutus."-- Pago 56. 
JErotn»l« — A passionate question. 

" Is it. possible?" 

" Alust 1 endure all this V "Page 55. 

£nphciiii«ni. The disguising of a disagreeable idea under words of a notunplcasin* 
character. *^ . " 

"Tho breathless darkness." 

" Tho narrow house." Stanza 2, jmgo l.'>3. 
Ilj'pcrbaton.— The inversion of the usual order of words. » 

" A Mameluke flcrie yonder dagger has drawn."— Pago 97 

Lines 100-102, page 82. 

Hyperbole. —Exayrgeration, 

" A voice that was calmer than silence."— Page 318. 

" Where the wind from Thulc freezes the word upon the lips."— Pago 100. 
IlypotypoMtM.— See Vliiion, below. 
Brouy. — A statement the opposite of what is meant. 

" Your glorious constitution ! "—Page 113. Also stanza 9, page 268. 

Iflrinpliov.— That figure by which one object, &c., is declared to bo another, on ac- 
count of some similarity in qualities. 

" Constrains cast."— Page 59. 

"Shall we now 

Contaminate, our fingers with base bribes ? "—Page £4. 

nictonyniv.- Puts the sign for the thing signifletl ; the place for tho people • tho 
cause for the effect ; the abstract for the concrete, etc. i i > 

" He grouped tbe diadem of the Caesars."- Page 65. 

"Than to wring 

From tho hard hands of peasants," etc.— Pase i56. 

" I'^arth that nourished thee, shall claim 

Thi <irowth."—Va^e \Wi. 

Onomniopo-la or Imitative If nrmony.— Expresses the sense by the sound of 
the words. 
" The crackle of the musketry."— Page 141. Also stanza 6, jxige 161. 
Oxymoron.— The joining in construction of contradictory terms. 
" He sat upon Ahe throne a scepfreA hermit."— P^fr'c 04. 
1 "The tyrant friend." Stanza 12, imge 269. 

bounds; atUohingto 

d<i of a not unplcosing 



lips."— Pag-e 100. 

c.^ra...uei.l.i?^-!;;i;)- ^U^U. object, or ,„reHor .„.„«,, of 
" TA- /v/.^ „/ Or,,,, *" *^" ">'»"'«--io". """^WO for the mottri- 

Prole-,,, Th ":rr' — *="«'*-board;--r„go 04. 

i^ " Your hea. r ' " *' " -*' ''"'''^'* »« 'i*«. as, &o. 

«rlIep,U.-.T he use . t c r ""'• ^'""^^ *'• P»'''« 2«. ^ 

Sec stanza 13, poge 139 ; »]«, 

for the people ; the 






- ♦ 

- «